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Substation Automation Systems: Design and Implementation

ISBN: 978-1-118-98720-9
304 pages
December 2015
Substation Automation Systems: Design and Implementation (1118987209) cover image

Description

Substation Automation Systems:  Design and Implementation aims to close the gap created by fast changing technologies impacting on a series of legacy principles related to how substation secondary systems are conceived and implemented. It is intended to help those who have to define and implement SAS, whilst also conforming to the current industry best practice standards.

Key features: 

  • Project-oriented approach to all practical aspects of SAS design and project development.
  • Uniquely focusses on the rapidly changing control aspect of substation design, using novel communication technologies and IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices).
  • Covers the complete chain of SAS components and related equipment instead of purely concentrating on intelligent electronic devices and communication networks.
  • Discusses control and monitoring facilities for auxiliary power systems.
  • Contributes significantly to the understanding of the standard IEC 61850, which is viewed as a “black box” for a significant number of professionals around the world.
  • Explains standard IEC 61850 – Communication networks and systems for power utility automation – to support all new systems networked to perform control, monitoring, automation, metering and protection functions.

Written for practical application, this book is a valuable resource for professionals operating within different SAS project stages including the: specification process; contracting process; design and engineering process; integration process; testing process and the operation and maintenance process.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

List of Abbreviations xix

1 Historical Evolution of Substation Automation Systems (SASs) 1

1.1 Emerging Communication Technologies 4

1.1.1 Serial Communication 4

1.1.2 Local Area Network 4

1.2 Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) 5

1.2.1 Functional Relays 5

1.2.2 Integrated Digital Units 5

1.3 Networking Media 5

1.3.1 Fiber ]Optic Cables 5

1.3.2 Network Switches 5

1.4 Communication Standards 6

1.4.1 IEC Standard 61850 (Communication Networks and Systems for Power Utility Automation) 6

1.4.2 IEEE Standard 802.3 (Ethernet) 6

Further Reading 8

2 Main Functions of Substation Automation Systems 9

2.1 Control Function 14

2.2 Monitoring Function 15

2.3 Alarming Function 16

2.4 Measurement Function 17

2.5 Setting and Monitoring of Protective Relays 17

2.6 Control and Monitoring of the Auxiliary Power System 17

2.7 Voltage Regulation 18

Further Reading 18

3 Impact of the IEC 61850 Standard on SAS Projects 19

3.1 Impact on System Implementation Philosophy 21

3.2 Impact on User Specification 21

3.3 Impact on the Overall Procurement Process 23

3.4 Impact on the Engineering Process 23

3.5 Impact on Project Execution 23

3.6 Impact on Utility Global Strategies 24

3.7 The Contents of the Standard 24

3.8 Dealing with the Standard 24

Further Reading 27

4 Switchyard Level, Equipment and Interfaces 29

4.1 Primary Equipment 29

4.1.1 Switchgear 31

4.1.1.1 Circuit Breaker 31

4.1.1.2 Disconnector 32

4.1.1.3 Earthing Switch 33

4.1.2 Instrument Transformers 34

4.1.2.1 Voltage Transformer 34

4.1.2.2 Current Transformer 34

4.1.3 Power Transformers 35

4.1.4 Other Primary Equipment 38

4.2 Medium and Low Voltage Components 39

4.3 Electrical Connections between Primary Equipment 40

4.3.1 Incoming Circuits 42

4.3.2 Outgoing Circuits 42

4.3.3 The “Bay” Concept 43

4.4 Substation Physical Layout 43

4.5 Control Requirements at Switchyard Level 44

Further Reading 46

5 Bay Level: Components and Incident Factors 49

5.1 Environmental and Operational Factors 49

5.1.1 Lightning Strike 49

5.1.2 Switching Transients 50

5.1.2.1 Disconnector Operation 50

5.1.2.2 Circuit Breaker Operation 51

5.1.3 Electromagnetic Disturbance Phenomenon 51

5.1.4 Lightning Protection Practices 52

5.1.5 Typical Earthing Systems 54

5.1.6 Measures to Minimize Electromagnetic Effects 56

5.2 Insulation Considerations in the Secondary System 57

5.3 Switchyard Control Rooms 57

5.4 Attributes of Control Cubicles 59

5.4.1 Constructive Features 59

5.4.2 Earthquake Withstand Capability 59

5.4.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility 60

5.5 The Bay Controller (BC) 60

5.6 Other Bay Level Components 61

5.7 Process Bus 62

Further Reading 63

6 Station Level: Facilities and Functions 65

6.1 Main Control House 65

6.2 Station Controller 67

6.3 Human Machine Interface HMI 68

6.3.1 Start ]Up Screen 69

6.3.2 Main Box Screen 69

6.3.3 Users Administrator Screen 69

6.3.4 Primary Circuit Screen (Process Screen) 71

6.3.5 SAS Scheme Screen 71

6.3.6 Event List Screen 71

6.3.7 Alarm List Screen 72

6.4 External Alarming 73

6.5 Time Synchronization Facility 74

6.6 Protocol Conversion Task 74

6.6.1 Briefing on Digital Communication Protocols 75

6.6.2 Premises for Developing Protocol Conversion 76

6.7 Station Bus 77

6.8 Station LAN 77

Further Reading 77

7 System Functionalities 79

7.1 Control Function 79

7.1.1 Control of Primary Switchgear 81

7.1.1.1 Symbols, Colors and Appearance Representing

Primary Switchgear 81

7.1.1.2 Switching Command Implementation 81

7.1.1.3 Supervision of Circuit Breaker Trip Circuit 82

7.1.2 Check of Voltage Synchronization (Synchrocheck) 82

7.1.3 Checking Operative Constraint 83

7.1.3.1 Checking of Interlocking Conditions 83

7.1.3.2 Checking of Blocking Conditions 84

7.1.4 Voltage Regulation Task 84

7.1.5 Parallel Working of Power Transformers 85

7.1.6 Operation of Secondary Components 85

7.1.7 Facilities for Operation under Emergency Conditions 86

7.2 Monitoring Function 86

7.2.1 Event Handling 86

7.2.2 External Disturbance Recording 87

7.2.3 Alarming Management 87

7.3 Protection Function 88

7.4 Measuring Function 89

7.5 Metering Function 89

7.6 Report Generation Function 89

7.7 Device Parameterization Function 90

Further Reading 90

8 System Inputs and Outputs 91

8.1 Signals Associated with Primary Equipment 91

8.1.1 Switchgear 91

8.1.1.1 Signals Associated with Circuit Breakers 91

8.1.1.2 Signals Associated with Disconnectors 92

8.1.1.3 Signals Associated with Earthing Switches 92

8.1.2 Instrument Transformers 92

8.1.2.1 Signals Associated with Voltage Transformers 92

8.1.2.2 Signals Associated with Current Transformers 95

8.1.3 Power Transformers 95

8.2 Signals Associated with the Auxiliary Power System 95

8.2.1 Signals Associated with MV Circuit Breakers 95

8.2.2 Signals Associated with MV Distribution Transformers 97

8.2.3 Signals Associated with LV Circuit Breakers 97

8.2.4 Signals Associated with Distribution Center “A” 98

8.2.5 Signals Associated with Distribution Center “B” 98

8.2.6 Signals Associated with AC Distribution Cubicles for Essential Loads 98

8.2.7 Signals Associated with Diesel Generators 100

8.2.8 Signals Associated with AC Distribution Cubicles for Nonessential Loads 100

8.2.9 Signals Associated with DC Transfer Switches 101

8.2.10 Signals Associated with DC Distribution Cubicles 101

8.2.11 Signals Associated with Each Voltage Level of Batteries and Chargers 101

8.3 Signals Associated with Collateral Systems 102

9 System Engineering 103

9.1 Overall System Engineering 103

9.1.1 System General Concept 104

9.1.2 System Topology 104

9.1.3 Opportune Clarifications 105

9.1.4 Premises for Engineering Work 107

9.1.5 Signals Lists 109

9.1.5.1 Signals List Related to the Bay Controller 110

9.1.5.2 Signals List Related to Bay Controller of the Auxiliary Power System 110

9.1.5.3 Signals List Related to the Station Controller 110

9.1.5.4 Signals List for Communication with the NCC 110

9.1.5.5 Point to Point Signals List (For Each Bay) 110

9.1.5.6 Signals Lists Related to Equipment and Systems 111

9.2 Bay Level Engineering 111

9.3 Station Level Engineering 112

9.3.1 Engineering Related to the Station Controller 113

9.3.1.1 Definition and Implementation of the Station Level Database (Process Database) 113

9.3.1.2 Implementation of Redundant Solutions 114

9.3.2 Engineering Related to the Human Machine Interface 114

9.3.2.1 General Design Principles 115

9.3.2.2 Typical Screens 115

9.3.2.3 Operative Features 116

9.4 Functionalities Engineering 116

9.4.1 Interlocking Engineering 116

9.4.2 Voltage Regulation Engineering 117

9.4.3 Protection Engineering 117

9.4.4 Metering Engineering 117

9.4.5 Disturbance Recording Engineering 117

9.4.6 System Self ]Monitoring Engineering 118

9.5 Auxiliary Power System Engineering 118

9.5.1 Design Concept 118

9.5.2 AC Voltage Distribution 118

9.5.3 DC Voltage Distribution 119

9.5.4 Batteries and Chargers 119

9.5.5 Medium Voltage Switchgear 119

9.5.6 Automatic Transfer Switches 119

9.6 Project Drawings List 120

9.7 The SAS Engineering Process from the Standard IEC 61850 Perspective 120

Further Reading 120

10 Communication with the Remote Control Center 123

10.1 Communication Pathway 123

10.2 Brief on Digital Communication 123

10.2.1 The OSI Reference Model 124

10.2.2 The IEC Enhanced Performance Architecture Model 127

10.3 Overview of the Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) 127

10.3.1 The Device Profile Document 128

10.3.2 The DNP3 Implementation Level 128

10.3.3 The DNP3 Implementation Document 128

Further Reading 129

11 System Attributes 131

11.1 System Concept 131

11.2 Network Topology 132

11.3 Redundancy Options 134

11.4 Quality Attributes 135

11.4.1 System Reliability and Availability 135

11.4.1.1 Considerations of the Standards 136

11.4.1.2 Example of an Availability Calculation 136

11.4.2 System Maintainability and Security 138

11.5 Provisions for Extendibility in Future 138

11.6 Cyber ]Security Considerations 139

11.7 SAS Performance Requirements 139

Further Reading 140

12 Tests on SAS Components 141

12.1 Type Tests 141

12.1.1 Basic Characteristics Tests 141

12.1.2 Functional Tests 143

12.2 Acceptance Tests 143

12.3 Tests for Checking the Compliance with the Standard IEC 61850 144

Further Reading 144

13 Factory Acceptance Tests 145

13.1 Test Arrangement 145

13.2 System Simulator 145

13.3 Hardware Description 145

13.4 Software Identification 146

13.5 Test Instruments 146

13.6 Documentation to be Available 146

13.7 Checking System Features 146

13.7.1 Checking Basic Features 147

13.7.2 Checking Power Circuit Screens 147

13.7.3 Checking the SAS Scheme Screen 148

13.7.4 Checking Reports Screens (Each Type) 148

13.7.5 Checking Measurement Screens 148

13.7.6 Checking Time Synchronization Facilities 149

13.7.7 Checking of Self ]Supervision Functions 149

13.7.8 Checking Peripheral Devices 149

13.7.9 Checking Collateral Subsystems 149

13.7.10 Checking Redundant Functionalities 149

13.8 Planned Testing Program for FAT 150

13.8.1 System Behavior in an Avalanche Condition 150

13.8.2 System Performance 150

13.8.3 Test of the Time Synchronization Mechanism 152

13.8.4 Test of Event Buffer Capability 152

13.8.5 Interlocking Logics 152

13.8.6 Synchronization Features 152

13.8.7 Operational Logic of Transfer Switch 152

13.8.8 Tests on the Communication Link for Technical Service 152

13.9 Nonstructured FATs 153

13.10 After FATs 153

Further Reading 153

14 Commissioning Process 155

14.1 Hardware Description 156

14.2 Software Identification 157

14.3 Test Instruments 157

14.4 Required Documentation 157

14.5 Engineering Tools 157

14.6 Spare Parts 157

14.7 Planned Commissioning Tests 158

14.7.1 System Start ]Up 158

14.7.2 Displaying and Exploring the Main Menu Screen 158

14.7.3 Displaying and Dealing with Single ]Line Diagrams 158

14.7.4 Displaying and Dealing with the SAS Scheme Screen 159

14.7.5 Displaying and Dealing with Report Screens 160

14.7.6 Displaying and Dealing with Measurement Screens 160

14.7.7 Displaying and Exploring the Alarm List Screen 160

14.7.8 Displaying and Exploring the Event List Screen 161

14.7.9 Checking Peripheral Components 161

14.7.10 Checking the Time Synchronization Mechanism 161

14.7.11 Testing Communication with the Remote Control Center 161

14.7.12 Checking System Performance 161

14.7.13 Testing Functional Performance 162

14.8 Nonstructured Commissioning Tests 162

14.9 List of Pending Points 162

14.10 Re ]Commissioning 163

Further Reading 163

15 Training Strategies for Power Utilities 165

15.1 Project ]Related Training 166

15.1.1 Station Level Module 166

15.1.2 Bay Level Module 167

15.1.3 Process Level Module 169

15.2 Corporate Training 169

15.2.1 General Purpose Knowledge 169

15.2.2 Learning from the Standard IEC 61850 171

15.2.3 Dealing with Engineering Tools 172

Further Reading 173

16 Planning and Development of SAS Projects 175

16.1 System Specification 176

16.2 Contracting Process 176

16.3 Definition of the Definitive Solution 178

16.4 Design and Engineering 178

16.5 System Integration 179

16.6 Factory Acceptance Tests 179

16.7 Site Installation 180

16.8 Commissioning Process 180

16.9 Project Management 181

16.10 Security Issues 182

16.10.1 Environmental Security 182

16.10.2 Electromagnetic Security 183

16.10.3 Physical Security 183

16.10.4 Information Security 183

16.10.5 Software Security 184

16.11 Documentation and Change Control 184

Further Reading 185

17 Quality Management for SAS Projects 187

17.1 Looking for Quality in Component Capabilities and Manufacturing 188

17.1.1 The Dilemma with Respect to Type Tests 188

17.1.2 The Importance of Factory Conformance Tests 189

17.2 Looking for Quality during the Engineering Stage 189

17.3 Looking for Quality in the Cubicle Assembly Stage 191

17.4 Looking for Quality during FAT 192

17.5 Looking for Quality during Installation and Commissioning 192

17.6 Use of Appropriate Device Documentation 192

Further Reading 196

18 SAS Engineering Process According to Standard IEC 61850 197

18.1 SCL Files 197

18.2 Engineering Tools 198

18.3 Engineering Process 199

Further Reading 202

19 Future Technological Trends 203

19.1 Toward the Full Digital Substation 203

19.1.1 Horizontal Communication as per IEC 61850 (GOOSE Messaging) 203

19.1.2 Unconventional Instrument Transformers 204

19.1.3 Process Bus as Defined by IEC 61850–9 ]2 204

19.2 Looking for New Testing Strategies on SAS Schemes 204

19.3 Wide Area Control and Monitoring Based on the IEC/TR 61850–90–5 205

19.4 Integration of IEC 61850 Principles into Innovative Smart Grid Solutions 206

Further Reading 206

Appendix A – Samples of Equipment and System Signal Lists 207

A.1 Signals List Related to Circuit Breakers (Each One) 207

A.2 Signals List Related to Collateral Devices 208

A.3 Signals List Related to the Auxiliary Power System 209

A.4 Signals List Related to the SAS Itself 210

Appendix B – Project Drawing List: Titles and Contents 211

B.1 General Interest Drawings 211

B.2 Electromechanical Drawings (High Voltage Equipment and Control Facilities) 213

B.3 Electromechanical Drawings (Control, Protection, Measurement and Communications) 215

B.4 Electromechanical Drawings (Auxiliary Power System) 223

Appendix C – Essential Tips Related to Networking Technology 231

C.1 Computer Network 231

C.1.1 Data 232

C.1.1.1 Meaning of Data, Information and Knowledge 232

C.1.1.2 Data Modeling 233

C.1.1.3 Data Type 234

C.1.1.4 Network Packet 234

C.2 Network Topology 235

C.2.1 Network Links 235

C.2.1.1 Wired Technologies 235

C.2.1.2 Wireless Technologies 235

C.2.2 Network Nodes 235

C.2.3 Network Interface Controllers 236

C.2.4 Repeaters and Hubs 236

C.2.5 Bridges 236

C.2.6 Switches 236

C.2.7 Routers 236

C.2.8 Modems 236

C.3 Network Structure 237

C.3.1 Common Network Layouts 237

C.4 Communication Protocols 237

C.4.1 Ethernet 237

C.4.2 The Internet Protocol Suite 238

C.4.3 SONET/SDH 238

C.4.4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode 238

C.4.5 Basic Requirements of Protocols 239

C.5 Geographical Scale of Network 240

C.5.1 Local Area Network 240

C.5.2 Backbone Network 240

C.5.3 Wide Area Network 241

C.5.4 Intranet 241

C.5.5 Extranet 241

C.6 Internetwork 241

C.6.1 Internet 241

C.6.2 Routing 242

C.6.3 Network Service 242

C.6.4 Network Performance 243

C.6.4.1 Quality of Service 243

C.6.4.2 Network Congestion 243

C.6.4.3 Network Resilience 243

C.6.5 Security Measures in Networks 243

C.6.5.1 Network Security 243

C.6.5.2 Network Surveillance 244

C.6.5.3 End ]to ]End Encryption 244

C.6.6 Views of the Network 244

C.7 Network Structure 245

C.8 Communication System 245

C.9 Object ]Oriented Programming 245

C.10 Programming Tool or Software Development Tool 246

Index 247

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Author Information

Evelio Padilla, ELEUNION, Caracas, Venezuela
With over a decade of experience in substation control systems, Evelio Padilla has project managed numerous substation designs and constructions and has written several relevant technical publications. He is currently a consultant at ELEUNION C.A., which is dedicated to supplying high and medium voltage apparatus and components to electrical utilities and general industries. Previously, as Substation Division Manager at EDELCA (now CORPOELEC), he was responsible for design and construction of substations including technical specification, bids analysis, contracting procedure, review of detailed design, follow-up on the milestones, follow-up on the site work progress regularly. He was also Head of Substation Engineering Department, responsible for basic design of high voltage substations including preparation of technical specification for purchase order of secondary items, bids analysis, review of detailed design.
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