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Electromagnetic Compatibility: Analysis and Case Studies in Transportation

ISBN: 978-1-118-98539-7
416 pages
December 2015
Electromagnetic Compatibility: Analysis and Case Studies in Transportation (1118985397) cover image

Description

Explains and resolves the electromagnetic compatibility challenges faced by engineers in transportation and communications

This book is a mathematically-rich extension of courses required to maintain the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), and the European Union certifications. The text provides an in-depth study of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues related to specific topics in transportation and communications, including Light Rail Transit, shadow effects, and radio dead spots, through the analysis of real-world case studies in the United States and Europe. The author provides Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical solutions that can be applied to Maxwell's and Wave Equations. The book covers topics such as SCADA Systems, shielding, and complexities of radio frequencies and their effect on communication houses. The author also provides information for alternative industries to apply the solutions from the case studies and background content to their own professions.

  • Presents a series of over twenty real-world case studies related to EMC in transportation and communications
  • Covers power line radiation, shadow effects on subway cars, train control systems, and edge distortions
  • Includes the OATS testing method and Department of Transportation (DOT) test
  • Provides access to a companion website housing power point slides and additional appendices
Electromagnetic Compatibility: Analysis and Case Studies in Transportation is a reference for practicing engineers involved in transportation and communications, as well as post-graduate engineering students studying transportation and communications in engineering.
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

About the Author xiii

About the Companion Website xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction, 1

1.2 Definitions of Commonly Used Terms, 2

1.3 Book Sections and Content Overview, 8

1.4 Regulations, 10

1.5 Background, 16

1.6 EMC Testing Methods for FCC Part 15 Radiation Measurements, 17

1.7 Canadian Regulations, 24

1.8 European Union Regulations, 24

1.9 Review Problems, 57

1.10 Answers to Review Problems, 57

2 Fundamentals of Coupling Culprit to Victim 59

2.1 Radiation Effects on Equipment and Devices, 59

2.2 Various Types of Emission Coupling, 61

2.3 Intermodulation, 64

2.4 Common Mode Rejection Ratio, 67

2.5 Susceptibility and Immunity, 69

2.6 Filters for EMC, 79

2.7 Lightning Stroke Analysis, 81

2.8 Skin Effect in Wire, 83

2.9 Conclusion, 86

2.10 Review Problems, 86

2.11 Answers to Review Problems, 88

3 Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields 91

3.1 An Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields, 91

3.2 Wave Equation Solutions for Cylindrical Coordinate Systems, 98

3.3 Wave Equation Solutions for Spherical Coordinate Systems, 102

3.4 Review Problems, 113

3.5 Answers to Review Problems, 114

4 Case Studies and Analysis in Transportation Systems 115

4.1 Background Information for Subway Systems, 115

4.2 Case Studies, 118

4.3 Tunnel Radiation from a Temporary Antenna Installed on the Catwalk in a Tunnel, 142

4.4 Simulcast Interference at the End of the Cut and Cover Subway Tunnel, 145

4.5 Tracks Survey, 165

4.6 Leaky Radiating Coaxial Cable Analysis, 177

4.7 Effect of Rail on 26 Pair Cable Buried Along Right of Way, 187

4.8 Radiation Leakage from Way Side Communication Houses and Cabinets, 190

4.9 Lightning Rod Ground EMC Installation, 192

5 Case Studies and Analysis of LRT Vehicle and Bus Top Antenna Farm Emissions and Other Radio Related Case Studies 199

5.1 Introduction, 199

5.2 Circulation Currents in the Ground Plane, 201

5.3 Antenna Installation on a Radio Mast Case Study, 203

5.4 Unique Testing Technique for EMI and Police Vehicles, 210

5.5 Antenna Close to the Edge of the Ground Plane, 217

5.6 Case Study: Possible Fade Problem due to Antenna Reflections on the Rooftop of a Locomotive, 219

5.7 Case Study: Antenna Reflection and Diffraction at the Edge of the Ground Plane, 229

5.8 Antenna Application with Reflection also at the Edge of the Ground Plane, 234

5.9 Antenna Application with Reflection between Antennas in a Rooftop Antenna Farm, 239

5.10 Antenna Farm Application with Patch Antennas, 247

5.11 Review Problems, 253

5.12 Answers to Review Problems, 255

6 Case Studies and Analysis of Communications Equipment and Cable Shielding and Grounding for Bus and Ferry Operations 263

6.1 Introduction, 263

6.2 Communication System Overview, 264

6.3 Reflections (Ferry and Bus), 272

6.4 Review Problems, 279

6.5 Answers to Review Problems, 279

7 Health and Safety Issues with Exposure Limits for Maintenance Workers and the Public 281

7.1 Electromagnetic Emission Safety Limits, 281

7.2 EMI Prevention and Control, 290

7.3 Analysis of Rails as a Shock Hazard, 292

7.4 Lightning and Transient Protection, 293

7.5 Power Line Safety Calculations, 294

7.6 FCC Regulations, 297

7.7 Review Problems, 301

7.8 Answers to Review Problems, 302

8 Miscellaneous Information Test Plans and Other Information Useful for Analysis 305

8.1 Introduction, 305

8.2 EMC Plan, 306

8.3 EMC/EMI Performance Evaluation of Communications Equipment, 308

8.4 EMC/EMI Design Procedures, 317

8.5 Fresnel Zone Clearance, 333

8.6 Diffraction Losses, 335

8.7 Review Problems, 337

8.8 Answers to Review Problems, 338

9 Track Circuits and Signals 341

9.1 Introduction, 341

9.2 AF Track Circuits, 344

9.3 Loop Calculations, 352

9.4 Circuit Theory in Loop Calculations, 354

9.5 Review Problems, 359

9.6 Answers to Review Problems, 359

10 Useful Examples 361

10.1 Introduction, 361

10.2 Examples, 361

References 379

Index 381

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