Textbook

# Energy, Entropy and Engines: An Introduction to Thermodynamics

ISBN: 978-1-119-01315-0
400 pages
For Instructors

## Description

Textbook concisely introduces engineering thermodynamics, covering concepts including energy, entropy, equilibrium and reversibility

• Novel explanation of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics
• Presents abstract ideas in an easy to understand manner
• Includes solved examples and end of chapter problems
• Accompanied by a website hosting a solutions manual
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Preface xii

1 Introduction: A Brief History of Thermodynamics 1

1.1 What is Thermodynamics? 1

1.2 Steam Engines 2

1.3 Heat Engines 7

1.4 Heat, Work and Energy 8

1.5 Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics 11

1.6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 13

1.7 Entropy 15

2 Concepts and Definitions 18

2.1 Fundamental Concepts from Newtonian Mechanics 18

2.1.1 Length 19

2.1.2 Mass 19

2.1.3 Time 19

2.2 Derived Quantities: Velocity and Acceleration 19

2.3 Postulates: Newton’s Laws 21

2.4 Mechanical Work and Energy 23

2.4.1 Potential Energy 25

2.4.2 Kinetic Energy 27

2.5 Thermodynamic Systems 29

2.5.1 Closed System 30

2.5.2 Open System 30

2.5.3 Isolated System 30

2.6 Thermodynamic Properties 31

2.6.1 Path Functions 32

2.6.2 Intensive and Extensive Properties 33

2.8 Equilibrium 35

2.8.1 Mechanical Equilibrium 37

2.8.2 Thermal Equilibrium 37

2.8.3 Phase Equilibrium 37

2.9 State and Process 38

2.10 Quasi ]Equilibrium Process 39

2.11 Cycle 41

2.12 Solving Problems in Thermodynamics 43

2.13 Significant Digits and Decimal Places 43

Summary 44

Problems 46

3 Thermodynamic System Properties 49

3.1 Describing a Thermodynamic System 49

3.2 States of Pure Substances 50

3.3 Mass and Volume 51

3.4 Pressure 54

3.5 Temperature 56

3.6 Ideal Gas Equation 57

3.7 Absolute Temperature Scale 58

3.8 Modelling Ideal Gases 62

3.9 Internal Energy 64

3.10 Properties of Liquids and Solids 66

Summary 67

Problems 68

4 Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics 72

4.1 Energy 72

4.2 Forms of Energy 73

4.3 Energy Transfer 75

4.4 Heat 77

4.5 Work 78

4.5.1 Boundary Work 78

4.5.2 Flow Work 86

4.5.3 Shaft Work 87

4.5.4 Spring Work 89

4.5.5 Electrical Work 90

4.6 The First Law for a Control Mass 91

4.7 Enthalpy 95

4.8 Specific Heats 97

4.9 Specific Heats of Ideal Gases 99

4.10 Which should you use, cp or cv? 102

4.11 Ideal Gas Tables 106

4.12 Specific Heats of Liquids and Solids 108

4.13 Steady Mass Flow Through a Control Volume 110

4.14 The First Law for Steady Mass Flow Through a Control Volume 112

4.15.1 Turbines and Compressors 113

4.15.2 Pumps 115

4.15.3 Nozzles and Diffusers 116

4.16 Transient Analysis for Control Volumes 118

Summary 120

Problems 123

5 Entropy 133

5.1 Converting Heat to Work 133

5.2 A New Extensive Property: Entropy 135

5.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics 138

5.4 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 139

5.5 State Postulate 143

5.6 Equilibrium in a Gas 144

5.7 Equilibrium – A Simple Example 149

5.8 Molecular Definition of Entropy 155

5.9 Third Law of Thermodynamics 157

5.10 Production of Entropy 157

5.11 Heat and Work: A Microscopic View 159

5.12 Order and Uncertainty 161

Summary 162

Problems 163

6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 168

6.1 The Postulates of Classical Thermodynamics 168

6.2 Thermal Equilibrium and Temperature 169

6.3 Mechanical Equilibrium and Pressure 171

6.4 Gibbs Equation 173

6.5 Entropy Changes in Solids and Liquids 174

6.6 Entropy Changes in Ideal Gases 175

6.6.1 Constant Specific Heats 175

6.6.2 Ideal Gas Tables 177

6.7 Isentropic Processes in Ideal Gases 180

6.7.1 Constant Specific Heats 180

6.7.2 Ideal Gas Tables 183

6.8 Reversible Heat Transfer 185

6.9 T ]S Diagrams 187

6.10 Entropy Balance for a Control Mass 187

6.11 Entropy Balance for a Control Volume 190

6.12 Isentropic Steady Flow Devices 192

6.13 Isentropic Efficiencies 194

6.13.1 Isentropic Turbine Efficiency 194

6.13.2 Isentropic Nozzle Efficiency 195

6.13.3 Isentropic Pump and Compressor Efficiency 196

6.14 Exergy 198

6.14.1 Exergy of a Control Mass 199

6.14.2 Exergy of a Control Volume 201

6.15 Bernoulli’s Equation 204

Summary 206

Problems 210

7 Phase Equilibrium 218

7.1 Liquid Vapour Mixtures 218

7.2 Phase Change 219

7.3 Gibbs Energy and Chemical Potential 221

7.4 Phase Equilibrium 223

7.5 Evaluating the Chemical Potential 225

7.6 Clausius–Clapyeron Equation 225

7.7 Liquid–Solid and Vapour–Solid Equilibria 229

7.8 Phase Change on P ]v and T ]v Diagrams 231

7.9 Quality 234

7.10 Property Tables 235

7.11 Van der Waals Equation of State 247

7.12 Compressibility Factor 251

7.13 Other Equations of State 252

7.13.1 Redlich–Kwong Equation of State 252

7.13.2 Virial Equation of State 253

Summary 255

Problems 257

8 Ideal Heat Engines and Refrigerators 267

8.1 Heat Engines 267

8.2 Perpetual Motion Machines 268

8.3 Carnot Engine 269

8.3.1 Two ]Phase Carnot Engine 273

8.3.2 Single Phase Carnot Engine 276

8.4 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 278

8.4.1 Carnot Refrigerator 279

8.4.2 Carnot Heat Pump 283

8.5 Carnot Principles 285

Summary 288

Problems 289

9 Vapour Power and Refrigeration Cycles 294

9.1 Rankine Cycle 294

9.2 Rankine Cycle with Superheat and Reheat 299

9.3 Rankine Cycle with Regeneration 305

9.3.1 Open Feedwater Heater 305

9.3.2 Closed Feedwater Heater 310

9.4 Vapour Refrigeration Cycle 312

Summary 316

Problems 318

10 Gas Power Cycles 324

10.1 Internal Combustion Engines 324

10.2 Otto Cycle 325

10.3 Diesel Cycle 331

10.4 Gas Turbines 334

10.5 Brayton Cycle 336

10.6 Brayton Cycle with Regeneration, Reheat and Intercooling 340

10.6.1 Regeneration 340

10.6.2 Reheat 342

10.6.3 Intercooling 344

Summary 345

Problems 346

Appendices 351

Appendix 1: Properties of Gases 351

Appendix 2: Properties of Solids 352

Appendix 3: Properties of Liquids 353

Appendix 4: Specific Heats of Gases 354

Appendix 5: Polynomial Relations for Ideal Gas Specific Heat as a Function of Temperature 355

Appendix 6: Critical Properties of Fluids 356

Appendix 7: Ideal Gas Tables for Air 357

Appendix 8: Properties of Water 360

Appendix 9: Properties of R ]134a 373

Appendix 10: Generalised Compressibility 379

Index 381

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