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Chemical Process Retrofitting and Revamping: Techniques and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-119-01633-5
432 pages
March 2016
Chemical Process Retrofitting and Revamping: Techniques and Applications (1119016339) cover image

Description

The proposed book will be divided into three parts. The chapters in Part I provide an overview of certain aspect of process retrofitting. The focus of Part II is on computational techniques for solving process retrofit problems. Finally, Part III addresses  retrofit applications from diverse process industries.

Some chapters in the book are contributed by practitioners whereas others are from academia. Hence, the book includes both new developments from research and also practical considerations. Many chapters include examples with realistic data. All these feature make the book useful to industrial engineers, researchers and students.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

PART I OVERVIEW

1 Introduction 3
G.P. Rangaiah

1.1 Chemical Process Plants 3

1.2 Process Retrofitting and Revamping 4

1.3 Stages in Process Retrofitting/Revamping Projects 6

1.4 Conceptual Process Design for Process Retrofit/Revamp Projects 8

1.5 Research and Development in Process Retrofit/Revamp 9

1.6 Scope and Organization of this Book 12

1.7 Conclusions 16

References 17

2 Project Engineering and Management for Process Retrofitting and Revamping 19
C.C.S. Reddy

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Key Differences between Revamp and Grassroots Designs 20

2.3 Revamp Design Methodology 20

2.4 Project/Process Engineering and Management of Revamp Projects 24

2.4.1 Revamp Objectives and Pre-Feasibility Study 24

2.4.2 Conceptual Design (Pre-FEED) 24

2.4.3 FEED (Front End Engineering Design) 31

2.4.4 Detailed Engineering, Procurement and Construction 33

2.4.5 Project Completion 35

2.5 Key Elements of Project Management 35

2.5.1 Project Schedule 39

2.5.2 Project Execution and Progress Monitoring 39

2.5.3 Project Cost Control 40

2.5.4 Risk Management 41

2.5.5 Final Project Deliverables 41

2.6 Revamp Options for Process Equipment 41

2.7 Conclusions 53

Acronyms 53

References 54

3 Process Safety in Revamp Projects 57
Raman Balajee and C.C.S. Reddy

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Lessons from Past Process Safety Incidents 59

3.3 Preliminary Hazard Review during Conceptual Design 60

3.3.1 Risk Matrix for Qualitative Judgments 61

3.3.2 What-If and Process Safety Check Lists 62

3.3.3 Plot Plan and Layout Review 63

3.3.4 Area Classification Reviews 65

3.3.5 Pressure Relief System Considerations 66

3.3.6 Fire Safety for Revamp Projects 72

3.4 Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 74

3.4.1 Process Plant Hazard Review using HAZOP 74

3.4.2 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Tool 79

3.4.3 Instrumented Protective System Design 81

3.4.4 Fault Tree Analysis 82

3.4.5 Event Tree Analysis 84

3.4.6 Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) 85

3.4.7 Safety Instrumented System (SIS) Life Cycle 88

3.5 Revision of PSI and Operator Induction 88

3.6 Pre-Start-up Safety Review (PSSR) 90

3.7 Management of Change (MOC) 91

3.8 Conclusions 92

Acronyms 93

Exercises 94

References 95

PART II TECHNIQUES FOR RETROFITTING AND REVAMPING

4 Mathematical Modeling, Simulation and Optimization for Process Design 99
Shivom Sharma and G.P. Rangaiah

4.1 Introduction 99

4.2 Process Modeling and Model Solution 101

4.2.1 Process Modeling 101

4.2.2 Model Solution 103

4.2.3 Model for Membrane Separation of a Gas Mixture 104

4.3 Process Simulators and Aspen Custom Modeler 107

4.4 Optimization Methods and Programs 108

4.5 Interfacing a Process Simulator with Excel 112

4.6 Application to Membrane Separation Process 113

4.7 Conclusions 116

Acronyms 116

Appendix 4A: Implementation of Membrane Model in ACM 117

Appendix 4B: Interfacing of Aspen Plus v8.4 with Excel 2013 119

Appendix 4C: Interfacing of Aspen HYSYS v8.4 with Excel 2013 122

Exercises 125

References 125

5 Process Intensification in Process Retrofitting and Revamping 129
D.P. Rao

5.1 Introduction 129

5.1.1 Retrofitting and Revamping 129

5.1.2 Evolution of Chemical Industries and Process Intensification 130

5.1.3 Flow Chemistry 130

5.2 Methods of Process Intensification 130

5.2.1 Intensification of Rates 131

5.2.2 Process Integration 132

5.3 Alternatives to Conventional Separators 132

5.3.1 Rotating Packed Beds (HIGEE) 133

5.3.2 HIGEE with Split Packing 134

5.3.3 Zigzag HIGEE 135

5.3.4 Multi-rotor Zigzag HIGEE 136

5.3.5 Applications of HIGEE for Retrofitting 137

5.3.6 Podbielniak Centrifugal Extractor 138

5.3.7 Annular Centrifugal Extractor 139

5.3.8 Adsorbers 140

5.4 Alternatives to Stirred Tank Reactor (STR) 142

5.4.1 HEX Reactor 142

5.4.2 Advanced-flowTM Reactor (AFR) 143

5.4.3 Agitated Cell Reactor (ACR) 145

5.4.4 Oscillatory-flow Baffled Reactors (OBR) 146

5.4.5 Spinning Disc Reactor (SDR) 147

5.4.6 Spinning Tube-in-tube Reactor (STTR) 148

5.4.7 Stator-rotor Spinning Disc Reactor (Stator-rotor SDR) 150

5.4.8 Reactor Selection 150

5.4.9 Microchannel Devices 151

5.5 Process Integration 151

5.5.1 Heat and Mass Integration 152

5.5.2 Reactive Separations 152

5.5.3 Hybrid Separation 153

5.5.4 Conversion of Crosscurrent into Countercurrent Process 153

5.5.5 Process-specific Integration 154

5.5.6 In-line Processing 157

5.5.7 Twister® - A Supersonic Separator 158

5.6 Fundamental Issues of PI 159

5.7 Future of PI 159

5.8 Conclusions 160

Acknowledgement 160

Appendix 5A: Monographs, Reviews and Some Recent Papers 160

References 163

6 Using Process Integration Technology to Retrofit Chemical Plants for Energy Conservation and Wastewater Minimization 167
Russell F. Dunn and Jarrid Scott Ristau

6.1 Introduction 167

6.1.1 Heat Integration Networks 168

6.1.2 Water Recycle Networks 169

6.2 Graphical Design Tools for Retrofitting Process for Energy Conservation by Designing Heat Exchange Networks 170

6.2.1 The Temperature–Interval Diagram (TID) 171

6.2.2 The Heat Pinch Composite Curves (Temperature–Enthalpy Diagrams) 172

6.2.3 The Enthalpy-Mapping Diagram (EMD) 174

6.2.4 Identifying Heat Integration Matches Using the TID and EMD 174

6.2.5 Graphical Tools Facilitate HEN Design for Large-scale Industrial Problems 177

6.3 Graphical Design Tools for Retrofitting Processes for Wastewater Reduction by Designing Water Recycle Networks 179

6.3.1 The Material Recycle Pinch Diagram 179

6.3.2 The Source–Sink Mapping Diagram 181

6.3.3 Suggested Guidelines for Identifying Water Recycle Matches Using the Material Recycle Pinch Diagram and Source–Sink Mapping Diagrams 181

6.4 Conclusions 182

Appendix 6A: Illustrating the Water Recycle Network Design Guidelines 183

Exercises 188

References 190

7 Heat Exchanger Network Retrofitting: Alternative Solutions via Multi-objective Optimization for Industrial Implementation 193
B.K. Sreepathi and G.P. Rangaiah

7.1 Introduction 193

7.2 Heat Exchanger Networks 196

7.2.1 Structural Representation 198

7.3 HEN Improvements 199

7.4 MOO Method, HEN Model and Exchanger Reassignment Strategy 203

7.4.1 Multi-objective Optimization 203

7.4.2 HEN Model 205

7.4.3 Exchanger Reassignment Strategy (ERS) 206

7.5 Case Study 208

7.6 Results and Discussion 208

7.6.1 Simple Retrofitting 209

7.6.2 Moderate Retrofitting 211

7.6.3 Complex Retrofitting 214

7.6.4 Comparison and Discussion 216

7.7 Conclusions 218

Appendix 7A: Calculation of Nodal Temperatures 218

Exercises 221

References 221

8 Review of Optimization Techniques for Retrofitting Batch Plants 223
Catherine Azzaro-Pantel

8.1 Introduction 223

8.2 Batch Plant Typical Features 224

8.3 Formulation of the Batch Plant Retrofit Problem 228

8.3.1 Design versus Retrofitting Problem 228

8.3.2 Design/Retrofit Problems: A Four-Level Framework 229

8.4 Methods and Tools for Retrofit Strategies 230

8.4.1 General Comments 230

8.4.2 Key Approaches in Batch Plant Retrofitting: Deterministic vs Stochastic Methods 238

8.4.3 New Trends in Batch Plant Retrofitting: Steps for More Sustainable Processes 242

8.5 Conclusions 243

References 244

PART III RETROFITTING AND REVAMPING APPLICATIONS

9 Retrofit of Side Stream Columns to Dividing Wall Columns, with Case Studies of Industrial Applications 251
Moonyong Lee, Le Quang Minh, Nguyen Van Duc Long, and Joonho Shin

9.1 Introduction 251

9.2 Side Stream Column 254

9.2.1 Side Stream Configuration 254

9.2.2 Heuristic Rules for the Use of SSCs 256

9.2.3 Pros and Cons of SSC 257

9.2.4 Design of SSC 257

9.3 Dividing Wall Column 258

9.3.1 Introduction 258

9.3.2 Design and Optimization of DWC 259

9.4 Retrofit of an SSC to a DWC 260

9.4.1 Introduction 260

9.4.2 Design and Optimization of Retrofitted DWC 260

9.4.3 Column Modification and Hardware 263

9.5 Case Studies of Industrial Applications 266

9.5.1 Acetic Acid Purification Column 266

9.5.2 n-BuOH Refining Column 271

9.6 Other Case Studies 275

9.6.1 Ethylene Dichloride (EDC) Purification Column 275

9.6.2 Diphenyl Carbonate (DPC) Purification Column 276

9.6.3 Other SSCs 277

9.7 Conclusions 277

Acknowledgements 278

Nomenclature 278

References 279

10 Techno-economic Evaluation of Membrane Separation for Retrofitting Olefin/Paraffin Fractionators in an Ethylene Plant 285
X.Z. Tan, S. Pandey, G.P. Rangaiah, and W. Niu

10.1 Introduction 285

10.2 Olefin/Paraffin Separation in an Ethylene Plant 287

10.3 Membrane Model Development 289

10.3.1 Membrane Modeling 289

10.3.2 Assumptions for Membrane Separation Simulation 291

10.4 Retrofitting a Distillation Column with a Membrane Unit 292

10.4.1 HMD Modeling and Simulation 292

10.4.2 Techno-economic Feasibility of Retrofit Operation 296

10.5 Formulation of Multi-objective–Optimization Problem 300

10.6 Results and Discussion 304

10.6.1 Case 1: HMD System for EF (Assuming Credit for Reboiler Duty) 304

10.6.2 Case 2: HMD System for EF (Assuming Reboiler Duty as Cost) 306

10.6.3 Case 3: HMD System for PF 308

10.7 Conclusions 310

Appendix 10A: Membrane Model Validation 310

Appendix 10B: Costing of HMD System 312

Exercises 315

References 315

11 Retrofit of Vacuum Systems in Process Industries 317
C.C.S. Reddy and G.P. Rangaiah

11.1 Introduction 317

11.2 Vacuum-generation Methods 318

11.3 Design Principles and Utility Requirements 320

11.3.1 Suction Load of Vacuum System 320

11.3.2 Steam Jet Ejectors 323

11.3.3 Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps 325

11.3.4 Dry Vacuum Pumps 326

11.4 Chilled-water Generation 326

11.5 Optimization of Vacuum System Operating Cost 328

11.6 Case Study 1: Retrofit of a Vacuum System in a Petroleum Refinery 332

11.6.1 Analysis of the Results 335

11.7 Case Study 2: Retrofit of a Surface Condenser of a Condensing Steam Turbine 341

11.8 Conclusions 342

Nomenclature 343

Exercises 344

References 345

12 Design, Retrofit and Revamp of Industrial Water Networks using Multi-objective Optimization Approach 347
Shivom Sharma and G.P. Rangaiah

12.1 Introduction 347

12.2 Mathematical Model of a Water Network 350

12.3 Water Network in a Petroleum Refinery 352

12.4 Multi-objective Optimization Problem Formulation 352

12.5 Results and Discussion 355

12.5.1 Water Network Design 355

12.5.2 Retrofitting Selected Water Networks for Change in Environmental Regulations 358

12.5.3 Retrofitting Selected Water Networks for Increase in Hydrocarbon Load 363

12.5.4 Revamping Selected Water Networks for Change in Environmental Regulations 365

12.5.5 Revamping Selected Water Networks for Increase in Hydrocarbon Load 367

12.5.6 Comparison of Retrofitting and Revamping Solutions 369

12.6 Conclusions 369

Acknowledgement 370

Nomenclature 370

Exercises 371

References 372

13 Debottlenecking and Retrofitting of Chemical Pulp Refining Process for Paper Manufacturing – Application from Industrial Perspective 375
Ajit K. Ghosh

13.1 Introduction 375

13.2 Fundamentals of Chemical Pulp Refining 376

13.2.1 Refining Effects on Various Chemical Pulp Types 377

13.2.2 Effects of Refining on Pulp and Paper Properties 378

13.3 Theories of Chemical Pulp Refining 380

13.3.1 Specific Edge Load Theory 381

13.3.2 Specific Surface Load Theory 382

13.3.3 Frequency and Intensity or Severity of Impact 382

13.3.4 The ‘C’ Factor 383

13.4 Types of Commercial Refiners 384

13.5 Laboratory and Pilot-scale Refining Investigation 384

13.6 Case Studies of Retrofitting Refining Process for Paper Mills 386

13.6.1 Case A: Retrofitting of Existing Refiners to Debottleneck Output of a Modern Paper Machine 386

13.6.2 Case B: Retrofitting of Existing Refiners of a Paper Machine to Switch from ‘Flat’ to ‘Semi-extendable’ Sack Kraft Papers 402

13.7 Conclusions 406

Exercises 407

References 408

Index 410

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