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Smart Materials for Waste Water Applications

ISBN: 978-1-119-04118-4
432 pages
February 2016
Smart Materials for Waste Water Applications (111904118X) cover image


Smart materials are used to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems as well as instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. Smart materials in water research have been extensively utilized for the treatment, remediation, and pollution prevention. Smart materials can maintain the long term water quality, availability and viability of water resource. Thus, water via smart materials can be reused, recycled, desalinized and also it can detect the biological and chemical contamination whether the source is from municipal, industrial or man-made waste.


The 15 state-of-the-art review chapters contained in this book cover the recent advancements in the area of waste water, as well as the prospects about the future research and development of smart materials for the waste water applications in the municipal, industrial and manmade waste areas. Treatment techniques (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, adsorption and nano-reactive membranes) are also covered in-depth.  The chapters are divided into three groups: The first section includes the various carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, mixed oxides) with a focus on use of carbon at nanoscale applied for waste water research. The second section focuses on synthetic nanomaterials for pollutants removal. The third section highlights the bio-polymeric nanomaterials where the authors have used the natural polymers matrices in a composite and nanocomposite material for waste treatment.


The large number of  researchers working in the area will benefit from the fundamental concepts, advanced approaches and application of the various smart materials towards waste water treatment that are described in the book. It will also provide a platform for the researchers and graduate students to carry out advanced research and understand the building blocks.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Part 1 Carbon Nanomaterials 1

1 Easy and Large-Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube-Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Arsenic and Organic Pollutants from Aqueous Solutions 3
Fei Yu and Jie Ma

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Removal of Arsenic from Aqueous Solution 5

1.3 Removal of Organic Pollutants from Aqueous Solution 22

1.4 Summary and Outlook 39

Acknowledgment 40

References 40

2 Potentialities of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for Wastewater Treatment 47
Ana L. Cukierman, Emiliano Platero, María E. Fernandez, and Pablo R. Bonelli

2.1 Introduction 48

2.2 Graphene Synthesis Routes 49

2.3 Adsorption of Water Pollutants onto Graphene-Based Materials 52

2.4 Comparison of the Adsorption Performance of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials 72

2.5 Regeneration and Reutilization of the Graphene-Based Adsorbents 73

2.6 Conclusion 77

Acknowledgements 78

Nomenclature 78

References 79

3 Photocatalytic Activity of Nanocarbon-TiO2 Composites with Gold Nanoparticles for the Degradation of Water Pollutants 87
L.M. Pastrana-Martínez, S.A.C. Carabineiro, J.L. Figueiredo, J.L. Faria, A.M.T. Silva, and J.G. Buijnsters

3.1 Introduction 88

3.2 Experimental 90

3.3 Results and Discussion 93

3.4 Conclusions 101

Acknowledgements 102

References 102

4 Carbon Nanomaterials for Chromium (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solution 109
Pavel Kopel, Vedran Milosavljevic, Dorota Wawrzak, Amitava Moulick, Marketa Vaculovicova, Rene Kizek, and Vojtech Adam

4.1 Introduction 110

4.2 Carbon Nanomaterials for Heavy Metal Removal 111

4.3 Latest Progress in Nanocarbon Materials for Cr(VI) Treatment 113

4.4 Summary 121

Acknowledgement 121

References 121

5 Nano-Carbons from Pollutant Soot: A Cleaner Approach toward Clean Environment 127
Kumud Malika Tripathi, Nidhi Rani Gupta, and Sumit Kumar Sonkar

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Separation of Nano-carbon from Pollutant BC 131

5.3 Functionalization of Nano-Carbons Isolated from Pollutant BC 135

5.4 Nano-Carbons from Pollutant Soot for Wastewater Treatment 141

5.5 Conclusion 145

Acknowledgments 146

References 146

6 First-Principles Computational Design of Graphene for Gas Detection 155
Yoshitaka Fujimoto

6.1 Introduction 155

6.2 Computational Methodology 157

6.3 Nitrogen Doping and Nitrogen Vacancy Complexes in Graphene 158

6.4 Molecular Gas Adsorptions 166

6.5 Summary 174

Acknowledgments 174

References 175

Part 2 Synthetic Nanomaterials 179

7 Advanced Material for Pharmaceutical Removal from Wastewater 181
Parisa Amouzgar, May Yuan Wong, Bahman Amini Horri, and Babak Salamatinia

7.1 Introduction 182

7.2 Advanced Materials in the Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater 185

7.3 Activated Carbon (AC) 185

7.4 Modified Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 186

7.5 Modified Polysaccharide Matrices 188

7.6 Metal Organic Framework (MOF) 190

7.7 Reactive Composites 191

7.8 TiO2-Coated Adsorbents 192

7.9 Adsorption by Zeolite and Polymer Composites 192

7.10 Adsorption by Clay 193

7.11 Conventional Technologies for the Removal of PPCPs in WWTP 200

7.12 Membrane Filtration 201

7.13 Ozonation and Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) 201

7.14 Electro-oxidation 202

7.15 Adsorption by Coagulation and Sedimentation 202

7.16 Conclusion 203

References 203

8 Flocculation Performances of Polymers and Nanomaterials for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters 213
E. Fosso-Kankeu, F. Waanders, A.F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi, and A.K. Mishra

8.1 General Introduction 214

8.2 Conventional Treatment of Water with Inorganic Coagulants 214

8.3 Development of Polymer-Based Coagulants and Mechanisms of Turbidity Removal 219

8.4 Synthesis of Nanomaterials-Based Flocculants and Utilisation in the Removal of Pollutants 223

8.5 Conclusion 227

References 228

9 Polymeric Nanospheres for Organic Waste Removal 237
Ambika and Pradeep Pratap Singh

9.1 Introduction 237

9.2 Method of Preparation of Nanospheres 239

9.3 Applications of Different Type of Nanospheres in Water Purification 241

9.4 Future Aspects 248

9.5 Conclusions 248

Acknowledgment 249

References 249

10 A Perspective of the Application of Magnetic Nanocomposites and Nanogels as Heavy Metal Sorbents for Water Purification 257
Hilda Elizabeth Reynel-Avila, Didilia Ileana Mendoza-Castillo, and Adrián Bonilla-Petriciolet

10.1 Introduction 258

10.2 Description of Magnetic Nanoparticles and Nanogels 259

10.3 Routes for the Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles and Nanogels 260

10.4 Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Magnetic Nanomaterials and Nanogels 266

10.5 Desorption, Regeneration, and Final Disposal 278

10.6 Conclusions and Future Perspective 279

Acknowledgments 280

References 280

11 Role of Core–Shell Nanocomposites in Heavy Metal Removal 289
Sheenam Thatai, Parul Khurana, and Dinesh Kumar

11.1 Introduction 289

11.1.1 Types of Materials 291

11.2 Core and Shell Material: Synthesis and Properties 292

11.3 Nanocomposites Material: Synthesis and Properties 295

11.4 Nanocomposite Materials for Water Decontamination Application 297

11.5 Stability of Metal Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites Material 299

Acknowledgements 302

References 303

Part 3 Biopolymeric Nanomaterials 311

12 Adsorption of Metallic Ions Cd2+, Pb2+, and Cr3+ from Water Samples Using Brazil Nut Shell as a Low-Cost Biosorbent 313
Juliana Casarin, Aff onso Celso Gonçalves Jr, Gustavo Ferreira Coelho, Marcela Zanetti Corazza, Fernanda Midori de Oliveira, César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley, Adilson Pinheiro, Matheus Meier, and Douglas Cardoso Dragunski

12.1 Introduction 314

12.2 Materials and Methods 314

12.3 Results and Discussion 318

12.4 Conclusion 330

Acknowledgments 330

References 331

13 Cellulose: A Smart Material for Water Purification 335
Bharti Arora, Eun Ha Choi, Masaharu Shiratani, and Pankaj Attri

13.1 Introduction 336

13.2 Cellulose: Smart Material for Water Treatment 337

13.3 Conclusion 343

References 343

14 Treatment of Reactive Dyes from Water and Wastewater through Chitosan and its Derivatives 347
Mohammadtaghi Vakili, Mohd Rafatullah, Zahra Gholami and Hossein Farraji

14.1 Introduction 348

14.2 Dyes 349

14.3 Reactive Dyes 350

14.4 Dye Treatment Methods 351

14.5 Adsorption 352

14.6 Adsorbents for Dye Removal 352

14.7 Chitosan 354

14.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 368

Acknowledgement 369

References 369

15 Natural Algal-Based Processes as Smart Approach for Wastewater Treatment 379
D. Annie Jasmine, K.B. Malarmathi, S.C.G. Kiruba Daniel, and S. Malathi

15.1 Introduction 380

15.2 Algal Species Used in Wastewater Treatment 382

15.3 Factors Affecting the Growth of Algae 385

15.4 Microalgae and Wastewater Treatment 388

15.5 Case Study of Algal Approach in the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater 390

15.6 Biofuel from Algae Treated Wastewater 391

15.7 Conclusions 394

Acknowledgment 395

References 395

Index 399

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