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Advanced Bioelectronics Materials

ISBN: 978-1-118-99830-4
544 pages
November 2015
Advanced Bioelectronics Materials (1118998308) cover image

Description

This book covers the recent advances in the development of bioelectronics systems and their potential application in future biomedical applications starting from system design to signal processing for physiological monitoring, to in situ biosensing.

Advanced Bioelectronics Materialshas contributions from distinguished international scholars whose backgrounds mirror the multidisciplinary readership ranging from the biomedical sciences, biosensors and engineering communities with diverse backgrounds, interests and proficiency in academia and industry. The readers will benefit from the widespread coverage of the current literature, state-of-the-art overview of all facets of advanced bioelectronics materials ranging from real time monitoring, in situ diagnostics, in vivo imaging, image-guided therapeutics, biosensors, and translational biomedical devices and personalized monitoring.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Part 1: Recent Advances in Bioelectronics 1

1 Micro- and Nanoelectrodes in Protein-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Nanomedicine and Other Applications 3

Niina J. Ronkainen

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Microelectrodes 7

1.2.1 Electrochemistry and Advantages of Microelectrodes 7

1.2.2 Applications, Cleaning, and Performance of Microelectrodes 16

1.3 Nanoelectrodes 18

1.3.1 Electrochemistry and Advantages of Nanoelectrodes 21

1.3.2 Applications and Performance of Nanoelectrodes 23

1.4 Integration of the Electronic Transducer, Electrode, and Biological Recognition Components (such as Enzymes) in Nanoscale-Sized Biosensors and Their Clinical Applications 26

1.5 Conclusion 27

Acknowledgment 28

References 28

2 Radio-Frequency Biosensors for Label-Free Detection of Biomolecular Binding Systems 35

Hee-Jo Lee1, Sang-Gyu Kim, and Jong-Gwan Yook

2.1 Overview 35

2.2 Introduction 36

2.3 Carbon Nanotube-Based RF Biosensor 37

2.3.1 Carbon Nanotube 37

2.3.2 Fabrications of Interdigital Capacitors with Carbon Nanotube 38

2.3.3 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube 39

2.3.4 Measurement and Results 40

2.4 Resonator-Based RF Biosensor 40

2.4.1 Resonator 40

2.4.2 Sample Preparation and Measurement 42

2.4.3 Functionalization of Resonator 42

2.5 Active System-Based RF Biosensor 45

2.5.1 Principle and Configuration of System 45

2.5.2 Fabrication of RF Active System with Resonator 46

2.5.2.1 Functionalization of Resonator 46

2.5.3 Measurement and Result 47

2.6 Conclusions 49

Abbreviations 51

References 52

3 Affinity Biosensing: Recent Advances in Surface Plasmon Resonance for Molecular Diagnostics 55

S. Scarano, S. Mariani, and M. Minunni

3.1 Introduction 56

3.2 Artists of the Biorecognition: New Natural and Synthetic Receptors as Sensing Elements 58

3.2.1 Antibodies and Their Mimetics 58

3.2.2 Nucleic Acids and Analogues 62

3.2.3 Living Cells 63

3.3 Recent Trends in Bioreceptors Immobilization 65

3.4 Trends for Improvements of Analytical Performances in Molecular Diagnostics 69

3.4.1 Coupling Nanotechnology to Biosensing 70

3.4.2 Microfluidics and Microsystems 76

3.4.3 Hyphenation 78

3.5 Conclusions 78

References 80

4 Electropolymerized Materials for Biosensors 89

Gennady Evtugyn, Anna Porfi reva and Tibor Hianik

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Electropolymerized Materials Used in Biosensor Assembly 93

4.2.1 General Characteristic of Electropolymerization Techniques 93

4.2.2 Instrumentation Tools for Monitoring of the Redox-Active Polymers in the Biosensor Assembly 97

4.2.3 Redox-Active Polymers Applied in Biosensor Assembly 99

4.3 Enzyme Sensors 107

4.3.1 PANI-Based Enzyme Sensors 107

4.3.2 PPY and Polythiophene-Based Enzyme Sensors 117

4.3.3 Enzyme Sensors Based on Other Redox-Active Polymers Obtained by Electropolymerization 127

4.3.4 Enzyme Sensors Based on Other Polymers Bearing Redox Groups 135

4.4 Immunosensors Based on Redox-Active Polymers 137

4.5 DNA Sensors Based on Redox-Active Polymers 149

4.5.1 PANI-based DNA Sensors and Aptasensors 149

4.5.2 PPY-Based DNA Sensors 153

4.5.3 Thiophene Derivatives in the DNA Sensors 157

4.5.4 DNA Sensors Based on Polyphenazines and Other Redox-Active Polymers 159

4.6 Conclusion 162

Acknowledgments 163

References 163

Part 2 Advanced Nanostructures in Biosensing 187

5 Graphene-Based Electrochemical Platform for Biosensor Applications 189

Yusoff Norazriena, Alagarsamy Pandikumar, Huang Nay Ming, and Lim Hong Ngee2,3

5.1 Introduction 189

5.2 Graphene 192

5.3 Synthetic Methods for Graphene 195

5.4 Properties of Graphene 197

5.5 Multi-functional Applications of Graphene 199

5.6 Electrochemical Sensor 200

Graphene as Promising Materials for Electrochemical Biosensors 201

5.6.1 Graphene-Based Modified Electrode for Glucose Sensors 201

5.6.2 Graphene-Based Modified Electrode for NADH Sensors 202

5.6.3 Graphene-Based Modified Electrode for NO Sensors 204

5.6.4 Graphene-Based Modified Electrode for H2O 206

5.7 Conclusion and Future Outlooks 207

References 208

6 Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Bioimaging 215

Suresh Kumar Kailasa, Vaibhavkumar N. Mehta1, Nazim Hasan and Hui-Fen Wu

6.1 Introduction 215

6.2 CDs as Fluorescent Probes for Imaging of Biomolecules and Cells 216

6.3 Conclusions and Perspectives 224

References 224

7 Enzyme Sensors Based on Nanostructured Materials 229

Nada F. Atta, Shimaa M. Ali, and Ahmed Galal

7.1 Biosensors and Nanotechnology 229

7.2 Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 230

7.2.1 Glucose Biosensors 233

7.2.2 Cholesterol Biosensors 237

7.2.3 Tyrosinase Biosensors 240

7.2.4 Urease Biosensors 243

7.2.5 Acetylcholinesterase Biosensors 244

7.2.6 Horseradish Peroxidase Biosensors 246

7.2.7 DNA Biosensors 248

7.3 Biosensors Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles 252

7.4 Biosensors Based on Quantum Dots 260

7.5 Conclusion 267

References 268

8 Biosensor Based on Chitosan Nanocomposite 277

Baoqiang Li, Yinfeng Cheng, Feng Xu, Lei Wang, Daqing Wei, Dechang Jia, Yujie Feng, and Yu Zhou

8.1 Introduction 278

8.2 Chitosan and Chitosan Nanomaterials 278

8.2.1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Chitosan 279

8.2.2 Biocompatibility of Chitosan 280

8.2.3 Chitosan Nanomaterials 281

8.2.3.1 Blending 281

8.2.3.2 In Situ Hybridization 282

8.2.3.3 Chemical Grafting 285

8.3 Application of Chitosan Nanocomposite in Biosensor 285

8.3.1 Biosensor Configurations and Bioreceptor Immobilization 285

8.3.2 Biosensor Based on Chitosan Nanocomposite 287

8.3.2.1 Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanomaterials?Chitosan Nanocomposite 287

8.3.2.2 Biosensors Based on Metal and Metal Oxide?Chitosan Nanocomposite 290

8.3.2.3 Biosensors Based on Quantum Dots Chitosan Nanocomposite 293

8.3.2.4 Biosensors Based on IonicLiquid Chitosan Nanocomposite 293

8.4 Emerging Biosensor and Future Perspectives 294

Acknowledgments 298

References 298

Part 3 Systematic Bioelectronic Strategies 309

9 Bilayer Lipid Membrane Constructs: A Strategic Technology Evaluation Approach 311

Christina G. Siontorou

9.1 The Lipid Bilayer Concept and the Membrane Platform 312

9.2 Strategic Technology Evaluation: The Approach 318

9.3 The Dimensions of the Membrane-Based Technology 319

9.4 Technology Dimension 1: Fabrication 322

9.4.1 Suspended Lipid Platforms 322

9.4.2 Supported Lipid Platforms 327

9.4.3 Micro- and Nano-Fabricated Lipid Platforms 331

9.5 Technology Dimension 2: Membrane Modelling 333

9.6 Technology Dimension 3: Artificial Chemoreception 336

9.7 Technology Evaluation 337

9.8 Concluding Remarks 339

Abbreviations 340

References 340

10 Carbon and Its Hybrid Composites as Advanced Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors 355

S. T. Senthilkumar, K. Vijaya Sankar, J. S. Melo, A. Gedanken and R. Kalai Selvan

10.1 Introduction 356

10.1.1 Background 356

10.2 Principle of Supercapacitor 358

10.2.1 Basics of Supercapacitor 358

10.2.2 Charge Storage Mechanism of SC 360

10.2.2.1 Electric Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC) 360

10.2.2.2 Pseudocapacitors 361

10.2.2.3 Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors 364

10.3 Activated Carbon and Their Composites 366

10.4 Carbon Aerogels and Their Composite Materials 368

10.5 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Their Composite Materials 371

10.6 Two-Dimensional Graphene 374

10.6.1 Electrochemical Performance of Graphene 375

10.6.2 Graphene Composites 376

10.6.2.1 Binary Composites 376

10.6.2.2 Ternary Hybrid Electrode 378

10.6.3 Doping of Graphene with Heteroatom 380

10.7 Conclusion and Outlook 381

Acknowledgements 382

References 382

11 Recent Advances of Biosensors in Food Detection Including Genetically Modified Organisms in Food 395

T. Varzakas, Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, and Dimitrios P. Nikolelis

11.1 Electrochemical Biosensors 396

11.2 DNA Biosensors for Detection of GMOs Nanotechnology 400

11.3 Aptamers 411

11.4 Voltammetric Biosensors 412

11.5 Amperometric Biosensors 413

11.6 Optical Biosensors 414

11.7 Magnetoelastic Biosensors 415

11.8 Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Biosensors for Odor Detection 415

11.9 Quorum Sensing and Toxoflavin Detection 416

11.10 Xanthine Biosensors 417

11.11 Conclusions and Future Prospects 418

Acknowledgments 419

References 419

12 Numerical Modeling and Calculation of Sensing Parameters of DNA Sensors 429

Hediyeh Karimi, Farzaneh Sabbagh, Rasoul Rahmani, and M. T. Ahamdi

12.1 Introduction to Graphene 430

12.1.1 Electronic Structure of Graphene 431

12.1.2 Graphene as a Sensing Element 431

12.1.3 DNA Molecules 432

12.1.4 DNA Hybridization 432

12.1.5 Graphene-Based Field Effect Transistors 434

12.1.6 DNA Sensor Structure 435

12.1.7 Sensing Mechanism 436

12.2 Numerical Modeling 437

12.2.1

12.2.2 Modeling of the Sensing Parameter (Conductance) Current Voltage (Id?Vg) Characteristics 437

Modeling 440

12.2.3 Proposed Alpha Model 441

12.2.4 Comparison of the Proposed NumericalModel with Experiment 444

References 447

13 Carbon Nanotubes and Cellulose Acetate Composite for Biomolecular Sensing 453

Padmaker Pandey, Anamika Pandey, O. P. Pandey and N. K. Shukla

13.1 Introduction 453

13.2 Background of the Work 456

13.3 Materials and Methodology 459

13.3.1 Preparation of Membranes 459

13.3.2 Immobilisation of Enzyme 460

13.3.3 Assay for Measurement of Enzymatic

Reaction 460

13.4 Characterisation of Membranes 460

13.4.1 Optical Microscope Characterisation 460

13.4.2 Scanning Electron Microscope Characterisation 462

13.5 pH Measurements Using Different Membranes 462

13.5.1 For Un-immobilised Membranes 462

13.5.2 For Immobilised Membranes 462

13.6 Conclusion 464

Reference 465

14 Review of the Green Synthesis of Metal/Graphene Composites for Energy Conversion, Sensor, Environmental, and Bioelectronic Applications 467

Shude Liu, K.S. Hui, and K.N. Hui

14.1 Introduction 468

14.2 Metal/Graphene Composites 468

14.3 Synthesis Routes of Graphene 469

14.3.1 CVD Synthesis of Graphene 469

14.3.2 Liquid-Phase Production of Graphene 473

14.3.3 Epitaxial Growth of Graphene 476

14.4 Green Synthesis Route of Metal/Graphene Composites 478

14.4.1 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal/Graphene Composites 479

14.4.2 Non-toxic Reducing Agent 482

14.4.3 In Situ Sonication Method 484

14.4.4 Photocatalytic Reduction Method 486

14.5 Green Application of Metal/Graphene and Doped Graphene Composites 487

14.5.1 Energy Storage and Conversion Device 487

14.5.2 Electrochemical Sensors 490

14.5.3 Wastewater Treatment 491

14.5.4 Bioelectronics 492

14.6 Conclusion and Future Perspective 496

Acknowledgments 497

References 497

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