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Electromagnetics of Body Area Networks: Antennas, Propagation, and RF Systems

Douglas H. Werner (Editor), Zhi Hao Jiang (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-02946-5
536 pages
September 2016, Wiley-IEEE Press
Electromagnetics of Body Area Networks: Antennas, Propagation, and RF Systems (1119029465) cover image


The book is a comprehensive treatment of the field, covering fundamental theoretical principles and new technological advancements, state-of-the-art device design, and reviewing examples encompassing a wide range of related sub-areas. In particular, the first area focuses on the recent development of novel wearable and implantable antenna concepts and designs including metamaterial-based wearable antennas, microwave circuit integrated wearable filtering antennas, and textile and/or fabric material enabled wearable antennas. The second set of topics covers advanced wireless propagation and the associated statistical models for on-body, in-body, and off-body modes. Other sub-areas such as efficient numerical human body modeling techniques, artificial phantom synthesis and fabrication, as well as low-power RF integrated circuits and related sensor technology are also discussed. These topics have been carefully selected for their transformational impact on the next generation of body-area network systems and beyond.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xv

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

1 Textile Antennas for Body Area Networks: Design Strategies and Evaluation Methods 1
Ping Jack Soh and Guy A. E. Vandenbosch

1.1 Introduction, 1

1.2 Textile Materials and Antenna Fabrication Procedure, 2

1.3 Design Strategies and Evaluation Methods, 5

1.4 Conclusion, 20

2 Metamaterial-Enabled and Microwave Circuit Integrated Wearable Antennas for Off-Body Communications 27
Zhi Hao Jiang, Taiwei Yue, and Douglas H. Werner

2.1 Introduction, 27

2.2 A Metasurface-Enabled Compact Wearable Antenna, 29

2.3 Microwave Circuit Integrated Wearable Filtering Antennas, 37

2.4 Investigation of Performance for Wearable Applications, 47

2.5 Conclusion, 55

3 AMC-Backed Flexible Near-Endfire Wearable Antennas for On-Body Communications 61
Kush Agarwal and Yong-Xin Guo

3.1 Introduction, 61

3.2 AMC-Backed Near-Endfire Antenna for On-Body Communications, 64

3.3 Fabricating the Antenna Configurations on Flexible Latex Substrate, 68

3.4 Investigation of Antenna Performances in Free Space, 69

3.5 Investigation of Antenna Performances on Voxel Model, 72

3.6 Antenna Performance Under Bending Deformation, 76

3.7 Measurement Results, 79

3.8 Conclusion, 84

4 Novel Antenna Designs and Characterization Methodologies for Medical Diagnostics and Sensing 87
Harish Rajagopalan and Yahya Rahmat-Samii

4.1 Introduction, 87

4.2 Ingestible Antenna Design at WMTS Band: Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Diagnostics, 97

4.3 Ingestible Antenna Design at ISM Band: Medical Compliance Sensing, 110

4.4 On-Body Antenna at UHF Band: RFID Tag for Patient Monitoring, 117

4.5 Future Outlook, 126

4.6 Conclusion, 129

5 Basic Performance Characteristics of Wearable Antennas Over a Wide Frequency Range 135
Koichi Ito

5.1 Introduction, 135

5.2 Frequency Dependence of Communication Channels Between Wearable Antennas Mounted on the Human Body, 136

5.3 Influences of Surrounding Environment and Body Movement, 142

5.4 Practical Applications, 149

5.5 Conclusion, 156

6 Implanted Antennas and RF Transmission in Through-Body Communications 159
Terence Shie Ping See, Zhi Ning Chen, and Xianming Qing

6.1 Introduction, 159

6.2 Antennas for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy, 162

6.3 Antennas in Wireless Implantable Neuroprobe Microsystem for Motor Prosthesis, 187

6.4 Conclusion, 201

7 Antennas, Phantoms, and Body-Centric Propagation at Millimeter-Waves 205
Nacer Chahat, Adrian Tang, Anda Guraliuc, Maxim Zhadobov, Ronan Sauleau, and Guido Valerio

7.1 Introduction, 205

7.2 Human Body Modeling and Exposure Guidelines, 207

7.3 Antennas For Off-Body Communications at Millimeter-Waves, 222

7.4 Antenna and Propagation for On-Body Propagation, 231

7.5 Conclusion, 248

8 Wearable Active Antenna Modules for Energy-Efficient Reliable Off-Body Communication Systems 261
Patrick Van Torre, Luigi Vallozzi, and Hendrik Rogier

8.1 Introduction, 261

8.2 Diversity and MIMO Techniques for Off-Body Wireless Channels, 264

8.3 Active Wearable Antennas: Efficient Design and Implementation, 269

8.4 Body-Centric MIMO Channels, 273

8.5 Applications, 295

8.6 Conclusions, 311

9 More Than Wearable: Epidermal Antennas for Tracking and Sensing 319
Sara Amendola, Cecilia Occhiuzzi, and Gaetano Marrocco

9.1 Introduction, 319

9.2 RFID Technology, 321

9.3 Radiation Performance of Epidermal Antennas, 322

9.4 Performance of Epidermal RFID Dual-Loop Tag, 328

9.5 Special (Functionalized) Epidermal Membranes, 335

9.6 Sensing Applications, 341

9.7 Conclusion, 347

10 Inkjet-Printed Smart Skins and Wirelessly-Powered Sensors for Wearable Applications 351
John Kimionis and Manos (Emmanouil) M. Tentzeris

10.1 Introduction, 351

10.2 Multilayer Inkjet Printing—Conductors and Dielectrics, 352

10.3 Multilayer Inkjet Printing—Antenna Examples, 354

10.4 Inkjet-Printed Sensors, 356

10.5 Conductive Polymer-Based Sensors, 357

10.6 Carbon Nanomaterial-Based Sensors, 358

10.7 Inkjet-Printed Microfluidics, 360

10.8 Wireless Energy Harvesting for Wearables, 364

10.9 Microwave Receiver Design, 364

10.10 Circuit Fabrication with Inkjet-Printed Masking, 365

10.11 Input Power Estimation and RF-DC Conversion Circuit Design, 366

10.12 RF-DC Conversion Efficiency Measurement and Prototype Operation Tests, 368

10.13 Conclusion, 371

11 Circuits and Systems for Wireless Body Area Network 375
Joonsung Bae and Hoi-Jun Yoo

11.1 Introduction, 375

11.2 MBAN System Concept, 377

11.3 Energy-Efficient MBAN Hub Design, 381

11.4 Compact Sensor Node Designs, 389

11.5 System Implementation, 400

11.6 Conclusion, 401

12 Ultra Low-Power MEMS-Based Radios for WBAN 405
Raghavasimhan Thirunarayanan, Aravind Prasad Heragu, and Christian Enz

12.1 Introduction to Body Area Networks, 405

12.2 WBAN Requirements, 406

12.3 Limitations of Conventional Radios for WBAN Systems, 407

12.4 Comparison Metrics for ULP Radios, 408

12.5 MEMS Resonators—A Solution to Bulky Crystals, 411

12.5.1 BAW Resonators, 411

12.6 FBAR-Based Radios, 413

12.7 FBAR-Based TX Architecture, 413

12.8 Transmitter Measurement Results, 418

12.9 Summary of the FBAR-Based TX, 424

12.10 Receiver Architecture, 424

12.11 Summary of the FBAR-Based RX, 443

12.12 Conclusion, 443

13 Exploring Physiological Features from On-Body Radio Channels 447
Max O. Munoz and Yang Hao

13.1 Introduction, 447

13.2 Physiological Information Parameters, 449

13.3 Methods for Non-Invasive Physiological Detection, 449

13.4 Discussion and Conclusion, 466

14 Power/Data Telemetry Techniques for Implants or Wearable Systems 471
Anil K. RamRakhyani and Gianluca Lazzi

14.1 Introduction, 471

14.2 Powering of Implants and Wearable Systems, 472

14.3 Data Communication to Implants and Wearable Systems, 481

14.4 Discussion, 484

14.5 Design Examples, 485

14.6 Conclusion, 488

References, 488

Index 493

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Author Information

Douglas H. Werner holds the John L. and Genevieve H. McCain Chair Professorship in the Pennsylvania State University Department of Electrical Engineering, USA. He is also the director of the Computational Electromagnetics and Antennas Research Lab, a member of the Communications and Space Sciences Lab, and a faculty member of the Materials Research Institute (MRI) at Penn State University. He holds eight patents, has published over 650 technical papers and proceedings articles, and is the author of three books and 24 book chapters. 

Zhi Hao Jiang received the B.S. degree in radio engineering from Southeast University, Nanjing, China, in 2008, and a Ph.D. degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA, in 2013. He is currently a post-doctoral research fellow with the Computational Electromagnetics and Antennas Research Lab (CEARL), USA. He has coauthored five book chapters and over 75 papers in peer reviewed international journals and conference proceedings.

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