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Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology

ISBN: 978-1-119-01182-8
528 pages
May 2016
Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology (1119011825) cover image

Description

Focuses on the common recurring physical principles behind sophisticated modern devices

This book discusses the principles of physics through applications of state-of-the-art technologies and advanced instruments. The authors use diagrams, sketches, and graphs coupled with equations and mathematical analysis to enhance the reader’s understanding of modern devices. Readers will learn to identify common underlying physical principles that govern several types of devices, while gaining an understanding of the performance trade-off imposed by the physical limitations of various processing methods. The topics discussed in the book assume readers have taken an introductory physics course, college algebra, and have a basic understanding of calculus.  

  • Describes the basic physics behind a large number of devices encountered in everyday life, from the air conditioner to Blu-ray discs
  • Covers state-of-the-art devices such as spectrographs, photoelectric image sensors, spacecraft systems, astronomical and planetary observatories, biomedical imaging instruments, particle accelerators, and jet engines
  • Includes access to a book companion site that houses Power Point slides
Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology is designed as a reference for professionals that would like to gain a basic understanding of the operation of complex technologies. The book is also suitable as a textbook for upper-level undergraduate non-major students interested in physics.
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

About the Companion Website xv

1 Principles of Physics and the Relevance to Modern Technologies 1

1.1 CM, EM, and QM: The Backbone of Physics 3

1.2 Photonics and Electronics 5

2 Everyday Home Appliances 9

2.1 The Air Conditioner 10

2.2 Microwave Ovens 18

2.3 Smoke Detectors 25

2.4 Compact Discs, Digital Versatile Discs, and Blu-Ray Discs 27

2.5 Photocopiers and Fax Machines 37

3 Devices Encountered in Modern Life 43

3.1 Metal Detectors for Airports and Traffic Lights 43

3.2 Barcode Scanners, Quick Response Codes, and Radio-Frequency Identification Readers 47

3.3 Global Positioning 53

3.4 Transportation Technologies 57

3.4.1 Internal Combustion Engines versus Electric Motors 57

3.4.2 Alternative Fuels 58

3.4.3 Speed Radar Guns 60

3.4.4 High-Speed Rail 67

4 Vacuum Systems: Enabling High-Tech Industries 69

4.1 Vacuum Chamber Technology 70

4.2 Physics of Some Vacuum Gauges 76

4.3 Low Vacuum via Venturi, Mechanical, or Sorption Pumps 78

4.4 HV via Diffusion, Turbomolecular, or Cryogenic Pumps 80

4.5 UHV via Ion Pumps 84

5 Cleanrooms, an Enabling Technology 87

6 Solid-State Electronics 91

6.1 Conducting, Semiconducting, and Insulating Materials 95

6.2 Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors 101

6.3 Diodes and Transistors 110

6.4 FET, JFET, MOSFET, CMOS, and TTL 119

6.5 Summary 124

7 High-Tech Semiconductor Fabrication 127

7.1 Thin Films 127

7.2 Thin-Film Deposition Methods 132

7.3 High-Purity Crystals via MBE 138

7.4 Photolithography and Etch Techniques 141

7.5 In Situ and Intermediate-Stage Tests 145

7.6 Device Structures and IC Packaging 152

8 Materials Science—Invaluable High-Tech Contributions 155

8.1 The Use of Composite Materials 156

8.2 Thin-Film Multilayers 157

8.3 Nanotechnology 158

9 Light Sources 161

9.1 Incandescent Lamps 166

9.2 Gas Discharge Lamps 168

9.3 Fluorescent Lamps 171

9.4 Light Emitting Diodes 174

9.5 X-Ray Sources 175

9.6 Lasers 177

9.7 Synchrotron Light Sources 180

9.8 Summary of Light Sources 180

10 Some Basic Physics of Optical Systems 183

10.1 Refractive and Reflective Optics and Their Uses 184

10.2 Polarization and Birefringence 188

10.2.1 Law of Malus and Brewster’s Angle 188

10.2.2 Dichroism and Birefringence 190

10.2.3 Retarder Plates and Circular Polarization 192

10.3 Diffraction 194

10.3.1 Huygens’ Principle and Diffraction from a Single Slit 194

10.3.2 Fresnel Zone Plate 196

10.3.3 Diffraction Gratings 198

10.4 Holography 200

10.4.1 Basic (Absorption) Holography 200

10.4.2 Temporal and Spatial Coherence 202

10.4.3 Other Methods of Holography and Applications 203

10.5 Primary Aberrations 205

11 Optical Couplers Including Optical Fibers 217

11.1 Optical Fibers and Hollow Waveguides 218

11.2 Couplers for Long Distances 223

11.3 Optical Couplers as a Means of Electronic Isolation 228

12 Spectrographs: Reading the “Bar Code” of Nature 231

12.1 Prisms, Ruled Gratings, and Holographic Gratings 240

12.2 Long-Slit Spectrographs 248

12.3 Integral Field Unit and Fabry–Pérot 249

12.4 Echelle Spectrographs 254

12.5 Raman Spectrographs 255

13 Optical and Electron Microscopy 259

13.1 Optical Microscopes 260

13.1.1 The Magnifier 260

13.1.2 The Compound Microscope 261

13.1.3 Numerical Aperture, Resolution, and Depth of Field 262

13.1.4 Alternative Methods of Optical Microscopy 265

13.2 The Transmission Electron Microscope 266

13.3 Electron–Matter Interactions 271

13.4 Bragg’s Diffraction 273

13.5 Scanning Probe Microscopes 275

14 Photoelectric Image Sensors 277

14.1 Solid-State Visible Wavelength Sensors 280

14.2 Photoemissive Devices for UV and X-Rays 284

14.3 Infrared “Thermal” Sensors and Night Vision Sensors 287

15 Image Display Systems 291

15.1 The Human Visual System 293

15.2 Who Invented Television? 300

15.3 Traditional and High-Definition Tv Display Formats 301

15.4 Cathode Ray Tubes 306

15.5 Liquid Crystal Displays 308

15.6 Plasma Displays 310

15.7 Digital Micro-Mirror Devices 311

15.8 Touch Screens 314

15.9 Electrophoretic Displays 315

15.10 Near-Eye Displays, Augmented Reality, and Virtual Reality 317

15.11 Stereoscopic, Autostereoscopic, and Holographic 3D Displays 319

16 Spacecraft Systems 325

16.1 Operating in Space: An Overview 326

16.2 Attitude Control System 330

16.3 Spacecraft Power 337

16.4 Thermal and Other Environmental Control 339

16.5 Command, Control, and Telemetry 341

16.6 Launch, Propulsion, Station Keeping, and Deorbit 345

17 Astronomical and Planetary Observatories 353

17.1 Telescope Designs 354

17.2 Very Large, Ultra-Lightweight or Segmented Mirrors 358

17.3 Adaptive Optics and Active Optics 362

17.4 Space Observatories 365

17.5 Planetary Probes 372

18 Telecommunications 377

18.1 Physical Connections: Phone Lines, Coaxial Cable, and Fiber Optics 378

18.2 Analog Free-Space Channels: TV, Radio, Microwave Connections 384

18.3 Digitally Modulated Free-Space Channels 390

18.4 The Network, Multiplexing, and Data Compression 392

19 Physics of Instruments for Biology and Medicine 397

19.1 Imaging Instruments 397

19.1.1 CT Scanners 398

19.1.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 398

19.1.3 Ultrasonography and Ultrasonic Lithotripsy 408

19.2 Minimally Invasive Probes and Surgery 410

19.3 Laser Technologies 411

19.4 Miscellaneous Electronic Devices 415

20 A-Bombs, H-Bombs, and Radioactivity 419

20.1 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Ray Radiation 421

20.2 A-Bombs, H-Bombs, and Dirty Bombs 423

20.3 Radiation Safety, Detection, and Protection 428

20.4 Industrial and Medical Applications 431

21 Power Generation 433

21.1 Principles of Electric Generators 434

21.2 Power Storage and Power Content of Fuels 435

21.3 The Power Grid 439

22 Particle Accelerators—Atom and Particle Smashers 443

22.1 Lorentz Force, Deflection, and Focusing 446

22.2 Beam Generation, Manipulation, and Characterization 448

22.3 DC Accelerators 450

22.4 RF Linear Accelerators 450

22.4.1 Motivation and History 450

22.4.2 Linac Components and Operation 452

22.4.3 Beam Bunch Stability and RF Bucket 454

22.4.4 Power Budget and Linac Applications 454

22.5 Cyclotrons 456

22.6 Synchrotron Radiation and Light Sources 462

22.6.1 Dipole Radiation and Larmor’s Formula 462

22.6.2 Wigglers and Undulators 464

22.6.3 First-to-Fourth Generations of Light Sources and Applications of SR 466

22.6.4 Free-Electron Lasers 468

23 Jet Engines, Stratospheric Balloons, and Airships 471

23.1 Ramjets, Turbojets, and Turbofan Jets 474

23.2 Stratospheric Balloons 476

23.3 Future Airships 484

Appendix A Statistics and Error Analysis 489

Bibliography 497

Index 503

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Author Information

Charles L. Joseph, PhD, is a retired research professor from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Rutgers University, who specialized in technology development for NASA flight missions. Prof. Joseph has more than 30 years’ experience working closely with aerospace and electro-optical companies as well as government laboratories, taking technologies from experimental breadboard devices to ruggedized instruments suitable for NASA missions. He was a co-investigator and the detector scientist on STIS, a second-generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope.

Santiago Bernal, PhD, is an associated research scientist at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) at the University of Maryland. Dr. Bernal received his B.S. in physics from the National University of Colombia in 1981. He joined the IREAP in 2000 and has since been the leading experimentalist on the University of Maryland Electron Ring.
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