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Data Mining and Predictive Analytics, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-99112-1
824 pages
June 2015
Data Mining and Predictive Analytics, 2nd Edition (1118991125) cover image

Description

Learn methods of data analysis and their application to real-world data sets

This updated second edition serves as an introduction to data mining methods and models, including association rules, clustering, neural networks, logistic regression, and multivariate analysis. The authors apply a unified “white box” approach to data mining methods and models. This approach is designed to walk readers through the operations and nuances of the various methods, using small data sets, so readers can gain an insight into the inner workings of the method under review. Chapters provide readers with hands-on analysis problems, representing an opportunity for readers to apply their newly-acquired data mining expertise to solving real problems using large, real-world data sets.

Data Mining and Predictive Analytics, Second Edition:

  • Offers comprehensive coverage of association rules, clustering, neural networks, logistic regression, multivariate analysis, and R statistical programming language
  • Features over 750 chapter exercises, allowing readers to assess their understanding of the new material
  • Provides a detailed case study that brings together the lessons learned in the book
  • Includes access to the companion website, www.dataminingconsultant.com, with exclusive password-protected instructor content

Data Mining and Predictive Analytics, Second Edition will appeal to computer science and statistic students, as well as students in MBA programs, and chief executives.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xxi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxix

PART I DATA PREPARATION 1

CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO DATA MINING AND PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS 3

1.1 What is Data Mining? What is Predictive Analytics? 3

1.2 Wanted: Data Miners 5

1.3 The Need for Human Direction of Data Mining 6

1.4 The Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining: CRISP-DM 6

1.4.1 CRISP-DM: The Six Phases 7

1.5 Fallacies of Data Mining 9

1.6 What Tasks Can Data Mining Accomplish 10

CHAPTER 2 DATA PREPROCESSING 20

2.1 Why do We Need to Preprocess the Data? 20

2.2 Data Cleaning 21

2.3 Handling Missing Data 22

2.4 Identifying Misclassifications 25

2.5 Graphical Methods for Identifying Outliers 26

2.6 Measures of Center and Spread 27

2.7 Data Transformation 30

2.8 Min–Max Normalization 30

2.9 Z-Score Standardization 31

2.10 Decimal Scaling 32

2.11 Transformations to Achieve Normality 32

2.12 Numerical Methods for Identifying Outliers 38

2.13 Flag Variables 39

2.14 Transforming Categorical Variables into Numerical Variables 40

2.15 Binning Numerical Variables 41

2.16 Reclassifying Categorical Variables 42

2.17 Adding an Index Field 43

2.18 Removing Variables that are not Useful 43

2.19 Variables that Should Probably not be Removed 43

2.20 Removal of Duplicate Records 44

2.21 A Word About ID Fields 45

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS 54

3.1 Hypothesis Testing Versus Exploratory Data Analysis 54

3.2 Getting to Know the Data Set 54

3.3 Exploring Categorical Variables 56

3.4 Exploring Numeric Variables 64

3.5 Exploring Multivariate Relationships 69

3.6 Selecting Interesting Subsets of the Data for Further Investigation 70

3.7 Using EDA to Uncover Anomalous Fields 71

3.8 Binning Based on Predictive Value 72

3.9 Deriving New Variables: Flag Variables 75

3.10 Deriving New Variables: Numerical Variables 77

3.11 Using EDA to Investigate Correlated Predictor Variables 78

3.12 Summary of Our EDA 81

CHAPTER 4 DIMENSION-REDUCTION METHODS 92

4.1 Need for Dimension-Reduction in Data Mining 92

4.2 Principal Components Analysis 93

4.3 Applying PCA to the Houses Data Set 96

4.4 How Many Components Should We Extract? 102

4.5 Profiling the Principal Components 105

4.6 Communalities 108

4.7 Validation of the Principal Components 110

4.8 Factor Analysis 110

4.9 Applying Factor Analysis to the Adult Data Set 111

4.10 Factor Rotation 114

4.11 User-Defined Composites 117

4.12 An Example of a User-Defined Composite 118

PART II STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 129

CHAPTER 5 UNIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 131

5.1 Data Mining Tasks in Discovering Knowledge in Data 131

5.2 Statistical Approaches to Estimation and Prediction 131

5.3 Statistical Inference 132

5.4 How Confident are We in Our Estimates? 133

5.5 Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean 134

5.6 How to Reduce the Margin of Error 136

5.7 Confidence Interval Estimation of the Proportion 137

5.8 Hypothesis Testing for the Mean 138

5.9 Assessing the Strength of Evidence Against the Null Hypothesis 140

5.10 Using Confidence Intervals to Perform Hypothesis Tests 141

5.11 Hypothesis Testing for the Proportion 143

CHAPTER 6 MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS 148

6.1 Two-Sample t-Test for Difference in Means 148

6.2 Two-Sample Z-Test for Difference in Proportions 149

6.3 Test for the Homogeneity of Proportions 150

6.4 Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit of Multinomial Data 152

6.5 Analysis of Variance 153

CHAPTER 7 PREPARING TO MODEL THE DATA 160

7.1 Supervised Versus Unsupervised Methods 160

7.2 Statistical Methodology and Data Mining Methodology 161

7.3 Cross-Validation 161

7.4 Overfitting 163

7.5 Bias–Variance Trade-Off 164

7.6 Balancing the Training Data Set 166

7.7 Establishing Baseline Performance 167

CHAPTER 8 SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION 171

8.1 An Example of Simple Linear Regression 171

8.2 Dangers of Extrapolation 177

8.3 How Useful is the Regression? The Coefficient of Determination, r2 178

8.4 Standard Error of the Estimate, s 183

8.5 Correlation Coefficient r 184

8.6 Anova Table for Simple Linear Regression 186

8.7 Outliers, High Leverage Points, and Influential Observations 186

8.8 Population Regression Equation 195

8.9 Verifying the Regression Assumptions 198

8.10 Inference in Regression 203

8.11 t-Test for the Relationship Between x and y 204

8.12 Confidence Interval for the Slope of the Regression Line 206

8.13 Confidence Interval for the Correlation Coefficient p 208

8.14 Confidence Interval for the Mean Value of y Given x 210

8.15 Prediction Interval for a Randomly Chosen Value of y Given x 211

8.16 Transformations to Achieve Linearity 213

8.17 Box–Cox Transformations 220

CHAPTER 9 MULTIPLE REGRESSION AND MODEL BUILDING 236

9.1 An Example of Multiple Regression 236

9.2 The Population Multiple Regression Equation 242

9.3 Inference in Multiple Regression 243

9.4 Regression with Categorical Predictors, Using Indicator Variables 249

9.5 Adjusting R2: Penalizing Models for Including Predictors that are not Useful 256

9.6 Sequential Sums of Squares 257

9.7 Multicollinearity 258

9.8 Variable Selection Methods 266

9.9 Gas Mileage Data Set 270

9.10 An Application of Variable Selection Methods 271

9.11 Using the Principal Components as Predictors in Multiple Regression 279

PART III CLASSIFICATION 299

CHAPTER 10 k-NEAREST NEIGHBOR ALGORITHM 301

10.1 Classification Task 301

10.2 k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm 302

10.3 Distance Function 305

10.4 Combination Function 307

10.5 Quantifying Attribute Relevance: Stretching the Axes 309

10.6 Database Considerations 310

10.7 k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Estimation and Prediction 310

10.8 Choosing k 311

10.9 Application of k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm Using IBM/SPSS Modeler 312

CHAPTER 11 DECISION TREES 317

11.1 What is a Decision Tree? 317

11.2 Requirements for Using Decision Trees 319

11.3 Classification and Regression Trees 319

11.4 C4.5 Algorithm 326

11.5 Decision Rules 332

11.6 Comparison of the C5.0 and CART Algorithms Applied to Real Data 332

CHAPTER 12 NEURAL NETWORKS 339

12.1 Input and Output Encoding 339

12.2 Neural Networks for Estimation and Prediction 342

12.3 Simple Example of a Neural Network 342

12.4 Sigmoid Activation Function 344

12.5 Back-Propagation 345

12.6 Gradient-Descent Method 346

12.7 Back-Propagation Rules 347

12.8 Example of Back-Propagation 347

12.9 Termination Criteria 349

12.10 Learning Rate 350

12.11 Momentum Term 351

12.12 Sensitivity Analysis 353

12.13 Application of Neural Network Modeling 353

CHAPTER 13 LOGISTIC REGRESSION 359

13.1 Simple Example of Logistic Regression 359

13.2 Maximum Likelihood Estimation 361

13.3 Interpreting Logistic Regression Output 362

13.4 Inference: are the Predictors Significant? 363

13.5 Odds Ratio and Relative Risk 365

13.6 Interpreting Logistic Regression for a Dichotomous Predictor 367

13.7 Interpreting Logistic Regression for a Polychotomous Predictor 370

13.8 Interpreting Logistic Regression for a Continuous Predictor 374

13.9 Assumption of Linearity 378

13.10 Zero-Cell Problem 382

13.11 Multiple Logistic Regression 384

13.12 Introducing Higher Order Terms to Handle Nonlinearity 388

13.13 Validating the Logistic Regression Model 395

13.14 WEKA: Hands-On Analysis Using Logistic Regression 399

CHAPTER 14 NAÏVE BAYES AND BAYESIAN NETWORKS 414

14.1 Bayesian Approach 414

14.2 Maximum a Posteriori (Map) Classification 416

14.3 Posterior Odds Ratio 420

14.4 Balancing the Data 422

14.5 Naïve Bayes Classification 423

14.6 Interpreting the Log Posterior Odds Ratio 426

14.7 Zero-Cell Problem 428

14.8 Numeric Predictors for Naïve Bayes Classification 429

14.9 WEKA: Hands-on Analysis Using Naïve Bayes 432

14.10 Bayesian Belief Networks 436

14.11 Clothing Purchase Example 436

14.12 Using the Bayesian Network to Find Probabilities 439

CHAPTER 15 MODEL EVALUATION TECHNIQUES 451

15.1 Model Evaluation Techniques for the Description Task 451

15.2 Model Evaluation Techniques for the Estimation and Prediction Tasks 452

15.3 Model Evaluation Measures for the Classification Task 454

15.4 Accuracy and Overall Error Rate 456

15.5 Sensitivity and Specificity 457

15.6 False-Positive Rate and False-Negative Rate 458

15.7 Proportions of True Positives, True Negatives, False Positives, and False Negatives 458

15.8 Misclassification Cost Adjustment to Reflect Real-World Concerns 460

15.9 Decision Cost/Benefit Analysis 462

15.10 Lift Charts and Gains Charts 463

15.11 Interweaving Model Evaluation with Model Building 466

15.12 Confluence of Results: Applying a Suite of Models 466

CHAPTER 16 COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS USING DATA-DRIVEN COSTS 471

16.1 Decision Invariance Under Row Adjustment 471

16.2 Positive Classification Criterion 473

16.3 Demonstration of the Positive Classification Criterion 474

16.4 Constructing the Cost Matrix 474

16.5 Decision Invariance Under Scaling 476

16.6 Direct Costs and Opportunity Costs 478

16.7 Case Study: Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data-Driven Misclassification Costs 478

16.8 Rebalancing as a Surrogate for Misclassification Costs 483

CHAPTER 17 COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR TRINARY AND k-NARY CLASSIFICATION MODELS 491

17.1 Classification Evaluation Measures for a Generic Trinary Target 491

17.2 Application of Evaluation Measures for Trinary Classification to the Loan Approval Problem 494

17.3 Data-Driven Cost-Benefit Analysis for Trinary Loan Classification Problem 498

17.4 Comparing Cart Models with and without Data-Driven Misclassification Costs 500

17.5 Classification Evaluation Measures for a Generic k-Nary Target 503

17.6 Example of Evaluation Measures and Data-Driven Misclassification Costs for k-Nary Classification 504

CHAPTER 18 GRAPHICAL EVALUATION OF CLASSIFICATION MODELS 510

18.1 Review of Lift Charts and Gains Charts 510

18.2 Lift Charts and Gains Charts Using Misclassification Costs 510

18.3 Response Charts 511

18.4 Profits Charts 512

18.5 Return on Investment (ROI) Charts 514

PART IV CLUSTERING 521

CHAPTER 19 HIERARCHICAL AND k-MEANS CLUSTERING 523

19.1 The Clustering Task 523

19.2 Hierarchical Clustering Methods 525

19.3 Single-Linkage Clustering 526

19.4 Complete-Linkage Clustering 527

19.5 k-Means Clustering 529

19.6 Example of k-Means Clustering at Work 530

19.7 Behavior of MSB, MSE, and Pseudo-F as the k-Means Algorithm Proceeds 533

19.8 Application of k-Means Clustering Using SAS Enterprise Miner 534

19.9 Using Cluster Membership to Predict Churn 537

CHAPTER 20 KOHONEN NETWORKS 542

20.1 Self-Organizing Maps 542

20.2 Kohonen Networks 544

20.3 Example of a Kohonen Network Study 545

20.4 Cluster Validity 549

20.5 Application of Clustering Using Kohonen Networks 549

20.6 Interpreting The Clusters 551

20.7 Using Cluster Membership as Input to Downstream Data Mining Models 556

CHAPTER 21 BIRCH CLUSTERING 560

21.1 Rationale for Birch Clustering 560

21.2 Cluster Features 561

21.3 Cluster Feature Tree 562

21.4 Phase 1: Building the CF Tree 562

21.5 Phase 2: Clustering the Sub-Clusters 564

21.6 Example of Birch Clustering, Phase 1: Building the CF Tree 565

21.7 Example of Birch Clustering, Phase 2: Clustering the Sub-Clusters 570

21.8 Evaluating the Candidate Cluster Solutions 571

21.9 Case Study: Applying Birch Clustering to the Bank Loans Data Set 571

CHAPTER 22 MEASURING CLUSTER GOODNESS 582

22.1 Rationale for Measuring Cluster Goodness 582

22.2 The Silhouette Method 583

22.3 Silhouette Example 584

22.4 Silhouette Analysis of the IRIS Data Set 585

22.5 The Pseudo-F Statistic 590

22.6 Example of the Pseudo-F Statistic 591

22.7 Pseudo-F Statistic Applied to the IRIS Data Set 592

22.8 Cluster Validation 593

22.9 Cluster Validation Applied to the Loans Data Set 594

PART V ASSOCIATION RULES 601

CHAPTER 23 ASSOCIATION RULES 603

23.1 Affinity Analysis and Market Basket Analysis 603

23.2 Support, Confidence, Frequent Itemsets, and the a Priori Property 605

23.3 How Does the A Priori Algorithm Work (Part 1)? Generating Frequent Itemsets 607

23.4 How Does the A Priori Algorithm Work (Part 2)? Generating Association Rules 608

23.5 Extension from Flag Data to General Categorical Data 611

23.6 Information-Theoretic Approach: Generalized Rule Induction Method 612

23.7 Association Rules are Easy to do Badly 614

23.8 How can we Measure the Usefulness of Association Rules? 615

23.9 Do Association Rules Represent Supervised or Unsupervised Learning? 616

23.10 Local Patterns Versus Global Models 617

PART VI ENHANCING MODEL PERFORMANCE 623

CHAPTER 24 SEGMENTATION MODELS 625

24.1 The Segmentation Modeling Process 625

24.2 Segmentation Modeling Using EDA to Identify the Segments 627

24.3 Segmentation Modeling using Clustering to Identify the Segments 629

CHAPTER 25 ENSEMBLE METHODS: BAGGING AND BOOSTING 637

25.1 Rationale for Using an Ensemble of Classification Models 637

25.2 Bias, Variance, and Noise 639

25.3 When to Apply, and not to apply, Bagging 640

25.4 Bagging 641

25.5 Boosting 643

25.6 Application of Bagging and Boosting Using IBM/SPSS Modeler 647

CHAPTER 26 MODEL VOTING AND PROPENSITY AVERAGING 653

26.1 Simple Model Voting 653

26.2 Alternative Voting Methods 654

26.3 Model Voting Process 655

26.4 An Application of Model Voting 656

26.5 What is Propensity Averaging? 660

26.6 Propensity Averaging Process 661

26.7 An Application of Propensity Averaging 661

PART VII FURTHER TOPICS 669

CHAPTER 27 GENETIC ALGORITHMS 671

27.1 Introduction To Genetic Algorithms 671

27.2 Basic Framework of a Genetic Algorithm 672

27.3 Simple Example of a Genetic Algorithm at Work 673

27.4 Modifications and Enhancements: Selection 676

27.5 Modifications and Enhancements: Crossover 678

27.6 Genetic Algorithms for Real-Valued Variables 679

27.7 Using Genetic Algorithms to Train a Neural Network 681

27.8 WEKA: Hands-On Analysis Using Genetic Algorithms 684

CHAPTER 28 IMPUTATION OF MISSING DATA 695

28.1 Need for Imputation of Missing Data 695

28.2 Imputation of Missing Data: Continuous Variables 696

28.3 Standard Error of the Imputation 699

28.4 Imputation of Missing Data: Categorical Variables 700

28.5 Handling Patterns in Missingness 701

PART VIII CASE STUDY: PREDICTING RESPONSE TO DIRECT-MAIL MARKETING 705

CHAPTER 29 CASE STUDY, PART 1: BUSINESS UNDERSTANDING, DATA PREPARATION, AND EDA 707

29.1 Cross-Industry Standard Practice for Data Mining 707

29.2 Business Understanding Phase 709

29.3 Data Understanding Phase, Part 1: Getting a Feel for the Data Set 710

29.4 Data Preparation Phase 714

29.5 Data Understanding Phase, Part 2: Exploratory Data Analysis 721

CHAPTER 30 CASE STUDY, PART 2: CLUSTERING AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS 732

30.1 Partitioning the Data 732

30.2 Developing the Principal Components 733

30.3 Validating the Principal Components 737

30.4 Profiling the Principal Components 737

30.5 Choosing the Optimal Number of Clusters Using Birch Clustering 742

30.6 Choosing the Optimal Number of Clusters Using k-Means Clustering 744

30.7 Application of k-Means Clustering 745

30.8 Validating the Clusters 745

30.9 Profiling the Clusters 745

CHAPTER 31 CASE STUDY, PART 3: MODELING AND EVALUATION FOR PERFORMANCE AND INTERPRETABILITY 749

31.1 Do you Prefer the Best Model Performance, or a Combination of Performance and Interpretability? 749

31.2 Modeling and Evaluation Overview 750

31.3 Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data-Driven Costs 751

31.4 Variables to be Input to the Models 753

31.5 Establishing the Baseline Model Performance 754

31.6 Models that use Misclassification Costs 755

31.7 Models that Need Rebalancing as a Surrogate for Misclassification Costs 756

31.8 Combining Models Using Voting and Propensity Averaging 757

31.9 Interpreting the Most Profitable Model 758

CHAPTER 32 CASE STUDY, PART 4: MODELING AND EVALUATION FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE ONLY 762

32.1 Variables to be Input to the Models 762

32.2 Models that use Misclassification Costs 762

32.3 Models that Need Rebalancing as a Surrogate for Misclassification Costs 764

32.4 Combining Models using Voting and Propensity Averaging 765

32.5 Lessons Learned 766

32.6 Conclusions 766

APPENDIX A DATA SUMMARIZATION AND VISUALIZATION 768

Part 1: Summarization 1: Building Blocks of Data Analysis 768

Part 2: Visualization: Graphs and Tables for Summarizing and Organizing Data 770

Part 3: Summarization 2: Measures of Center, Variability, and Position 774

Part 4: Summarization and Visualization of Bivariate Relationships 777

INDEX 781

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Author Information

Daniel T. Larose is Professor of Mathematical Sciences and Director of the Data Mining programs at Central Connecticut State University. He has published several books, including Data Mining the Web: Uncovering Patterns in Web Content, Structure, and Usage (Wiley, 2007) and Discovering Knowledge in Data: An Introduction to Data Mining (Wiley, 2005). In addition to his scholarly work, Dr. Larose is a consultant in data mining and statistical analysis working with many high profile clients, including Microsoft, Forbes Magazine, the CIT Group, KPMG International, Computer Associates, and Deloitte, Inc.

Chantal D. Larose is a Ph.D. candidate in Statistics at the University of Connecticut. Her research focuses on the imputation of missing data and model-based clustering. She has taught undergraduate statistics since 2011, and is a statistical consultant for DataMiningConsultant.com, LLC.
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