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Handbook of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy In Vivo: MRS Theory, Practice and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-118-99767-3
1232 pages
October 2016
Handbook of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy In Vivo: MRS Theory, Practice and Applications (1118997670) cover image

Description

This handbook covers the entire field of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a unique method that allows the non-invasive identification, quantification and spatial mapping of metabolites in living organisms–including animal models and patients.

Comprised of three parts:

  • Methodology covers basic MRS theory, methodology for acquiring, quantifying spectra, and spatially localizing spectra, and equipment essentials, as well as vital ancillary issues such as motion suppression and physiological monitoring.
  • Applications focuses on MRS applications, both in animal models of disease and in human studies of normal physiology and disease, including cancer, neurological disease, cardiac and muscle metabolism, and obesity.
  • Reference includes useful appendices and look up tables of relative MRS signal-to-noise ratios, typical tissue concentrations, structures of common metabolites, and useful formulae.

About eMagRes Handbooks

eMagRes (formerly the Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) publishes a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of eMagRes articles. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the eMagRes Handbooks are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry.

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Table of Contents

1 Basics of NMR

2 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Instrumentation

3 Detection coils for MRS

4 A Practical Guide to in-vivo MRS

5 Adiabatic Excitation Pulses for MRS

6 Localized MRS employing radiofrequency field (B1) gradients

7 Single Voxel MRS

8 Chemical shift imaging with phase- and sensitivity-encoding

9 Spatial Encoding and Decoding with Prior Knowledge from MRI and Spatio-Spectral Correlation

10 Accurate Localized Spectroscopy from Anatomically Matched Regions with Optimal Spatial Response Function

11 Accelerated Spatially-Encoded MRS of Arbitrarily-Shaped Compartments Using Linear Algebraic Modeling

12 High-Speed Spatial-Spectral Encoding with Echo-Planar and Spiral Spectroscopic Imaging

13 Direct Water--Fat Imaging Methods: Chemical Shift-Selective and Chemical Shift-Encoded MRI

14 Physiological maintenance in animal experiments

15 Physiological maintenance in MRI and MRS of large animals

16 Physiological Monitoring in human MRS

17 Physiologic Motion: Dealing with Cardiac, Respiratory and Other Sporadic Motion in MRS

18 Quantifying Spectra in the Frequency Domain

19 Quantifying Spectra in the Time Domain

20 Advanced spectral quantification: parameter handling, non-parametric pattern modeling and multi-dimensional fitting

21 1H-NMR Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Brain Metabolites

22 Pattern Recognition Analysis of MR Spectra

23 Quantifying Metabolite Ratios and Concentrations by 1H MRS

24 Quantifying Metabolite Ratios and Concentrations by Non-1H MRS

25 Measuring intra- and extra-cellular pH by MRS

26 Temperature Monitoring Using Chemical Shift

27 Diffusion-Weighted MRS

28 Measuring biochemical reaction rates in vivo with magnetization transfer

29 Proton Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MRS and MRI

30 Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy Plus Spatial Encoding

31 Spectral editing

32 Multiple quantum MRS

33 Hyperpolarization Methods for MRS

34 Pulse sequences for hyperpolarized MRS

35 MRS of Perfused Cells, Tissues and Organs

36 Metabolism and Metabolomics by MRS

37 In Vivo 19F MRS

38 13C MRS in Human Tissue

39 Hyperpolarized 13C MRI and MRS Studies

40 Integrating 13C Isotopomer Methods with Hyperpolarization for a Comprehensive Picture of Metabolism

41 Muscle studies by 1H MRS

42 Muscle Studies by 31P MRS

43 Measuring Intracellular Oxygenation with Myoglobin 1H MRS

44 Body Fat MRS

45 In Vivo MRS of Lipids in Adipose Tissue, Bone Marrow, and Liver

46 Assessing Fatty Liver with MRS

47 MRS Studies of Muscle and Heart in Obesity and Diabetes

48 Studying Cardiac Lipids in Obese and Diabetic patients by 1H MRS

49 Cardiac MRS Studies in Rodents and Other Animals

50 Assessing Cardiac Transplant Viability with MRS

51 MRS in the Failing Heart: from Mice to Humans

52 MRS studies of Creatine Kinase metabolism in human heart

53 Studying Aging, Dementia, Trauma, Infection, and Developmental Disorders of the Brain with 1H MRS

54 Studying Stroke and Cerebral Ischemia by 1H MRS

55 31P MRS in Psychiatric Disorders

56 The significance of N-Acetyl Aspartate in Human Brain MRS

57 MRS in Brain Cancer

58 MRS in Breast Cancer

59 MRS in Prostate Cancer

60 Clinical Trials of MRS Methods

61 Clinical Trials that Utilize MRS as a Biomarker

62 Properties of NMR-visible isotopes and their biological content in human tissue

63 Concentration ranges of common metabolites detected by MRS in healthy human tissue

64 Peak Assignments for Some Common Metabolites

65 Biochemical reactions and molecular structures of common MRS metabolites

66 Some standard formulae used in MRS

67 Common MRS Artefacts

68 In Vivo Spectra with Peak Assignments

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