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Pavement Asset Management

ISBN: 978-1-119-03882-5
432 pages
April 2015
Pavement Asset Management (1119038820) cover image

Description

Comprehensive and practical, Pavement Asset Management  provides an essential resource for educators, students and those in public agencies and consultancies who are directly responsible for managing road and airport pavements.

 

The book is comprehensive in the integration of activities that go into having safe and cost-effective pavements using the best technologies and management processes available. This is accomplished in seven major parts, and 42 component chapters, ranging from the evolution of pavement management to date requirements to determining needs and priority programming of rehabilitation and maintenance, followed by structural design and economic analysis, implementation  of pavement management systems, basic features of working systems and finally by a part on looking ahead.

 

The most current methodologies and practical applications of managing pavements are described in this one-of-a-kind book. Real world up-to-date examples are provided, as well as an extensive list of references for each part.
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Table of Contents

Preface xix

Part One: The Evolution of Pavement Management

1 Introduction 3

2 Birth and Teen Years of Pavement Management (1967–1987) 5

2.1 Network Level PMS 8

2.2 The Impact of Lack of Understanding of Software Requirements 9

2.3 Lessons Learned from the Early Development Years 10

2.4 Basic Requirements for an Effective and Comprehensive PMS 11

3 Pavement Management Development from 2010 15

3.1 Data Aggregation and Sectioning 16

3.2 Private Investment 16

3.3 Parallel International Developments 17

3.4 Administrative and Public Awareness of PMS 17

3.5 Education 18

3.6 Improvements in Computers and Software Development 19

3.7 Other Compatible Management Systems 19

3.8 Expansion of PMS Concerns 20

4 Setting the Stage 21

References for Part One 23

Part Two: Data Requirements

5 Overview of Pavement Management Data Needs 27

5.1 Classes of Data Required 27

5.2 The Importance of Construction and Maintenance History Data 28

5.3 The Importance of Performance Related Pavement Evaluation 30

5.4 Objectivity and Consistency in Pavement Data Acquisition and Use 30

5.5 Combining Pavement Evaluation Measures 30

6 Inventory Data Needs 31

6.1 Purpose of Inventory Data 31

6.2 Types of Inventory Data 31

6.3 Selection and Referencing of Pavement Management Sections 32

6.4 Collecting and Processing Section and Network Data 33

6.5 Traffic and Truck Load Data 34

7 Characterizing Pavement Performance 35

7.1 The Serviceability-Performance Concept 35

7.2 Pavement Roughness 35

7.3 Equipment for Evaluating Roughness 36

7.4 Toward a Universal Roughness Standard 37

7.5 Calibration Needs and Procedures 39

7.6 Relating Roughness to Serviceability 45

7.7 Applications of Roughness Data 47

8 Evaluation of Pavement Structural Capacity 49

8.1 Basic Considerations 49

8.2 Nondestructive Measurement and Analysis 49

8.2.1 Deflection Measurements 50

8.2.2 Moving Measurement of Deflections 51

8.2.3 Ground Penetrating Radar 55

8.3 Destructive Structural Evaluation 58

8.4 Structural Capacity Index Concepts 58

8.5 Network versus Project Level Applications of Structural Capacity Evaluation 64

8.5.1 Staged Measurements 65

9 Evaluation of Pavement Surface Distress Condition Surveys 67

9.1 Purposes of Surface Distress Surveys 67

9.2 Manual Methods for Distress Surveys 67

9.3 Automated Survey Methods 69

9.4 Types of Distress 70

9.5 Examples of Distress Survey Procedures 70

9.6 Equipment for Distress Evaluation 74

9.7 Summary of Pavement Distress Scores Used by State DOTs 80

9.8 Example Equipment: Fugro, Roadware-ARAN 83

9.9 Example Equipment: Service Provider-Pathway Services Inc. 85

9.10 Application of Distress Data 87

10 Evaluation of Pavement Safety 89

10.1 Major Safety Components 90

10.2 Skid Resistance Evaluation 90

10.3 Basic Concepts of Skid Resistance and the Importance of Pavement Texture 91

10.4 Methods of Measuring and Reporting Skid Resistance 93

10.5 Change of Skid Resistance with Time, Traffic, and Climate (Weather/Season) 95

10.6 Including Friction Management in a Pavement Management System 95

11 Combined Measures of Pavement Quality 103

11.1 Concept of Combined Measures 103

11.2 Examples of Combined Indexes 104

11.3 Developing Combined Indexes 105

12 Data Base Management 109

12.1 Introduction 109

12.2 Factors that Characterize the Present State of Data Base Management 109

12.3 Some Evolutionary Features of Data Base Management 111

12.4 Data Base Management Systems and Key Components 112

12.5 Advantages of Integrated Data Base Management Systems 114

12.6 Examples of Integrated Data Base Management 115

12.7 Success Factors for Effective Data Base Management 118

13 Communicating the Present Status of Pavement Networks 121

13.1 Introduction 121

13.2 Performance Measures 122

13.3 Performance Measurement and Strategic Level Pavement Management 123

13.4 Performance Measure Categories 124

13.5 Example Report on the State of a Road Network in Terms of International Roughness Index 131

13.6 Example Report on the State of a Road Network in Terms of Asset Value 133

13.7 Example Report on a State Timeline of “Good” Pavement 136

References for Part Two 137

Part Three: Determining Present and Future Needs and Priority Programing of Rehabilitation and Maintenance

14 Establishing Criteria 147

14.1 Reasons for Establishing Criteria 147

14.2 Measures to which Criteria can be Applied 147

14.3 Factors Affecting Limits, and Some Examples 148

14.4 Effects of Changing Criteria 148

15 Prediction Models for Pavement Deterioration 151

15.1 Clarification of Performance and Deterioration Prediction 151

15.2 Parameters or Measures to be Predicted 152

15.3 Basic Types of Prediction Models and Examples 157

16 Determining Needs 159

17 Rehabilitation and Maintenance Alternatives 161

17.1 Identification of Alternatives 161

17.2 Decision Processes and Expert Systems Approaches to Identifying Feasible Alternative 163

17.3 Deterioration Modeling of Rehabilitation and Maintenance Alternatives 169

17.4 Costs, Benefits, and Cost-Effectiveness Calculations 169

18 Priority Programing of Rehabilitation and Maintenance 171

18.1 Basic Approaches to Establishing Alternatives and Policies 171

18.2 Selecting a Length of Program Period 172

18.3 Basic Functions of Priority Programming 172

18.4 Priority Programing Methods 173

18.5 Examples and Comparisons 175

18.6 Budget Level Evaluation and Specific Standards 175

18.7 Final Program Selection 176

19 Developing Combined Programs of Maintenance and Rehabilitation 177

19.1 Example Results of a Combined Program 179

19.2 Summary 179

References for Part Three 183

Part Four: Structural Design and Economic Analysis: Project Level

20 A Framework for Pavement Design 187

20.1 Introduction 187

20.2 Focus on the MEPDG 188

20.3 Basic Structural Response Models 189

20.4 Characterization of Design Inputs 190

20.5 Variability, Reliability and Risk in Pavement Management 195

20.6 Generating Alternative Design Strategies 197

21 The MEPDG Process for Pavement Design 201

21.1 Introduction 201

21.2 Calibration Issues 203

21.3 MEPDG Software 204

21.4 Levels of Use in the MEPDG 205

21.5 Good Design is Not Enough - Life Cycle Pavement Management is Also Needed 206

21.6 Summary of the MEPDG for Flexible Pavements 206

22 The MEPDG for Design of New and Reconstructed Rigid Pavements 211

22.1 Introduction 211

22.2 Overview of the Design Process 212

22.3 Processing of Inputs for the Design Analysis 214

22.4 Structural Response Models 214

23 Rehabilitation of Existing Pavements 217

23.1 Introduction 217

23.2 MEPDG Suggested Evaluation Data for Pavement Rehabilitation 218

23.3 MEPDG Rehabilitation Design with HMA 219

23.4 MEPDG Rehabilitation Design with PCC 221

23.5 Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR) of JPCP 222

23.6 Models, Algorithms, and Transfer Functions of the MEPDG 225

23.7 Quality of Calibration Data and Factor Adjustments 225

23.8 AASHTO Manual of Practices 227

24 MEPDG in Practice 229

24.1 Use of the Guide in Pavement Management 229

24.2 MEPDG Offers a Roadmap to Improvement 230

24.3 MEPDG Research Team’s Perspective on Guide Improvements 230

24.4 Practical Experience with MEPDG Flexible Pavement Models 232

24.5 Use of MEPDG for Rehabilitation and Overlay Design 233

24.6 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Software 234

24.7 Summary 234

25 Economic Evaluation of Alternative Pavement Design Strategies and Selection of an Optimal Strategy 237

25.1 Introduction 237

25.2 Consideration of Environmental Costs in Selecting Alternative Strategies 238

25.3 Weighing Costs versus Environmental Benefits 238

25.4 Unique and/or Unpredictable Cost Factors 239

25.5 User Costs 240

25.6 Selection of an Optimal Strategy 240

25.7 Summary 241

References for Part Four 242

Part Five: Implementation of Pavement Management Systems

26 Steps and Key Components of Implementation 249

26.1 Recognize Need for Change 250

26.2 User Interface Design/User Experience Design 250

26.3 Education/Training 252

26.4 Staffing 252

26.5 Agency Input 253

26.6 Training in Software Use 253

27 Role of Construction 255

27.1 Construction Linked to Planning and Programming 256

27.2 Construction Linked to Project Level Design and Expected Life Cycle Performance 256

27.3 Construction Linked with Maintenance and Evaluation 256

27.4 Information Flows from and to Construction 257

27.5 Role of Construction in Public-Private Partnerships (PPP’s) 257

28 Role of Maintenance 259

28.1 Maintenance Linked to Other Phases of Pavement Management 260

28.2 Pavement Preservation in Maintenance 260

28.3 Maintenance Management Systems Related to PMS 265

29 Research Management 267

29.1 Some Key Elements of Research Management 268

29.2 Issues and Examples 269

References for Part Five 271

Part Six: Examples of Working Systems

30 Basic Features of Working Systems 275

31 Network Level Examples of Pavement Management 279

31.1 Review of COTS PMS Vendors 281

31.2 Vendor Background 284

31.3 Guidelines to Available PMS Software 285

31.4 Evaluation of Available Information on Leading PMS Providers 289

31.5 Summary 294

32 Project Level Examples of PMS Software 295

33 HDM-4 the Upgraded World Bank Model 297

33.1 HDM-4 Applications 299

33.2 Summary 302

34 City and County Pavement Management Systems 305

34.1 Lisbon, Portugal 307

34.2 City of San Antonio, Texas 307

34.3 Metro Nashville PMS Selection Process 309

34.4 Pavement Management in Johannesburg, South Africa 309

34.5 City of Henderson, Nevada 311

34.6 GIS Based Pavement Management System—Fountain Hills Arizona 312

35 Airport Pavement Management 313

35.1 PAVER and MicroPAVER 313

35.2 USDOT Federal Aviation Administration Support and Use of PMS 316

35.3 Arizona Airports Pavement Management System 318

35.4 Washington State Airport Pavement Management System 319

35.5 Summary 320

References for Part Six 321

Part Seven: Looking Ahead

36 Analyzing Special Problems 327

36.1 Calibration of Pavement Design Methods 327

36.2 Superpave Evaluation 328

36.3 Warm Mix Asphalts 328

36.4 Corridor Analysis 329

36.5 Improved Pavement Performance Models 329

36.6 Geographic Areas of Heavy Damage 330

36.7 Analysis of Heavy Load Corridors 331

36.8 Summary 331

37 Applications of Expert Systems Technology 333

38 New and Emerging Technologies 335

38.1 Predicted Advances in PMS 335

38.2 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 335

38.3 New Software, Hardware, Data Bases, and Personal Computers 336

38.4 New Measurement Technologies 336

38.5 Summary 339

39 Institutional Issues and Barriers Related to Pavement Management Implementation 341

39.1 Introduction 341

39.2 Summary 343

40 Cost and Benefits of Pavement Management 345

40.1 General 345

40.2 Quantifiable Benefits 348

40.3 Benefit/Cost of Developing and Using PMS 348

40.4 Example Benefits of PMS for Arizona DOT 349

40.5 Example Benefits of Management Systems for Pinellas County Public Works, Florida 350

40.6 Summary 351

41 Future Direction and Need for Innovation in Pavement Management 353

41.1 Pavement Management Roadmap 353

41.2 Consider User Costs and Vehicle Operating Cost in PMS 361

41.3 Needs for Improved Software 361

41.4 Forward Looking Opportunities 363

41.5 Motivating Factors and Roadblocks in Advancing Pavement Management 363

42 Developments in Asset Management 371

42.1 Background 372

42.2 Framework for AMS 373

42.3 Business Plan for AMS 375

42.4 General Principles of Asset Management Evolving from PMS 375

42.5 Early Positive Steps by DOTs 376

42.6 Maturing AMS 377

42.7 Roadblocks to AMS Implementation 378

42.8 Strategic Level 379

42.9 Corporate Data Base and Executive Information System 379

42.10 Network Level and Project Level 380

42.11 Summary 380

42.12 Websites Containing Transportation Asset Management Information as of 2014 380

References to Part Seven 382

Index 387

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