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Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing

ISBN: 978-1-119-02789-8
600 pages
April 2015, American Geophysical Union
Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing (1119027896) cover image

Description

Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing addresses experiences acquired mainly in Canada by researchers in the fields of ice physics and growth history in relation to its polycrystalline structure as well as ice parameters retrieval from remote sensing observations. The volume describes processes operating at the macro- and microscale (e.g., brine entrapment in sea ice, crystallographic texture of ice types, brine drainage mechanisms, etc.). The information is supported by high-quality photographs of ice thin-sections prepared from cores of different ice types, all obtained by leading experts during field experiments in the 1970s through the 1990s, using photographic cameras and scanning microscopy. In addition, this volume presents techniques to retrieve a suite of sea ice parameters (e.g. ice type, concentration, extent, thickness, surface temperature, surface deformation, etc.) from space-borne and airborne sensor data. The breadth of the material on this subject is designed to appeal to researchers and users of remote sensing data who want to develop quick familiarity with the capabilities of this technology or detailed knowledge about major techniques for retrieval of key ice parameters.

Volume highlights include:

• Detailed crystallographic classification of natural sea ice, the key information from which information about ice growth conditions can be inferred. Many examples are presented with material to support qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the data.

• Methods developed for revealing microstructural characteristics of sea ice and performing forensic investigations.

• Data sets on radiative properties and satellite observations of sea ice, its snow cover, and surrounding open water.

• Methods of retrieval of ice surface features and geophysical parameters from remote sensing observations with a focus on critical issues such as the suitability of different sensors for different tasks and data synergism.

Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing is intended for a variety of sea ice audiences interested in different aspects of ice related to physics, geophysics, remote sensing, operational monitoring, mechanics, and cryospheric sciences.

 

 

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

AKNOWLEDGMENT

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

1.2 Historical synopsis: Canada and the Arctic

1.3 The fascinating nature of sea ice

1.4 Sea ice in research and operational disciplines

1.4.1 Sea ice in marine navigation

1.4.2 Sea ice in physics

1.4.3 Sea ice in climatology

1.4.4 Sea ice in meteorology

1.4.5 Sea ice in oceanography

1.4.6 Sea ice in marine biology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1.4.7 1.4.7 Sea ice and offshore structures

1.4.8 Sea ice for Search & Rescue and transportation

1.5 Sea ice and remote sensing

1.6 About the book and its organization

CHAPTER 2: ICE PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES

2.1 Initial Ice Formation

2.1.1 Relevant sea water properties

2.1.2 Sea water freezing mechanism

2.1.3 Initial ice crystals and frazil ice

2.2 Ice Growth

2.2.1 Lateral ice growth

2.2.2 Vertical ice growth

2.2.3 Superimposed ice

2.2.4 Thermodynamic Ice growth

                        2.2.4.1 Modelling ice growth

                        2.2.4.2 Effect of Snow cover

                        2.2.4.3 Effect of oceanic heat flux

                        2.2.4.4 Effect of ice surface ablation

2.3 Inclusions in Ice

2.3.1 Compositional (constitutional) supercooling and brine pocket formation

2.3.2 Dentritic interface of sea ice

2.3.3 Salinity loss during ice growth

                        2.3.3.1 Initial rapid salt rejection at the ice-water interface

                        2.3.3.2 Subsequent slow salt rejection from the bulk ice

2.4 Ice Deformation

2.5 Ice Decay and Aging

2.6 Ice classes and regimes

2.6.1 Criteria of ice classification

2.6.2 Polynyas

2.6.3 Pancake ice regime

2.6.4 Ice edge and marginal ice zone

2.6.5 Ice of land origin

CHAPTER 3: SEA ICE PROPERTIES: DATA AND DERIVATIONS

3.1 Temperature profiles in ice and snow

3.2 Bulk salinity and salinity profile

3.3 Density of first-year and multi-year ice

3.4 Volume fraction of sea ice constituents

3.5 Thermal properties

            3.5.1 Thermal conductivity of sea ice

            3.5.2 Thermal conductivity of snow

            3.5.3 Specific heat of sea ice

            3.5.4 Latent heat of fusion

3.6 Dielectric properties

            3.6.1 Dielectric constant of brine

            3.6.2 Dielectric mixing models

            3.6.3 Field measurements of dielectric constant

CHAPTER 4: POLYCRYSTALLINE ICE STRUCTURE

4.1 Terms and definitions relevant to polycrystalline ice                                             

            4.1.1   Special thermal state of natural ice                                                         

            4.1.2   General terms for structural aspects of ice                                             

            4.1.3   Basic terms and definitions

4.2 Morphology of ice

4.2.1 Form of ice crystals

4.2.2 Miller Indices for hexagonal ice

4.2.3 Growth direction of ice crystals

4.2.4 Ice density in relation to crystalline structure

4.3 Structure- and Texture-based Classification of Natural Ice

4.3.1    Fresh-water ice classification of Michel and Ramseier

4.3.2    Extending crystallographic classification of fresh-water ice to sea ice

4.3.3   Crystallographic classes of natural ice

                        4.3.3.1 Granular or snow ice (T1 ice)

                        4.3.3.2 Randomly oriented (S4) and vertically oriented (S5) frazil ice

                        4.3.3.3 Columnar-grained with c-axis vertical (S1 ice)

                        4.3.3.4 Columnar-grained with c-axis horizontal and random (S2 ice)

                        4.3.3.5 Columnar-grained ice with c-axis horizontal and oriented (S3 ice)

                        4.3.3.6 Agglomerate ice with discontinuous columnar-grained (R ice type)

                        4.3.3.7 Ice of land-based origin

4.3.4    Stereographical projection (fabric diagram) of natural polycrystalline ice

4.4   Age-based structural features of natural sea ice

            4.4.1 Young ice, Y (Sikuaq)

            4.4.2 First-Year ice, FY (Siku)

            4.4.3 Multi-Year ice, MY (Qavvaq)

4.5 Information contents in Polycrystalline Ice Structure

4.5.1 Geometric characteristics of crystalline structure

4.5.2 Geometric characteristics of brine pockets in first-year ice

4.5.3 Geometric characteristics of air bubbles

4.5.4 Biomass accumulation at the bottom of the ice

CHAPTER 5: AGING OF SEA ICE: STORIES THAT WERE NEVER TOLD

5.  Mould Bay experiments: beginning of RADARSAT field project

5.1.1 Ageing in sea ice: transition from FY to MY ice

5.1.2 Ice conditions and parameters

5.1.3 Interface between Old and New ice in SY ice cover

5.1.4 Multi-year (MY) ice and interfaces: Mould Bay 1984 experience

5. 2 High-Arctic ice islands and microwave remote sensing experience

5.2.1 Background history of ice islands

5.2.2 Shelf ice and Arctic ice islands

5.2.3 Multi-Year rubble field of an Arctic ice island

5.2.4 RADARSAT images of Arctic ice islands

CHAPTER 6: LABORATORY TECHNIQUES FOR REVEALING STRUCTURE OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ICE

6.1 Relevant optical properties

            6.1.1 Fundamentals of polarized light

            6.1.2 Birefringence or double-refraction in ice (Ih)

            6.1.3 Optical retardation

            6.1.4 Interference colours for white light

6.2 Thin sectioning techniques for ice and snow

            6.2.1 Hot- and Cold-plate technique for thin sectioning of ice

6.2.2 Double-microtoming technique (DMT) for thin sectioning of ice          

6.2.3 Double-microtoming technique (DMT) for thin sectioning of snow

            6.2.4 Precautions for thin sectioning by DMT

            6.2.5 Optimum thickness for thin sections of ice and snow                

6.3 Viewing and photographing ice thin sections

            6.3.1 Laboratory and hand-held polariscope

6.3.2 Cross-polarized versus parallel-polarized light viewing

6.3.3 Scattered light and combined cross-polarized/scattered light viewing

6.3.4 Circularly polarized light and rapid crystallographic analysis

6.4 Etching techniques

            6.4.1 Sublimation of ice and sublimation (Higuch)i etch pits

            6.4.2 Etching processes and applications

6.4.3 Thermal etching of microtomed ice surfaces

6.4.4 Chemical etching and replicating ice surfaces

CHAPTER 7: REMOTE SENSING PRINCIPLES RELEVANT TO SE ICE

7.1 General Principles of satellite remote sensing

7.2 Historical synopsis of satellite remote sensing for sea ice

7.3 Electromagnetic wave properties and processes

      7.3.1 Polarization and depolarization of EM wave

      7.3.2 Reflection, transmission, absorption, scattering and emission

       7.3.3 Brightness temperature and emissivity

       7.3.4 Penetration depth

7.4 Optical sensing

7.5 Thermal infrared sensing

7.6 Microwave sensing

      7.6.1 Passive microwave

      7.6.2 Active microwave

               7.6.2.1 Imaging radar principles

                7.6.2.2 Multi-channel SAR

               7.6.2.3 Radar polarimetry

7.7 Radiative processes in relevant media

      7.7.1 Atmospheric influences

      7.7.2 Sea water

      7.7.3 Snow on sea: physical and radiative processes

                7.7.3.1 Optical and thermal infrared regions

                7.7.3.2 Microwave region

CHAPTER 8: DATA SETS OF RADIATVE MEASUREMENTS AND PROPERTIES

8.1 Radar backscatter

     8.1.1 Backscatter databases from ice types and open water

     8.1.2 Effect of wind-roughened ocean surface on backscatter

     8.1.3 Multi-polarization data of sea ice

8.2 Microwave brightness temperature data

8.3 Visible and Near-Infrared reflectance and albedo

8.4 Emissivity data in the microwave region

8.5 Microwave penetration depth

CHAPTER 9: RETRIEVAL OF SEA ICE SURFACE INFORMATION

9.1 Surface deformation

9.2 Cracks and leads

9.3 Surface melt

9.4 Frost flowers

CHAPTER 10: RETRIEVAL OF ICE AND SNOW GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS

10.1 Ice type classification

    10.1.1 Ice classification from optical and TIR systems

   10.1.2 Ice classification from Microwave data

10.2 Ice concentration

     10.2.1 Ice concentration from VIS and TIR images

     10.2.2 Ice concentration from passive microwave observations

10.2.2.1 Description of selected algorithms

10.2.2.2 Sources of error and sensitivity of algorithms

            10.2.2.3 Validation of ice concentration algorithms

            10.2.2.4 Comparison of passive microwave algorithms

     10.2.3 Ice concentration from SAR

10.3 Sea ice extent and area

10.4 Ice thickness

10.5 Ice Surface temperature

10.6 Snow depth over sea ice

10.7 Ice motion

CHAPTER 11: SEA ICE SERVICE IN CANADA: HISTORY AND CURRET OPERATIONAL PROGRAM

11.1 History of Ice Service in Canada

11.2 The operational sea ice programs and products

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