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Electrochemical Engineering

ISBN: 978-1-119-00425-7
432 pages
February 2018
Electrochemical Engineering (111900425X) cover image

Description

This book covers both fundamental principles and applications of electrochemical engineering. The goal is to create a text for classroom instruction or independent study at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate student level. It provides numerous worked out illustrations as well as a large number of end-of chapter problems. A supplementary solution manual has been developed.

The first six chapters of the book cover the fundamental topics: introduction and Faraday’s law, thermodynamics, kinetics, transport, porous electrodes, and analysis of electrochemical systems. The remaining chapters address specific applications of electrochemical engineering: batteries (2), fuel cells (2), electrochemical double layer capacitors, energy storage for hybrid systems, electrodeposition, industrial electrolysis, semiconductor electrodes, and corrosion.
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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Principles (Charles Tobias)

1.1 Electrochemical Cells

1.2 Characterization of Electrochemical Reactions

1.3 Importance of Electrochemical Systems

1.4 Scientific Units, Constants and Conventions

1.5 Faraday’s law

1.6 Faradaic efficiency

1.7 Current Density

1.8 Potential and Ohm’s law

1.9 Electrochemical Systems: Example

General References

Problems

Chapter 2 Cell Potential and Thermodynamics (W. M. Latimer)

2.1 Half-cell Reactions

2.2 Cell Potential

2.3 Expression for Cell Potential

2.4 Standard Potentials

2.5 Effect of Temperature on Standard Potential

2.6 Simplified Activity Coefficients

2.7 Use of Cell Potentials

2.8 Equilibrium constants

2.9 Pourbaix diagrams

2.10 Cells with a Liquid Junction

2.11 Reference electrodes

2.12 Equilibrium at Electrode Interface

2.13 Potential in Solution due to charge: Debye-Hückel theory

2.14 Activity and Activity Coefficients

2.15 Estimation of Activity Coefficients

2.16 Closure

General References

Problems

Chapter 3 Electrochemical Kinetics (Alexander N. Frumkin)

3.1 Double Layer

3.2 Impact of potential on Reaction Rate

3.3 Use of the Butler-Volmer Kinetic Expression

3.4 Reaction Fundamentals

3.5 Simplified Forms of the Butler-Volmer Equation

3.6 Direct Fitting of the Butler-Volmer Equation

3.7 Influence of Mass Transfer on the Reaction Rate

3.8 Use of Kinetics Expression in Full Cells

3.9 Current Efficiency

General References

Problems

Chapter 4 Transport (Carl Wagner)

4.1 Fick’s Law

4.2 Nernst-Planck Equation

4.3 Conservation of Material

4.4 Transference Numbers, Mobilities, and Migration

4.5 Convective Mass Transfer

4.6 Concentration Overpotential

4.7 Current Distribution

4.8 Membrane transport

General References

Problems

Chapter 5 Electrode Structures (John Newman)

5.1 Mathematical Description of Porous Electrodes

5.2 Characterization of Porous Electrodes

5.3 Impact of Porous Electrodes on Transport

5.4 Current Distribution in Porous Electrodes

5.5 The Gas-Liquid Interface in Porous Electrodes

5.6 Three Phase Electrodes

5.7 Electrode Configurations

General References

Problems

Chapter 6 Electro-analytical Methods and Analysis of Electrochemical Systems (Jaroslav Heyrovský)

6.1 Electrochemical Cells, Instrumentation and Some Practical Issues

6.2 Overview

6.3 Step change in Potential or Current for a semi-infinite planar electrode in a stagnant electrolyte

6.4 Electrode Kinetics and Double Layer Charging

6.5 Cyclic Voltammetry

6.6 Stripping Analysis

6.7 Electrochemical Impedance

6.8 Rotating Disk Electrode

6.9 iR Compensation

6.10 Micro-electrodes

General References

Problems

Chapter 7 Battery Fundamentals (J. B. Goodenough)

7.1 Components of a Cell

7.2 Classification of Batteries and Cell Chemistries

7.3 Theoretical Capacity and State of Charge

7.4 Cell Characteristics and Electrochemical Performance

7.5 Ragone Plots

7.6 Heat Generation

7.7 Efficiency of Secondary Cells

7.8 Charge Retention and Self Discharge

7.9 Capacity Fade in Secondary Cells

General References

Problems

Chapter 8 Battery Applications Cell and Battery Pack Design (Esther Takeuchi)

8.1 Introduction to Battery Design

8.2 Battery Layout Using a Specific Cell Design

8.3 Scaling of Cells to Adjust Capacity

8.4 Electrode and Cell Design to Achieve Rate Capability

8.5 Cell Construction

8.6 Charging of Batteries

8.7 Use of Resistance to Characterize Battery Performance

8.8 Battery Management

8.9 Thermal Management Systems

8.10 Mechanical Considerations

General References

Problems

Chapter 9 Fuel Cell Fundamentals (Supramaniam Srinivasan)

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Types of Fuel Cells Classified by Electrolytes

9.3 Current Voltage Characteristics and Polarizations

9.4 Effect of Operating Conditions and Maximum Power

9.5 Electrode Structure

9.6 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

9.7 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

General References

Problems

Chapter 10 Fuel Cell Stack and System Design and Applications (Francis Bacon)

10.1 Introduction and Overview of Systems Analysis

10.2 Basic Stack Design Concepts

10.3 Cell Stack Configurations

10.4 Basic Construction and Components

10.5 Utilization of Fuel and Oxidant

10.6 Flow Field Design

10.7 Water and Thermal Management

10.8 Structural-Mechanical Considerations

10.9 Case Study

General References

Problems

Chapter 11 Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (Brian E. Conway)

11.1 Capacitor Introduction

11.2 Electrical Double Layer Capacitance

11.3 Current Voltage Relationship for Capacitors

11.4 Porous EDLC Electrodes

11.5 Impedance Analysis of EDLCs

11.6 Full Cell EDLC Analysis

11.7 Power and Energy Capabilities

11.8 Cell design, practical operation and electrochemical capacitor performance

11.9 Pseudo-capacitance

General References

Problems

Chapter 12 Energy Storage and Conversion for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Ferdinand Porsche)

12.1 Why Electric and Hybrid-electric Systems

12.2 Driving Schedules and Power Demand in Vehicles

12.3 Regenerative Braking

12.4 Battery Electric Vehicle

12.5 Hybrid Vehicle Architectures

12.6 Start-stop Hybrid

12.7 Batteries for Full Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

12.8 Fuel-cell Hybrid Systems for Vehicles

General References

Problems

Appendix 12A Primer on Vehicle Dynamics

Chapter 13 Electro-deposition (Richard Alkire)

13.1 Overview

13.2 Faraday’s Law and Deposit Thickness

13.3 Electrodeposition Fundamentals

13.4 Formation of Stable Nuclei

13.5 Nucleation Rates

13.6 Growth of Nuclei

13.7 Deposit Morphology

13.8 Additives

13.9 Impact of Current Distribution

13.10 Impact of Side Reactions

13.11 Resistive Substrates

General References

Problems

Chapter 14 Electrolysis, Redox-flow batteries, and Regenerative Fuel Cells (Fumio Hine)

14.1 Overview of Industrial Electrolysis

14.2 Performance Measures

14.3 Voltage Losses and the Polarization Curve

14.4 Design of Electrochemical Reactors for Industrial Applications

14.5 Example of Industrial Electrolytic Processes

14.6 Thermal Management and Cell Operation

14.7 Electrolytic Processes for a Sustainable Future

14.8 Redox flow batteries

General References

Problems

Chapter 15 Semiconductors Electrodes and Photoelectrochemical Cells (Heinz Gerischer)

15.1 Semiconductor Basics

15.2 Energy Scales

15.3 Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface

15.4 Current Flow in the Dark

15.5 Light Absorption

15.6 Photoelectrochemical Effects

15.7 Open-circuit Voltage for Illuminated Electrodes

15.8 Photoelectrochemical Cells

General References

Problems

Chapter 16 Corrosion (Ulick R. Evans)

16.1 Corrosion Fundamentals

16.2 Thermodynamics of Corrosion Systems

16.3 Corrosion Rate for Uniform Corrosion

16.4 Localized Corrosion

16.5 Corrosion Protection

General References

Problems

Appendices

A Electrochemical Reactions and Standard Potentials

B Fundamental Constants

C Thermodynamic Data

D Mechanics of Materials

Subject Index

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