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Life-Threatening Cardiac Emergencies for the Small Animal Practitioner

ISBN: 978-1-119-04207-5
104 pages
August 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Life-Threatening Cardiac Emergencies for the Small Animal Practitioner (1119042070) cover image

Description

Life-Threatening Cardiac Emergencies for the Small Animal Practitioner offers a quick reference to recognizing and treating common cardiac arrhythmias and emergent cardiac conditions in canine and feline patients, designed for fast access during an emergency.

  • Offers quick and easy access to key information for diagnosing and managing arrhythmias and cardiac conditions in dogs and cats
  • Designed for ease of use in the fast-paced emergency setting
  • Presents clear, reproducible ECGs, radiographs, and echocardiograms for reference and comparison
  • Part of the Rapid Reference series providing small animal practitioners with ideal quick references for patient-side guidance
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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xiii

1 Normal ECG 1

Before recording 1

ECG set up 2

Recording the ECG 2

What is measured 3

Normal ECG 3

Calculating the heart rate 3

Calculating the mean electrical axis 5

Measuring the complexes 5

2 Bradyarrhythmias 8

Sinus bradycardia 8

Sinus arrhythmia 9

Sinus arrest 10

Atrial standstill 10

AV block overview 12

First-degree AV block 12

Second-degree AV block 12

Third-degree AV block 13

Asystole 15

Cardiopulmonary arrest 16

Escape rhythms 20

3 Tachyarrhythmias 22

Atrial premature complexes 22

Ventricular premature complexes 22

Differentiating SVT from VT 24

Supraventricular tachycardia 27

Atrial fibrillation 28

Ventricular pre-excitation 32

Re-entrant tachycardia 33

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome 34

Ventricular tachycardia 35

Accelerated idioventricular rhythm 38

Ventricular flutter 39

Ventricular fibrillation 40

Torsade de pointes 40

4 Miscellaneous arrhythmias and cardiac conditions 42

Artifacts and anomalies 42

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy 42

AV junctional rhythms 45

Junctional escape beats 45

Junctional rhythm 46

Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome (sick sinus syndrome) 47

Electrical alternans (pericardial effusion) 48

Left bundle branch block 50

Left anterior fascicular block 51

Right bundle branch block 52

ST segment abnormalities 52

T wave abnormalities 53

Canine congestive heart failure—mitral valve insufficiency 55

Canine dilated cardiomyopathy 58

Feline aortic thromboembolism (saddle thrombus) 59

Feline congestive heart failure 64

Heartworm—caval syndrome (CS) 68

Pericardial effusion 73

5 Electrolyte disturbance and the ECG 77

Hyperkalemia 77

Hypokalemia 78

Hypercalcemia 78

Hypocalcemia 79

6 Emergency algorithms 80

Bradycardia algorithm 80

Tachycardia algorithm 80

Asystole algorithm (CPR) 80

Arrhythmia drug chart 80

Further reading 86

Index 000

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Author Information

Maureen McMichael, DVM, DACVECC, is a Professor in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine and Section Chief of the Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care Section at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Ryan Fries, DVM, DACVIM, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine  (cardiologist) at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in Urbana, Illinois, USA.

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Reviews

"Life-Threatening Cardiac Emergencies for the Small Animal Practitioner is a quick reference for some of the most common small animal cardiac emergencies that private practitioners encounter. The text describes a basic approach to ECG interpretation and provides a concise evaluation and review of many common cardiac arrhythmias categorized by heart rate as well as some commonly diagnosed cardiac conditions. The images presented are clear JAVMA • Vol 250 • No. 12 • June 15, 2017 1405 and easy to follow and understand with the captions provided. This book is not intended to provide readers with a detailed explanation of the electrophysiology and potential variations of arrhythmias or complete review of cardiac pathophysiology. The information presented is basic and geared more for quick reference by primary care veterinarians rather than cardiologists and is comprehensive in this regard. Overall, it is a concise, well-organized basic reference guide for common cardiac emergencies of small animals" (Reviewed by Maribeth J. Bossbaly, VMD, DACVIM, Veterinary Specialty & Emergency Center, Levittown, Pa 15th June 2017)
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