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Water Engineering: Hydraulics, Distribution and Treatment

ISBN: 978-1-119-04192-4
832 pages
August 2015
Water Engineering: Hydraulics, Distribution and Treatment (1119041929) cover image

Description

Details the design and process of water supply systems, tracing the progression from source to sink

  • Organized and logical flow, tracing the connections in the water-supply system from the water’s source to its eventual use
  • Emphasized coverage of water supply infrastructure and the design of water treatment processes
  • Inclusion of fundamentals and practical examples so as to connect theory with the realities of design
  • Provision of useful reference for practicing engineers who require a more in-depth coverage, higher level students studying drinking water systems as well as students in preparation for the FE/PE examinations
  • Inclusion of examples and homework questions in both SI and US units
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Table of Contents

PREFACE XVII

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS XIX

1 Introduction to Water Systems 1

1.1 Components of Water Systems 2

1.2 Required Capacity 2

1.3 Sources of Water Supply 3

1.4 Rainwater 4

1.5 Surface Water 5

1.6 Groundwater 6

1.7 Purification Works 9

1.8 Transmission Works 12

1.9 Distribution Works 12

1.10 Water Systems Management 15

1.11 Individual Water Systems 17

Problems/Questions 18

References 19

2 Water Sources: Surface Water 21

2.1 Sources of Surface Water 21

2.2 Safe Yield of Streams 24

2.3 Storage as a Function of Draft and Runoff 24

2.4 Design Storage 25

2.5 Loss by Evaporation, Seepage, and Silting 27

2.6 Area and Volume of Reservoirs 31

2.7 Management of Catchment Areas 32

2.8 Reservoir Siting 33

2.9 Reservoir Management 33

2.10 Dams and Dikes 34

2.11 Spillways 36

2.12 Intakes 37

2.13 Diversion Works 38

2.14 Collection of Rainwater 39

Problems/Questions 41

References 42

3 Water Sources: Groundwater 45

3.1 Porosity and Effective Porosity 45

3.2 Permeability 47

3.3 Groundwater Geology 47

3.4 Groundwater Situation in The United States 48

3.5 Types of Aquifers 48

3.6 Groundwater Movement 49

3.7 Darcy’s Law 49

3.8 Aquifer Characteristics 50

3.9 Well Hydraulics 52

3.10 Nonsteady Radial Flow 52

3.11 Prediction of Drawdown 60

3.12 Multiple-Well Systems 63

3.13 Aquifer Boundaries 67

3.14 Characteristics of Wells 70

3.15 Yield of a Well 71

3.16 Well Design 73

3.17 Well Construction 74

3.18 Evaluation of Aquifer Behavior 77

3.19 Groundwater Quality Management 78

3.20 Groundwater Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water 79

Problems/Questions 84

References 85

4 Quantities of Water Demand 87

4.1 Design Period 87

4.2 Design Population 88

4.3 Water Consumption 92

4.4 Variations or Patterns of Water Demand 96

4.5 Demand and Drainage Loads of Buildings 104

Problems/Questions 106

References 106

5 Water Hydraulics, Transmission, and Appurtenances 109

5.1 Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulics, and Water Transmission 109

5.2 Fluid Transport 121

5.3 Capacity and Size of Conduits 152

5.4 Multiple Lines 154

5.5 Cross-Sections 155

5.6 Structural Requirements 155

5.7 Location 156

5.8 Materials of Construction 159

5.9 Appurtenances 160

5.10 Additional Hydraulics Topics 164

Problems/Questions 172

References 178

6 Water Distribution Systems: Components, Design, and Operation 181

6.1 Distribution Systems 181

6.2 System Components 183

6.3 System Capacity 185

6.4 System Pressure 185

6.5 Field Performance of Existing Systems 186

6.6 Office Studies of Pipe Networks 187

6.7 Industrial Water Systems 197

6.8 Management, Operation, and Maintenance of Distribution Systems 197

6.9 Practical Design and Analysis of Water Distribution Systems 202

Problems/Questions 205

References 210

7 Water Distribution Systems: Modeling and Computer Applications 213

7.1 Watergems Software 213

7.2 Water Demand Patterns 213

7.3 Energy Losses and Gains 214

7.4 Pipe Networks 215

7.5 Network Analysis 216

7.6 Water Quality Modeling 216

7.7 Automated Optimization 218

7.8 Practical Applications of Computer-Aided Water Supply System Analysis 232

Problems/Questions 233

References 240

8 Pumping, Storage, and Dual Water Systems 241

8.1 Pumps and Pumping Stations 241

8.2 Pump Characteristics 241

8.3 Service Storage 248

8.4 Location of Storage 251

8.5 Elevation of Storage 251

8.6 Types of Distributing Reservoirs 251

8.7 Dual Water Supply Systems 257

8.8 Raw Water Intake Structures and Raw Water Pumping Wells 260

Problems/Questions 262

References 266

9 Cross-Connection Control 267

9.1 Introduction 267

9.2 Public Health Significance of Cross-Connections 268

9.3 Theory of Backflow and Backsiphonage 276

9.4 Methods and Devices for the Prevention of Backflow and Backsiphonage 280

9.5 Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Preventer 285

9.6 Administration of a Cross-Connection Control Program 289

9.7 Pressure and Leakage Tests of Water Mains 291

Problems/Questions 293

References 295

10 Water Quality Characteristics and Drinking Water Standards 297

10.1 Objectives of Water-Quality Management 297

10.2 Natural Available Water Resources 297

10.3 Public Health Issues and Drinking Water Treatment 298

10.4 Physical Characteristics and Constituents 300

10.5 Chemical Characteristics and Constituents 301

10.6 Biological Characteristics and Constituents 307

10.7 Radiological Characteristics and Constituents 310

10.8 Drinking Water Quality Standards 311

10.9 Industrial Water Quality Standards 313

10.10 Bathing Waters 317

10.11 Fishing and Shellfish Waters 317

10.12 Irrigation Waters 319

10.13 Quality of Water from Various Sources 319

10.14 Good Quality Water 320

10.15 Self-Purification and Storage 320

10.16 Objectives of Water Examination 321

10.17 Methods of Examination 321

10.18 Standard Tests 322

10.19 Expression of Analytical Results 322

10.20 Tapping a Source of Water 322

Problems/Questions 323

References 323

11 Water Treatment Systems 325

11.1 Purpose of Water Treatment 325

11.2 Treatment of Raw Water 325

11.3 Unit Operations and Unit Processes 328

11.4 Gas Transfer 330

11.5 Ion Transfer 330

11.6 Solute Stabilization 333

11.7 Solids Transfer 333

11.8 Nutrient or Molecular Transfer and Interfacial Contact 338

11.9 Disinfection 339

11.10 Miscellaneous Operations/Processes 340

11.11 Coordination of Unit Operations/Processes 340

11.12 Selection of Water Treatment Technologies 341

11.13 Control of Turbidity, Color, and Biological Contamination 342

11.14 Organic Contaminant Removal 343

11.15 Inorganic Contaminant Removal and Control 345

11.16 Water Renovation 348

11.17 Treatment Kinetics 350

11.18 Monitoring Water Quality 351

11.19 Distribution to Customers 352

11.20 Glossary of Water Treatment Systems 352

Problems/Questions 359

References 360

12 Chemicals Feeding, Mixing, and Flocculation 363

12.1 Introduction 363

12.2 Handling, Storing, and Feeding Chemicals 363

12.3 Rapid Mixing 367

12.4 Rapid Mixing and Slow Flocculation 372

12.5 Flocculation 373

12.6 Mixing and Stirring Devices 373

12.7 Flocculator Performance 391

12.8 Costs 393

Problems/Questions 394

References 395

13 Aeration, Gas Transfer, and Oxidation 397

13.1 Sources of Gases in Water 397

13.2 Objectives of Gas Transfer 397

13.3 Absorption and Desorption of Gases 398

13.4 Rates of Gas Absorption and Desorption 400

13.5 Types of Aerators 402

13.6 Factors Governing Gas Transfer 405

13.7 Design of Gravity Aerators 405

13.8 Design of Fixed-Spray Aerators 406

13.9 Design of Movable-Spray Aerators 406

13.10 Design of Injection Aerators 407

13.11 Mechanical Aerators 408

13.12 Oxidation for Removal of Dissolved Iron and Manganese 408

13.13 Removal of Specific Gases 411

13.14 Removal of Odors and Tastes 414

Problems/Questions 414

References 415

14 Coagulation 417

14.1 Introduction 417

14.2 The Colloidal State 417

14.3 Colloidal Structure and Stability of Colloids 418

14.4 Destabilization of Colloids 421

14.5 Influencing Factors 423

14.6 Coagulants 425

14.7 Coagulation Control 432

Problems/Questions 435

Special Reference 436

References 436

15 Screening, Sedimentation, and Flotation 439

15.1 Treatment Objectives 439

15.2 Screening 439

15.3 Sedimentation 439

15.4 Types of Sedimentation 439

15.5 Settling Basins 447

15.6 Upflow Clarification 451

15.7 General Dimensions of Settling Tanks 455

15.8 Sludge Removal 456

15.9 Inlet Hydraulics 456

15.10 Outlet Hydraulics 459

15.11 Sedimentation Tank Loading, Detention, And Performance 459

15.12 Shallow Depth Settlers 462

15.13 Gravity Thickening of Sludge 464

15.14 Natural Flotation 467

15.15 Dissolved Air Flotation Process 468

Problems/Questions 480

References 482

16 Conventional Filtration 485

16.1 Granular Water Filters 485

16.2 Granular Wastewater Filters 487

16.3 Granular Filtering Materials 488

16.4 Preparation of Filter Sand 490

16.5 Hydraulics of Filtration 491

16.6 Hydraulics of Fluidized Beds—Filter Backwashing 494

16.7 Removal of Impurities 497

16.8 Kinetics of Filtration 497

16.9 Filter Design 498

16.10 Filter Appurtenances and Rate Control 505

16.11 Length of Filter Run 506

16.12 Filter Troubles 507

16.13 Plant Performance 508

Problems/Questions 509

References 510

17 Alternative and Membrane Filtration Technologies 513

17.1 Introduction of Filtration Technologies 513

17.2 Direct Filtration 514

17.3 Slow Sand Filtration 516

17.4 Package Plant Filtration 518

17.5 Diatomaceous Earth Filtration 524

17.6 Cartridge Filtration 526

17.7 Membrane Filtration 527

17.8 Selecting the Appropriate Filtration Treatment System 540

Problems/Questions 541

References 542

18 Disinfection and Disinfection By-products Control 545

18.1 Purpose of Disinfection 545

18.2 Pathogens, Disinfection, and Disinfectants 545

18.3 Disinfection by Heat 546

18.4 Disinfection by Ultraviolet Light 546

18.5 Disinfection by Chemicals 546

18.6 Theory of Chemical Disinfection 548

18.7 Kinetics of Chemical Disinfection 549

18.8 Disinfection by Ozone 554

18.9 Disinfection by Chlorine 556

18.10 Free Available Chlorine and Free Chlorination 556

18.11 Combined Available Chlorine and Chloramination 558

18.12 Breakpoint Reactions of Ammonia 559

18.13 Dechlorination 559

18.14 Disinfection by-Products 560

18.15 Chemical Technology of Disinfection 562

18.16 Operational Technology of Chlorination 562

18.17 Operational Technology of Sodium Hypochlorination 567

18.18 Operational Technology of Calcium Hypochlorination 570

18.19 Operational Technology of Chlorine Dioxide Disinfection 570

18.20 Operational Technology of Ozonation 571

18.21 Operational Technology of UV Disinfection 574

18.22 Recent Developments in Disinfection Management—Log Removal/Inactivation Credits of Drinking
Water Treatment Processes 582

Problems/Questons 589

References 591

19 Chemical Precipitation and Water Softening 593

19.1 Chemical Precipitation 593

19.2 Description of Precipitation Process 593

19.3 Applicability 596

19.4 Advantages and Disadvantages 596

19.5 Design Criteria 596

19.6 Performance—Jar Testing 597

19.7 Operation and Maintenance 597

19.8 Costs 598

19.9 Precipitation of Hardness and Carbonates—Water Softening 598

19.10 Recarbonation AfterWater Softening 602

19.11 Recovering Lime After Water Softening 602

Problems/Questions 603

References 603

20 Adsorption and Ion Exchange 605

20.1 Adsorption Processes 605

20.2 Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibria 605

20.3 Characteristics of Adsorbents 608

20.4 Adsorption of Odors and Tastes 610

20.5 Pilot Carbon Column Tests 612

20.6 Breakthrough Curve 613

20.7 Process Technology 614

20.8 Ion Exchange 624

20.9 Ion Exchangers 626

20.10 The Ion Exchange Process 628

20.11 Ion Selectivity 630

20.12 Kinetics of Ion Exchange 631

20.13 Ion Exchange Technology 632

20.14 Water Softening by Ion Exchange 633

20.15 Demineralization 634

20.16 Concentration of Ions 635

20.17 Ion Exchange Membranes and Dialysis 635

20.18 Modular Treatment Units for Removal of Radionuclides 636

20.19 Case Study I: Nitrate Removal: McFarland, CA 636

20.20 Case Study II: Fluoride Removal in Gila Bend, AZ 637

Problems/Questions 637

References 639

21 Chemical Stabilization and Control of Corrosion and Biofilms 641

21.1 Chemical Stabilization 641

21.2 Corrosion 643

21.3 The Corrosion Reaction 644

21.4 Control of Corrosion 648

21.5 Lead and Copper Corrosion 650

21.6 Lead Corrosion Control 651

21.7 Biofilm Control 655

Problems/Questions 659

References 660

22 Residues Management, Safety, and Emergency Response 661

22.1 Management of Residues 661

22.2 Types of Residuals 662

22.3 Applicable Regulations 663

22.4 Residual Solids Treatment 663

22.5 Residuals Disposal 664

22.6 Selection of Management Plans 666

22.7 Safety and Accident Prevention 670

22.8 Emergency Response Plan 673

22.9 Actions Prior to Developing an ERP 674

22.10 Emergency Response Plan Core Elements 675

22.11 Putting the ERP Together and ERP Activation 677

22.12 Action Plans 678

22.13 Next Steps 681

Problems/Questions 681

References 682

23 Prevention through Design and System Safety 683

23.1 Introduction to System Safety 683

23.2 Nature and Magnitude of Safety and Health Problems 685

23.3 Risk Assessment Matrix 687

23.4 Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis 693

23.5 Engineering and Design for Safe Construction 698

23.6 Construction Safety and Health Management 703

23.7 Requirements for Safety in Construction Projects 706

23.8 Occupational Diseases 710

23.9 Ergonomics 714

Problems/Questions 715

References 716

24 Engineering Projects Management 717

24.1 Role of Engineers 717

24.2 Steps in Project Development 717

24.3 The Engineering Report 718

24.4 Feasibility Studies 719

24.5 Alternatives 719

24.6 Plans and Specifications 720

24.7 Sources of Information 720

24.8 Standards 720

24.9 Design Specifications 721

24.10 Project Construction 721

24.11 Project Financing 723

24.12 Methods of Borrowing 725

24.13 Rate Making 725

24.14 Systems Management 726

Problems/Questions 727

References 727

APPENDIXES 729

INDEX 797

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Author Information

Nazih K. Shammas is currently a consultant, book editor and author. He has been an environmental expert, researcher, professor and consultant for over 40 years. He was Dean and Director at the Lenox Institute of Water Technology and consultant to Krofta Engineering Corporation. Nazih Shammas is recipient of a Block Grant from the University of Michigan, First Award for best thesis of the year from the Sigma Xi Society, Commendation from ABET, and the GCC Prize for Best Environmental Work. For the last 10 years, his biography is included in 5 of the Who’s Who Publications. He is the author of over 250 publications and 20 environmental engineering books.

Lawrence K. Wang is currently a consultant to industries, municipalities, and the US Federal and local governments. He has been a facility manager, design engineer, inventor, professor and book editor for over 45 years. He was acting president of The Lenox Institute of Water Technology and Engineerng Director of Krofta Engineering Corporation, as well as a recipient of the Pollution Control 5-Star Innovative Engineering Award, the NYWEA Kenneth Research Award, and the Korean WPCA Engineering Award. He is an inventor of 29 US and foreign patents, and an author of 700+ scientific papers, and 40+ engineering books.

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