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Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-02689-1
512 pages
October 2017
Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, 4th Edition (111902689X) cover image

Description

The definitive guide to organic coatings, thoroughly revised and updated—now with coverage of a range of topics not covered in previous editions

Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, Fourth Edition offers unparalleled coverageof organic coatings technology and its many applications. Written by three leading industry experts (including a new, internationally-recognized coatings scientist) it presents a systematic survey of the field, revises and updates the material from the previous edition, and features new or additional treatment of such topics as superhydrophobic, ice-phobic, antimicrobial, and self-healing coatings; sustainability, artist paints, and exterior architectural primers. making it even more relevant and useful for scientists and engineers in the field, as well as for students in coatings courses.

The book incorporates up-to-date coverage of recent developments in the field with detailed discussions of the principles underlying the technology and their applications in the development, production, and uses of organic coatings. All chapters in this new edition have been updated to assure consistency and to enable extensive cross-referencing. The material presented is also applicable to the related areas of printing inks and adhesives, as well as areas within the plastics industry.

This new edition

  • Completely revises outdated chapters to ensure consistency and to enable extensive cross-referencing
  • Correlates the empirical technology of coatings with the underlying science throughout
  • Provides expert troubleshooting guidance for coatings scientists and technologists
  • Features hundreds of illustrative figures and extensive references to the literature
  • A new, internationally-recognized coatings scientist brings fresh perspective to the content.

Providing a broad overview for beginners in the field of organic coatings and a handy reference for seasoned professionals, Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, gives you the information and answers you need, when you need them.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

1. Introduction to Coatings 1

1.1 Definitions and Scope 1

1.2 Types of Coatings 3

1.3 Composition of Coatings 3

1.4 Coating History 4

1.5 Commercial Considerations 5

References 5

2. Polymerization and Film Formation 6

2.1 Polymers 6

2.2 Polymerization 13

2.3 Film Formation 19

References 27

3. Flow 29

3.1 Shear Flow 29

3.2 Types of Shear Flow 30

3.3 Determination of Shear Viscosity 32

3.4 Shear Viscosity of Resin Solutions 36

3.5 Viscosity of Liquids With Dispersed Phases 40

3.6 Other Modes of Flow 42

References 44

4. Mechanical Properties 46

4.1 Introduction 46

4.2 Basic Mechanical Properties 46

4.3 Fracture Mechanics 57

4.4 Abrasion, Scratch, and Mar Resistance 58

4.5 Measurement of Mechanical Properties 61

4.6 Tests of Coatings on Substrates 62

References 66

5. Exterior Durability 67

5.1 Photoinitiated Oxidative Degradation 67

5.2 Photostabilization 70

5.3 Degradation of Chlorinated Resins 75

5.4 Hydrolytic Degradation 75

5.5 Other Modes of Failure on Exterior Exposure 77

5.6 Testing for Exterior Durability 78

5.7 Service Life Prediction 84

References 84

6. Adhesion 86

6.1 Mechanisms of Adhesion 86

6.2 Mechanical Stresses and Adhesion 89

6.3 Adhesion to Metal Surfaces 90

6.4 Characterization of Surfaces 92

6.5 Organic Chemical Treatment of Substrates to Enhance Adhesion 93

6.6 Covalent Bonding to Glass and Metal Substrates 94

6.7 Adhesion to Plastics and to Coatings 95

6.8 Testing for Adhesion 96

References 98

7. Corrosion Protection by Coatings 99

7.1 Corrosion Basics 99

7.2 Corrosion of Uncoated Steel 100

7.3 Corrosion Protection of Metals 101

7.4 Corrosion Protection by Intact Coatings 103

7.5 Corrosion Protection by Nonintact Films 107

7.6 Evaluation and Testing 111

References 113

8. Acrylic Resins 115

8.1 Thermoplastic Acrylic Resins 115

8.2 Thermosetting Acrylic Resins 116

8.3 Water ]Reducible Thermosetting Acrylic Resins 121

References 124

9. Latexes 125

9.1 Emulsion Polymerization 125

9.2 Acrylic Latexes 133

9.3 Vinyl Ester Latexes 135

9.4 Thermosetting Latexes 137

References 139

10. Polyester Resins 141

10.1 Hydroxy ]Terminated Polyester Resins for Conventional Solids Coatings 142

10.2 Polyester Resins for High Solids Coatings 146

10.3 Carboxylic Acid ]Terminated Polyester Resins 147

10.4 Carbamate ]Functional Polyester Resins 148

10.5 Water ]Reducible Polyester Resins 148

10.6 Polyester Resins for Powder Coatings 149

References 150

11. Amino Resins 151

11.1 Synthesis of Melamine–Formaldehyde Resins 151

11.2 Types of MF Resins 154

11.3 MF–Polyol Reactions in Coatings 155

11.4 Other Amino Resins 161

References 162

12. Polyurethanes and Polyisocyanates 163

12.1 Reactions of Isocyanates 164

12.2 Kinetics of Reactions of Isocyanates with Alcohols 165

12.3 Isocyanates Used in Coatings 170

12.4 Two ]Package (2K) Solventborne Urethane Coatings 173

12.5 Blocked Isocyanates 176

12.6 Moisture ]Curable Urethane Coatings 181

12.7 Waterborne Polyurethane Coatings 182

12.8 Hydroxy ]Terminated Polyurethanes 185

References 186

13. Epoxy and Phenolic Resins 188

13.1 Epoxy Resins 188

13.2 Amine Cross ]Linked Epoxy Resins 193

13.3 Other Cross ]Linking Agents for Epoxy Resins 199

13.4 Water ]Reducible Epoxy/Acrylic Graft Copolymers: Epoxy/Acrylic Hybrids 201

13.5 Epoxy Resin Phosphate Esters 202

13.6 Phenolic Resins 202

References 204

14. Drying Oils 205

14.1 Compositions of Natural Oils 205

14.2 Autoxidation and Cross ]Linking 206

14.3 Synthetic and Modified Drying Oils 209

References 211

15. Alkyd Resins 213

15.1 Oxidizing Alkyds 214

15.2 High Solids Oxidizing Alkyds 217

15.3 Waterborne Oxidizing Alkyds 218

15.4 Nonoxidizing Alkyds 220

15.5 Synthetic Procedures for Alkyd Resins 220

15.6 Modified Alkyds 223

15.7 Uralkyds and Other Autoxidizable Urethanes 224

15.8 Epoxy Esters 225

References 226

16. Silicon Derivatives 228

16.1 Silicones 228

16.2 Reactive Silanes 232

16.3 Orthosilicates 233

References 234

17. Other Resins and Cross ]Linkers 235

17.1 Halogenated Polymers 235

17.2 Cellulose Derivatives 237

17.3 Unsaturated Polyester Resins 238

17.4 (Meth)Acrylated Oligomers 240

17.5 2 ]Hydroxyalkylamide Cross ]Linkers 240

17.6 Acetoacetate Cross ]Linking Systems 241

17.7 Polyaziridine Cross ]Linkers 242

17.8 Polycarbodiimide Cross ]Linkers 242

17.9 Polycarbonates 243

17.10 Non ]Isocyanate Two ]Package Binders 243

17.11 Dihydrazides 244

References 244

18. Solvents 246

18.1 Solvent Composition 246

18.2 Solubility 247

18.3 Solvent Evaporation Rates 251

18.4 Viscosity Effects 257

18.5 Flammability 258

18.6 Other Physical Properties 259

18.7 Toxic Hazards 259

18.8 Atmospheric Photochemical Effects 260

18.9 Regulation of Solvent Emissions from Coatings 262

References 265

19. Color and Appearance 267

19.1 Light 267

19.2 Light–Object Interactions 268

19.3 Hiding 274

19.4 Metallic and Interference Colors 275

19.5 The Observer 276

19.6 Interactions of Light Source, Object, and Observer 277

19.7 Color Systems 277

19.8 Color Mixing 281

19.9 Color Matching 281

19.10 Gloss 286

References 292

20. Pigments 293

20.1 White Pigments 293

20.2 Color Pigments 296

20.3 Inert Pigments 302

20.4 Functional Pigments 303

20.5 Nano ]Pigments 304

References 305

21. Pigment Dispersion 307

21.1 Dispersion in Organic Media 307

21.2 Formulation of Nonaqueous Mill Bases 311

21.3 Dispersion in Aqueous Media 313

21.4 Dispersion Equipment and Processes 315

21.5 Evaluation of Dispersions 320

References 322

22. Effect of Pigments on Coating Properties 323

22.1 PVC and CPVC 323

22.2 Relationships Between Film Properties and PVC 326

References 330

23. Application Methods 331

23.1 Brushes, Pads, and Hand Rollers 331

23.2 Spray Application 332

23.3 Dip and Flow Coating 338

23.4 Roll Coating 339

23.5 Curtain Coating 340

References 341

24. Film Defects 342

24.1 Surface Tension 342

24.2 Leveling 344

24.3 Sagging and Drip Marks 346

24.4 Crawling, Cratering, and Related Defects 348

24.5 Floating and Flooding: Hammer Finishes 351

24.6 Wrinkling: Wrinkle Finishes 352

24.7 Bubbling and Popping 353

24.8 Foaming 354

24.9 Dirt 355

References 355

25. Solventborne and High Solids Coatings 357

25.1 Primers 358

25.2 Top Coats 360

References 365

26. Waterborne Coatings 366

26.1 Water ]Reducible Coatings 367

26.2 Latex ]based Coatings 369

26.3 Emulsion Coatings 371

References 372

27. Electrodeposition Coatings 374

27.1 Anionic Electrodeposition Coatings 375

27.2 Cationic Electrodeposition Coatings 376

27.3 Effect of Variables on Electrodeposition 378

27.4 Application of Electrodeposition Coatings 380

27.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrodeposition 381

27.6 Autodeposition Coatings 383

References 383

28. Powder Coatings 385

28.1 Binders for Thermosetting Powder Coatings 385

28.2 Binders for Thermoplastic Powder Coatings 390

28.3 Formulation of Thermosetting Powder Coatings 391

28.4 Manufacture of Powder Coatings 394

28.5 Application Methods 396

28.6 Advantages and Limitations 400

References 401

29. Radiation Cure Coatings 403

29.1 UV Curing 404

29.2 Free Radical ]Initiated UV Cure 406

29.3 Cationic UV Cure 412

29.4 Hybrid Free Radical/Cationic Polymerization 413

29.5 Effects of Pigmentation 414

29.6 Electron Beam Cure Coatings 415

29.7 Dual UV/Thermal Cure 415

29.8 Selected Applications 416

29.9 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Selected Advances 416

References 418

30. Product Coatings for Metal Substrates 419

30.1 OEM Automotive Coatings 419

30.2 Appliance Coatings 427

30.3 Container Coatings 427

30.4 Coil Coating 431

30.5 Coatings for Aircraft 435

References 436

31. Product Coatings for Nonmetallic Substrates 438

31.1 Coatings for Wood 438

31.2 Coating of Plastics 444

References 448

32. Architectural Coatings 449

32.1 Exterior House Paints and Primers 450

32.2 Flat and Semigloss Interior Paints 455

32.3 Gloss Enamels 459

References 463

33. Special Purpose Coatings 464

33.1 Maintenance Paints 464

33.2 Marine Coatings 471

33.3 Automobile Refinish Paints 474

33.4 Traffic Striping Paints 477

References 478

34. Functional Coatings 480

34.1 Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Coatings 480

34.2 Ice ]Phobic Coatings 483

34.3 Self ]Healing Coatings 484

34.4 Environmentally Sensing Coatings 485

34.5 Antimicrobial Coatings 486

References 486

Index 488

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Author Information

Frank N. Jones is a consultant and an Emeritus Professor at Eastern Michigan University, where he was Director, of the National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center in Coatings. Previously he was Professor and Chair of the Department of Polymers and Coatings at North Dakota State University.

Mark E. Nichols is currently Technical Leader, Paint and Corrosion Research at the Ford Motor Company and the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Coatings Technology and Research. He is the recipient of the Industry Excellence Award from the ACA as well as a Roon Award. 

Socrates Peter Pappas is formerly an industry Consultant, Corporate Scientist at Kodak Polychrome Graphics and Scientific Fellow at Loctite Corporation.  He was also an Assistant Professor at Emory University and a Professor at North Dakota State University in the Departments of Chemistry as well as Polymers and Coatings.

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