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Tropical Roots and Tubers: Production, Processing and Technology

ISBN: 978-1-118-99269-2
648 pages
November 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Tropical Roots and Tubers: Production, Processing and Technology (1118992695) cover image

Description

Roots and tubers are considered as the most important food crops after cereals and contribute significantly to sustainable development, income generation and food security especially in the tropical regions. The perishable nature of roots and tubers demands appropriate storage conditions at different stages starting from farmers to its final consumers.  Because of their highly perishable nature, search for efficient and better methods of preservation/processing have been continuing alongside the developments in different arena.
This book covers the processing and technological aspects of root and tuber foods, detailing the production and processing of roots and tubers such as taro, cassava, sweet potato, yam and elephant foot yam. Featuring chapters on anatomy, taxonomy and physiology, molecular and biochemical characterization, GAP, GMP, HACCP, Storage techniques, as well as the latest technological interventions in Taro, Cassava, Sweet potato, yam and Elephant foot Yam.

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Table of Contents

About the IFST Advances in Food Science Book Series xv

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

1 Introduction to Tropical Roots and Tubers 1
Harish K. Sharma and Pragati Kaushal

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Roots and Tubers 3

1.3 Requirements for the Higher Productivity of Tropical Roots and Tubers 3

1.4 World Production and Consumption 7

1.5 Constraints in Tropical Root and Tuber Production 11

1.6 Classification and Salient Features of Major Tropical Roots and Tubers 12

1.7 Composition and Nutritional Value 12

1.8 Characteristics of Tropical Roots and Tubers 16

1.9 Anti-nutritional Factors in Roots and Tubers 16

1.10 Applications of Tropical Roots and Tubers 23

1.11 New Frontiers for Tropical Roots and Tubers 26

1.12 Future Aspects 27

References 28

2 Taxonomy, Anatomy, Physiology and Nutritional Aspects 34
Lochan Singh, Ashutosh Upadhyay, and Ashok K. Dhawan

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 Taxonomy of Roots and Tuber Crops 38

2.3 Anatomy 70

2.4 Physiology of Root and Tuber Crops 107

2.5 Nutritional Perspective in Root and Tuber Crops 109

References 127

3 Tropical Roots and Tubers: Impact on Environment, Biochemical, Molecular Characterization of Different Varieties of Tropical Roots and Tubers 138
Chokkappan Mohan, Vidya Prasannakumary, and Aswathy G.H. Nair

3.1 Introduction 138

3.2 Genetic Diversity 139

3.3 Cassava 139

3.4 Sweet Potato 150

3.5 Taro 160

3.6 Yams 166

3.7 Future Aspects 171

References 172

4 Good Agricultural Practices in Tropical Root and Tuber Crops 183
Kuttumu Laxminarayana, Sanjibita Mishra, and Sarita Soumya

4.1 Introduction 183

4.2 Cassava 186

4.3 Sweet Potato 192

4.4 Yams 197

4.5 Elephant Foot Yam 201

4.6 Taro 204

4.7 Coleus 211

4.8 Arrowroot 213

4.9 Yam Bean 216

4.10 Future Perspectives 219

4.11 Summary and Future Research 220

References 221

5 Fermented Foods and Beverages from Tropical Roots and Tubers 225
Sandeep K. Panda and Ramesh C. Ray

5.1 Introduction 225

5.2 Food Fermentation 226

5.3 Summary and Future Perspectives 244

References 245

6 Storage Techniques and Commercialization 253
Agnes W. Kihurani and Pragati Kaushal

6.1 Introduction 253

6.2 Problems faced during Storage and their Preventive Measures 254

6.3 Losses Observed during Various Stages at the Time of Marketing 257

6.4 Methods employed for Storage of Roots and Tubers 261

6.5 Commercialization 269

6.6 Factors affecting Commercialization 269

6.7 Key Products and Final Markets for Commercialization 271

6.8 Trends in Commercialization 272

6.9 Future Research 273

References 273

7 Good Manufacturing Practices for Processing of Tropical Roots and Tubers 281
Anakalo A. Shitandi and Marion G. Kihumbu-Anakalo

7.1 Introduction 281

7.2 Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) 282

7.3 Key Importance of GMPs for Roots and Tubers 283

7.4 GMP Components 283

7.5 GMPs in Low-income Countries 298

7.6 Conclusions 298

Acknowledgements 299

References 299

8 Controlling Food Safety Hazards in Root and Tuber Processing: An HACCP Approach 301
Adewale O. Obadina and Ifeoluwa O. Adekoya

8.1 Food Safety 301

8.2 Food Safety Hazards 302

8.3 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 304

8.4 Roots and Tubers 308

8.5 Summary and Future Research 322

References 322

9 Taro: Technological Interventions 325

9.1 Taro Flour, Achu and Starch 326
Harish K. Sharma, Pragati Kaushal, and Bahadur Singh

References 352

9.2 Bakery Products and Snacks based on Taro 362
Nicolas Y. Njintang, Joel Scher, and Carl M.F. Mbofung

9.3 Other Taro-based Products 395
Nicolas Y. Njintang, Joel Scher, and Carl M.F. Mbofung

10 Cassava: Technological Interventions 414

10.1 Cassava Flour and Starch: Processing Technology and Utilization 415
Taofik A. Shittu, Buliyaminu A. Alimi, Bashira Wahab, Lateef O. Sanni, and Adebayo B. Abass

10.2 Other Cassava-based Products 451
Ibok Nsa Oduro

Acknowledgements 473

References 473

11 Sweet Potato: Technological Interventions 478

11.1 Sweet Potato Flour and Starch 479
Maninder Kaur and Kawaljit Singh Sandhu

11.2 Bakery Products and Snacks based on Sweet Potato 507
Tai-Hua Mu, Peng-Gao Li, and Hong-Nan Sun

11.3 Other Sweet Potato-based Products 532
Tai-Hua Mu, Hong-Nan Sun, and Peng-Gao Li

12 Yam: Technological Interventions 558
Rahman Akinoso and Olufunmilola A. Abiodun

12.1 Introduction 558

12.2 Importance of Yam in Tropical Regions 559

12.3 Yam Production 559

12.4 Consumption of Yam 560

12.5 Composition of Yam 562

12.6 Yam Processing and Utilization 563

12.7 Effects of Processing on the Quality of Yam 575

12.8 Technological Application to Yam Processing 576

12.9 Summary and Future Research 579

References 580

13 Amorphophallus: Technological Interventions 591
Ramesh C. Ray and Sudhanshu S. Behera

13.1 Introduction 591

13.2 Habit, Habitat and Distribution 592

13.3 Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Factors 593

13.4 Traditional Processing and Value Addition of EFY 594

13.5 EFY Processing with Technological Interventions 597

13.6 A. konjac K. Koch as Industrial Crop 599

13.7 Processing as Pharmaceutical Supplements 603

13.8 Summary and Future Perspectives 605

References 606

Index 613

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Author Information

About the Editors
Harish K. Sharma Food Engineering and Technology Department, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India

Nicolas Y. Njintang Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences; and National School of Agro Industrial Sciences (ENSAI), University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

Rekha S. Singhal Food Engineering and Technology Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, India

Pragati Kaushal Food Engineering and Technology Department, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India

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