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Global Cheesemaking Technology: Cheese Quality and Characteristics

Photis Papademas (Editor), Thomas Bintsis (Co-Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-04615-8
496 pages
December 2017
Global Cheesemaking Technology: Cheese Quality and Characteristics (1119046157) cover image

Description

Global Cheesemaking Technology: Cheese Quality and Characteristics reviews cheesemaking practices, and describes cheeses and the processes from which they are manufactured. In addition, the book examines new areas to stimulate further research in addition to the already established knowledge on the scientific principles on cheesemaking.

Part I provides an account on the history of cheese, factors influencing the physicochemical properties, flavour development and sensory characteristics, microbial ecology and cheese safety, traceability and authentication of cheeses with protected labels, and traditional wooden equipment used for cheesemaking, while an overview of the cheesemaking process is also presented.

Part II describes 100 global cheeses from 17 countries, divided into 13 categories. The cheeses described are well-known types produced in large quantities worldwide, together with some important locally produced, in order to stimulate scientific interest in these cheese varieties. Each category is presented in a separate chapter with relevant research on each cheese and extensive referencing to facilitate further reading.

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Table of Contents

 

List of Contributors xxv

Preface xxix

Part 1

1 The History of Cheese 3
Paul S. Kindstedt

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Origins of Cheese 3

1.3 Cheese in Antiquity 7

1.4 Cheese in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 10

1.5 Cheese in the Modern Era 12

References 14

2 From Micelle to Melt: The Influence of Calcium on Physico-chemical Properties of Cheese 20
Darren R. Cooke and Paul L.H. McSweeney

2.1 Introduction 20

2.2 Calcium Equilibrium in Bovine Milk 21

2.2.1 Forms of Calcium in Milk 21

2.2.2 Colloidal Calcium Phosphate 22

2.2.3 Modification of Calcium Equilibrium in Bovine Milk 24

2.3 Calcium Equilibrium in Cheese 25

2.3.1 Changes in the Calcium Equilibrium of Cheese during Ripening 25

2.3.2 Methods of Calcium Equilibrium Determination in Cheese 25

2.3.3 Manipulation of Calcium Equilibrium in Cheese 26

2.3.4 Mechanisms of Calcium Equilibrium Changes during Cheese Ripening 27

2.4 The Influence of Calcium on Cheese Rheology and Functionality 31

2.4.1 The Influence of Calcium Equilibrium on Cheese Microstructure 31

2.4.2 Determination of the Rheological Properties of Cheese 32

2.4.3 Influence of Calcium on Rheological Properties of Unmelted Cheese 36

2.4.4 Influence of Calcium on Cheese Melt and High Temperature Cheese Rheology 37

2.5 Conclusions 40

References 40

3 Cheese Flavour Development and Sensory Characteristics 45
Kieran Kilcawley and Maurice O’Sullivan

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Biochemical Pathways Involved in Cheese Flavour 46

3.2.1 Glycolysis 46

3.2.2 Lipolysis 48

3.2.3 Proteolysis 53

3.3 Sensory Methods 58

3.3.1 Grading Methods 58

3.3.2 Difference Methods 59

3.3.3 Affective Sensory Testing 59

3.3.4 Descriptive Sensory Profiling 60

3.3.5 Rapid Sensory Methods 62

3.4 Data Analysis, Chemometrics and Preference Mapping 63

3.5 Conclusion 63

References 64

4 Cheese Microbial Ecology and Safety 71
Antonia Picon

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Source of Microorganisms in Cheese 71

4.3 Factors Influencing the Growth of Microorganisms in Cheese 72

4.4 Cheese Microbiota 72

4.4.1 Starter Bacteria 72

4.4.2 Non-Starter LAB 74

4.4.3 Propionibacteria 75

4.4.4 Micrococci and Staphylococci 75

4.4.5 Moulds and Yeasts 76

4.4.6 Probiotics in Cheese 77

4.5 Cheese Pathogens 77

4.5.1 Listeria monocytogenes 79

4.5.2 Escherichia coli 79

4.5.3 Salmonella enterica 80

4.5.4 Campylobacter spp. 80

4.5.5 Staphylococcus aureus 81

4.6 Other Risks of Microbial Origin 81

4.7 Growth and Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Cheese 82

4.8 Procedures to Improve Cheese Safety 84

4.8.1 Biopreservatives of Microbial Origin 84

4.8.2 Physical Treatments 86

4.9 Conclusions and Future Trends 89

References 89

5 Cheeses with Protected Land- and Tradition-Related Labels: Traceability and Authentication 100
Luiz Javier R. Barron, Noelia Aldai, Mailo Virto and Mertxe de Renobales

5.1 Introduction: Protected Land- and Tradition-Related Labels 100

5.2 Traceability 103

5.3 Authentication: What Should Be Authenticated? 103

5.3.1 Raw Materials 104

5.3.2 Geographical Location 106

5.3.3 Animal Management and Feeding Systems 108

5.3.4 Cheesemaking Technologies 111

5.3.5 Sensory Characteristics 112

5.4 Innovation, Modern Technologies and Traditional Cheeses 112

5.5 Conclusions 113

Acknowledgements 113

References 113

6 An Overview of the Cheesemaking Process 120
Thomas Bintsis and Photis Papademas

6.1 Introduction 120

6.2 Milk Types and Composition 121

6.2.1 Casein 121

6.2.2 Whey Protein 122

6.2.3 Lipids 122

6.2.4 Minerals 123

6.2.5 Lactose 123

6.3 Raw Milk Quality for Cheesemaking 123

6.3.1 Animal Nutrition and the Effect on Milk Composition 123

6.3.2 Microbial Activity of Milk 124

6.3.2.1 Hygienic Raw Milk Production 124

6.3.2.2 Milk Storage and Transport Conditions 124

6.3.2.3 Microbial Contamination 124

6.3.2.4 Raw Milk Cheeses 124

6.3.3 Other Factors Affecting Milk Composition 125

6.3.3.1 Stage of Lactation 125

6.3.3.2 Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins 125

6.3.4 Enzymatic Activity of Milk 125

6.3.4.1 Proteinases 125

6.3.4.2 Lipases 126

6.3.5 Milk Residues 126

6.3.5.1 Antibiotics 126

6.3.5.2 Mycotoxins 126

6.4 Additives in Cheese Milk 126

6.4.1 Calcium Chloride 126

6.4.2 Preservatives 127

6.4.3 Colourings 127

6.5 Milk Standardisation 127

6.6 Treatments of Raw Milk for Cheesemaking 127

6.6.1 Thermisation 127

6.6.2 Pasteurisation 128

6.6.3 Microfiltration 128

6.6.4 Ultrafiltration 128

6.6.5 Bactofugation 128

6.6.6 Homogenisation 129

6.6.7 High-Pressure Processing (HPP) 129

6.7 Acidification 129

6.8 Coagulation 131

6.9 Post-Coagulation Processes 132

6.9.1 Cutting 133

6.9.2 Cooking (Scalding) 133

6.9.3 Cheddaring 134

6.9.4 Curd Washing 134

6.9.5 Stretching 134

6.9.6 Moulding/Drainage 135

6.9.7 Pressing 135

6.9.8 Salting 135

6.10 Control of Cheesemaking Steps 136

6.11 Cheese Maturation 136

6.12 Adjunct Cultures and Acceleration of the Maturation Process 137

6.13 Packaging 138

6.14 Main Cheese Categories 140

References 152

7 Traditional Wooden Equipment Used for Cheesemaking and Their Effect on Quality 157
Giuseppe Licitra, Margherita Caccamo, Florence Valence and Sylvie Lortal

7.1 Introduction to Traditional Cheeses 157

7.2 Traditional Equipment 158

7.2.1 Wood Characteristics 160

7.3 Biofilms of Wooden Vats 161

7.4 Wooden Shelves 163

7.5 Legislation Concerning Wood in Contact with Milk or Cheeses 164

7.6 Cleaning Systems 165

7.7 Safety Assessment 167

7.8 Conclusions 168

References 169

Part II 173

Introduction 175

Cheeses from Argentina 175

Acknowledgements 175

References 176

Cheeses from Cyprus 176

Reference 177

Cheeses from Denmark 177

References 178

Cheeses from France 178

Cheeses from Germany 179

Cheeses from Greece 180

Reference 181

Cheeses from Italy 181

Cheeses from Malta 183

Cheeses from the Netherlands 183

Cheeses from Portugal 184

Cheeses from Serbia 185

References 186

Cheeses from Slovakia 186

Cheeses from Spain 187

Acknowledgements 188

Cheeses from Sweden 188

References 189

Cheeses from Switzerland 190

Acknowledgements 190

Cheeses from Turkey 191

References 192

Cheeses from the United Kingdom 192

1 Extra-Hard Cheeses 194
Giuseppe Licitra, Erica R. Hynes, Maria Cristina Perotti, Carina V. Bergamini, Elisabeth Eugster-Meier, Marie-Therese Fröhlich-Wyder, Ernst Jakob and Daniel Wechsler

1.1 Parmigiano Reggiano PDO – Italy 194

1.1.1 Introduction 194

1.1.2 Type 195

1.1.3 Milk 195

1.1.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 195

1.1.5 Method of Manufacture 195

1.1.6 Relevant Research 196

1.2 Reggianito Cheese – Argentina 197

1.2.1 Introduction 197

1.2.2 Type 197

1.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 197

1.2.4 Method of Manufacture 197

1.2.5 Relevant Research 198

Acknowledgements 199

1.3 Sbrinz PDO – Switzerland 199

1.3.1 Introduction 199

1.3.2 Type 200

1.3.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 200

1.3.4 Method of Manufacture 200

1.3.5 Relevant Research 201

References 201

2 Hard Cheeses 204

Katja Hartmann, Giuseppe Licitra, Elisabeth Eugster-Meier, Marie-Therese Fröhlich-Wyder, Ernst Jakob, Daniel Wechsler, Jean L. Maubois, Kimon-Andreas G. Karatzas, Thomas Bintsis, Efstathios Alichanidis, Maria Belén López Morales, Françoise Berthier, İrem Uzunsoy, Barbaros Özer and Ylva Ardö

2.1 Allgäu Mountain Cheese – Germany 204

2.1.1 Introduction 205

2.1.2 Type 205

2.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 205

2.1.4 Method of Manufacture 205

2.2 Asiago PDO – Italy 206

2.2.1 Introduction 206

2.2.2 Type 207

2.2.3 Milk 207

2.2.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 207

2.2.5 Method of Manufacture 208

2.2.5.1 Asiago Pressato PDO 208

2.2.5.2 Asiago d’Allevo PDO 208

2.2.5.3 Asiago ‘Prodotto di Montagna’ 209

2.2.6 Relevant Research 209

2.3 Berner Alpkäse PDO and Berner Hobelkäse PDO – Switzerland 210

2.3.1 Introduction 210

2.3.2 Type 211

2.3.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 211

2.3.4 Method of Manufacture 211

2.3.5 Relevant Research 212

2.4 Cantal PDO – France 213

2.4.1 Introduction 213

2.4.2 Milk 213

2.4.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 213

2.4.4 Method of Manufacture 214

2.5 Cheddar – United Kingdom 214

2.5.1 Type 215

2.5.2 Milk 215

2.5.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 215

2.5.4 Method of Manufacture 215

2.6 Cheshire – United Kingdom 216

2.6.1 Type 217

2.6.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 217

2.6.3 Method of Manufacture 217

2.7 Fiore Sardo PDO – Italy 218

2.7.1 Introduction 218

2.7.2 Type 218

2.7.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 218

2.7.4 Method of Manufacture 218

2.7.5 Relevant Research 219

2.8 Graviera Kritis PDO – Greece 220

2.8.1 Introduction 220

2.8.2 Type 220

2.8.3 Milk 220

2.8.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 220

2.8.5 Method of Manufacture 221

2.8.6 Relevant Research 221

2.9 Idiazabal PDO – Spain 222

2.9.1 Introduction 222

2.9.2 Type 222

2.9.3 Milk 223

2.9.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 223

2.9.5 Method of Manufacture 223

2.9.6 Relevant Research 223

2.10 Kefalograviera PDO – Greece 224

2.10.1 Introduction 225

2.10.2 Type 225

2.10.3 Milk 225

2.10.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 225

2.10.5 Method of Manufacture 225

2.10.6 Relevant Research 225

2.11 Kefalotyri – Greece 226

2.11.1 Introduction 226

2.11.2 Type 226

2.11.3 Milk 226

2.11.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 227

2.11.5 Method of Manufacture 227

2.11.6 Relevant Research 227

2.12 Le Gruyère PDO – Switzerland 228

2.12.1 Introduction 228

2.12.2 Type 228

2.12.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 228

2.12.4 Method of Manufacture 229

2.12.5 Relevant Research 230

2.13 Ossau Iraty PDO – France 230

2.13.1 Introduction 230

2.13.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 231

2.13.3 Method of Manufacture 231

2.13.4 Relevant Research 233

2.14 Tête de Moine PDO, Fromage de Bellelay – Switzerland 233

2.14.1 Introduction 233

2.14.2 Type 234

2.14.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 234

2.14.4 Method of Manufacture 234

2.14.5 Relevant Research 235

2.15 Tulum Cheese –Turkey 235

2.15.1 Introduction 235

2.15.2 Type 236

2.15.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 236

2.15.4 Method of Manufacture 236

2.15.5 Relevant Research 237

2.16 Västerbottensost – Sweden 237

2.16.1 Introduction 237

2.16.2 Type 238

2.16.3 Milk 238

2.16.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 238

2.16.5 Method of Manufacture 238

2.16.6 Relevant Research 239

2.17 Würchwitzer Mite Cheese – Germany 239

2.17.1 Introduction 240

2.17.2 Type 240

2.17.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 240

2.17.4 Method of Manufacture 240

References 241

3 Semi-hard Cheeses 247
Elisabeth Eugster-Meier, Marie-Therese Fröhlich-Wyder, Ernst Jakob, Daniel Wechsler, MariaBelén López Morales, Giuseppe Licitra, Françoise Berthier, Photis Papademas, Ylva Ardö, TâniaG. Tavares, F. Xavier Malcata, Zorica Radulovic and Jelena Miocinovic

3.1 Appenzeller® – Switzerland 247

3.1.1 Introduction 248

3.1.2 Type 248

3.1.3 Milk 248

3.1.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 248

3.1.5 Method of Manufacture 248

3.1.6 Relevant Research 250

3.2 Arzúa-Ulloa PDO – Spain 250

3.2.1 Introduction 250

3.2.2 Type 251

3.2.3 Milk 251

3.2.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 251

3.2.5 Method of Manufacture 252

3.2.6 Relevant Research 253

3.3 Castelmagno PDO – Italy 253

3.3.1 Introduction 254

3.3.2 Type 254

3.3.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 254

3.3.4 Method of Manufacture 254

3.3.5 Relevant Research 256

3.4 Comté PDO – France 256

3.4.1 Introduction 256

3.4.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 257

3.4.3 Method of Manufacture 258

3.4.4 Relevant Research 258

3.5 Flaouna Cheese – Cyprus 259

3.5.1 Introduction 259

3.5.2 Type 259

3.5.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 259

3.5.4 Method of Manufacture 260

3.6 Formaggio di Fossa di Sogliano PDO – Italy 260

3.6.1 Introduction 261

3.6.2 Type 261

3.6.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 261

3.6.4 Method of Manufacture 261

3.6.5 Relevant Research 262

3.7 Havarti – Denmark 263

3.7.1 Introduction 263

3.7.2 Type 263

3.7.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 263

3.7.4 Method of Manufacture 264

3.7.5 Relevant Research 264

3.8 Herrgård – Sweden 264

3.8.1 Introduction 265

3.8.2 Type 265

3.8.3 Milk 265

3.8.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 265

3.8.5 Method of Manufacture 265

3.8.6 Relevant Research 266

3.9 Mahón-Menorca PDO – Spain 267

3.9.1 Introduction 267

3.9.2 Type 267

3.9.3 Milk 268

3.9.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 268

3.9.5 Method of Manufacture 268

3.9.6 Relevant Research 269

3.10 Majorero PDO – Spain 269

3.10.1 Introduction 269

3.10.2 Type 270

3.10.3 Milk 270

3.10.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 270

3.10.5 Method of Manufacture 270

3.10.6 Relevant Research 271

3.11 Manchego PDO – Spain 271

3.11.1 Introduction 272

3.11.2 Type 272

3.11.3 Milk 272

3.11.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 272

3.11.5 Method of Manufacture 273

3.11.6 Relevant Research 273

3.12 Murcia al Vino PDO – Spain 274

3.12.1 Introduction 274

3.12.2 Type 274

3.12.3 Milk 274

3.12.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 275

3.12.5 Method of Manufacture 275

3.12.6 Relevant Research 275

3.13 Präst – Sweden 276

3.13.1 Introduction 276

3.13.2 Type 277

3.13.3 Milk 277

3.13.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 277

3.13.5 Method of Manufacture 277

3.13.6 Relevant Research 277

3.14 Raclette du Valais PDO – Switzerland 278

3.14.1 Introduction 278

3.14.2 Type 279

3.14.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 279

3.14.4 Method of Manufacture 279

3.14.5 Relevant Research 280

3.15 Raclette Suisse®-Switzerland 280

3.15.1 Introduction 280

3.15.2 Type 281

3.15.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 281

3.15.4 Method of Manufacture 281

3.15.5 Relevant Research 282

3.16 San Simón da Costa PDO-Spain 282

3.16.1 Introduction 283

3.16.2 Type 283

3.16.3 Milk 283

3.16.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 283

3.16.5 Method of Manufacture 284

3.16.6 Relevant Research 284

3.17 Svecia PGI – Sweden 285

3.17.1 Introduction 285

3.17.2 Type 285

3.17.3 Milk 285

3.17.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 285

3.17.5 Method of Manufacture 286

3.17.6 Relevant Research 286

3.18 Serpa – Portugal 286

3.18.1 Introduction 287

3.18.2 Milk and Rennet 287

3.18.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 287

3.18.4 Method of Manufacture 288

3.18.5 Relevant Research 288

3.19 Sombor Cheese – Serbia 289

3.19.1 Introduction 289

3.19.2 Type 289

3.19.3 Milk 290

3.19.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 290

3.19.5 Method of Manufacture290

3.19.6 Relevant Research 290

3.20 Tuma Persa PDO – Italy 291

3.20.1 Introduction 291

3.20.2 Type 292

3.20.3 Milk 292

3.20.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 292

3.20.5 Method of Manufacture 292

References 293

4 Soft Cheeses (with Rennet) 301
Maria Belén López Morales, Thomas Bintsis, Efstathios Alichanidis, Karol Herian, Paul Jelen, Erica R. Hynes, Maria Cristina Perotti, Carina V. Bergamini, Everaldo Attard, Anthony Grupetta, Stefania Carpino, Tânia G. Tavares and F. Xavier Malcata

4.1 Afuega΄l Pitu PDO – Spain 301

4.1.1 Introduction 302

4.1.2 Type 302

4.1.3 Milk 302

4.1.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 302

4.1.5 Method of Manufacture 303

4.1.6 Relevant Research 303

4.2 Anevato PDO – Greece 304

4.2.1 Introduction 304

4.2.2 Type 304

4.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 304

4.2.4 Method of Manufacture 304

4.2.5 Relevant Research 305

4.3 Bryndza – Slovakia 305

4.3.1 Introduction 305

4.3.2 Type 306

4.3.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 306

4.3.4 Method of Manufacture 306

4.4 Cremoso – Argentina 307

4.4.1 Introduction 308

4.4.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 308

4.4.3 Method of Manufacture 308

4.4.4 Relevant Research 309

Acknowledgements 309

4.5 Galotyri PDO – Greece 310

4.5.1 Introduction 310

4.5.2 Type 310

4.5.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 310

4.5.4 Method of Manufacture 310

4.5.5 Relevant Research 311

4.6 Kopanisti PDO – Greece 311

4.6.1 Introduction 311

4.6.2 Type 311

4.6.3 Milk 311

4.6.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 312

4.6.5 Method of Manufacture 312

4.6.6 Relevant Research 312

4.7 Maltese Ġbejna – Malta 312

4.7.1 Introduction 313

4.7.2 Type 314

4.7.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 314

4.7.4 Method of Manufacture 314

4.7.5 Relevant Research 315

4.8 Serra da Estrela PDO – Portugal 316

4.8.1 Introduction 316

4.8.2 Milk 317

4.8.3 Rennet 317

4.8.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 317

4.8.5 Method of Manufacture 318

4.8.6 Relevant Research 319

4.9 Torta del Casar PDO – Spain 319

4.9.1 Introduction 320

4.9.2 Type 320

4.9.3 Milk 320

4.9.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 320

4.9.5 Method of Manufacture 320

4.9.6 Relevant Research 321

References 321

5 Dutch-Type Cheeses 326
Eva-Maria Düsterhöft, Wim Engels and Thom Huppertz

5.1 Edam Cheese – The Netherlands 326

5.1.1 Introduction 326

5.1.2 Type 327

5.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 327

5.1.4 Method of Manufacture 327

5.2 Gouda – The Netherlands 329

5.2.1 Introduction 329

5.2.2 Type 329

5.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 329

5.2.4 Method of Manufacture 330

5.2.5 Relevant Research 332

5.3 Hollandse Geitenkaas (Dutch Goat’s Cheese) PGI – The Netherlands 332

5.3.1 Introduction 333

5.3.2 Type 333

5.3.3 Milk 333

5.3.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 333

5.3.5 Method of Manufacture 334

References 334

6 Swiss-Type Cheeses (Propionic Acid Cheeses) 336
Katja Hartmann, Elisabeth Eugster-Meier, Marie-Therese Fröhlich-Wyder, Ernst Jakob, Daniel Wechsler, Ylva Ardö, Eva-Maria Düsterhöft, Wim Engels, Thom Huppertz, Erica R. Hynes, Maria Cristina Perotti and Carina V. Bergamini

6.1 Allgäu Emmental PDO – Germany 336

6.1.1 Introduction 336

6.1.2 Type 337

6.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 337

6.1.4 Method of Manufacture 337

6.2 Emmentaler PDO – Switzerland 338

6.2.1 Introduction 338

6.2.2 Type 339

6.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 339

6.2.4 Method of Manufacture 339

6.2.5 Relevant Research 340

6.3 Grevé – Sweden 340

6.3.1 Introduction 340

6.3.2 Type 341

6.3.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 341

6.3.4 Method of Manufacture 341

6.3.5 Relevant Research 341

6.4 Maasdammer – The Netherlands 342

6.4.1 Introduction 342

6.4.2 Type 342

6.4.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 342

6.4.4 Method of Manufacture 343

6.4.5 Relevant Research 344

6.5 Pategrás Cheese – Argentina 344

6.5.1 Introduction 344

6.5.2 Type 344

6.5.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 345

6.5.4 Method of Manufacture 345

6.5.5 Relevant Research 346

Acknowledgements 346

References 346

7 White-Brined Cheeses 349
Thomas Bintsis, Efstathios Alichanidis, İrem Uzunsoy, Barbaros Özer, Photis Papademas,Zorica Radulovic and Jelena Miocinovic

7.1 Batzos PDO – Greece 349

7.1.1 Introduction 349

7.1.2 Type 350

7.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 350

7.1.4 Method of Manufacture 350

7.1.5 Relevant Research 350

7.2 Beyaz Peynir – Turkey 351

7.2.1 Introduction 351

7.2.2 Type 351

7.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 352

7.2.4 Method of Manufacture 352

7.2.5 Relevant Research 352

7.3 Feta PDO – Greece 353

7.3.1 Introduction 353

7.3.2 Type 353

7.3.3 Milk 354

7.3.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 354

7.3.5 Method of Manufacture 354

7.3.6 Relevant Research 355

7.4 Halitzia – Cyprus 356

7.4.1 Introduction 356

7.4.2 Type 356

7.4.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 356

7.4.4 Method of Manufacture 356

7.5 Halloumi – Cyprus 357

7.5.1 Introduction 357

7.5.2 Type 357

7.5.3 Milk 358

7.5.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 358

7.5.5 Method of Manufacture 358

7.5.6 Relevant Research 359

7.6 Mihalıç – Turkey 359

7.6.1 Introduction 359

7.6.2 Type 359

7.6.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 359

7.6.4 Method of Manufacture 360

7.6.5 Relevant Research 360

7.7 Sjenica – Serbia 361

7.7.1 Introduction 361

7.7.2 Type 361

7.7.3 Milk 361

7.7.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 362

7.7.5 Method of Manufacture 362

7.7.6 Relevant Research 362

7.8 Urfa – Turkey 363

7.8.1 Introduction 363

7.8.2 Type 363

7.8.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 363

7.8.4 Method of Manufacture 364

7.8.5 Relevant Research 364

References 365

8 Pasta-Filata Cheeses 368
Giuseppe Licitra, Zorica Radulovic, Jelena Miocinovic, İrem Uzunsoy, Barbaros Özer,Thomas Bintsis, Efstathios Alichanidis, Karol Herian and Paul Jelen

8.1 Caciocavallo Podolico PDO – Italy 368

8.1.1 Introduction 368

8.1.2 Type 369

8.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 369

8.1.4 Method of Manufacture 369

8.2 Kachkaval (Kačkavalj) – Serbia 370

8.2.1 Introduction 371

8.2.2 Type 371

8.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 371

8.2.4 Method of Manufacture 371

8.2.5 Relevant Research 372

8.3 Kashar (Kaşar Peyniri) – Turkey 372

8.3.1 Introduction 372

8.3.2 Type 373

8.3.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 373

8.3.4 Method of Manufacture 373

8.3.5 Relevant Research 374

8.4 Kasseri PDO – Greece 374

8.4.1 Introduction 375

8.4.2 Type 375

8.4.3 Milk 375

8.4.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 375

8.4.5 Method of Manufacture 375

8.4.6 Relevant Research 376

8.5 Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO – Italy 376

8.5.1 Introduction 376

8.5.2 Type 377

8.5.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 377

8.5.4 Methods of Manufacture 377

8.5.5 Relevant Research 379

8.6 Parenica – Slovakia 379

8.6.1 Introduction 379

8.6.2 Type 380

8.6.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 380

8.6.4 Method of Manufacture 380

8.7 Provolone Valpadana PDO – Italy 382

8.7.1 Introduction 382

8.7.2 Type 382

8.7.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 382

8.7.4 Methods of Manufacture 382

8.8 Ragusano PDO – Italy 383

8.8.1 Introduction 383

8.8.2 Type 384

8.8.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 384

8.8.4 Methods of Manufacture 384

8.8.5 Relevant Research 386

8.9 Vastedda della Valle del Belìce PDO – Italy 386

8.9.1 Introduction 386

8.9.2 Type 387

8.9.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 387

8.9.4 Method of Manufacture 387

8.9.5 Relevant Research 388

References 389

9 Mould Surface-Ripened Cheeses 392
Katja Hartmann and Jean L. Maubois

9.1 Altenburger Goat Cheese PDO – Germany 392

9.1.1 Introduction 392

9.1.2 Type 393

9.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 393

9.1.4 Method of Manufacture 393

9.2 Camembert de Normandie PDO – France 394

9.2.1 Introduction 394

9.2.2 Milk 394

9.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 394

9.2.4 Method of Manufacture 394

References 395

10 Bacterial Surface-Ripened (Smear) Cheeses 397
Ylva Ardö, Françoise Berthier, Katja Hartmann, Elisabeth Eugster-Meier,Marie-Therese Fröhlich-Wyder*, Ernst Jakob and Daniel Wechsler

10.1 Danbo – Denmark 397

10.1.1 Introduction 397

10.1.2 Type 398

10.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 398

10.1.4 Method of Manufacture 398

10.1.5 Relevant Research 399

10.2 Epoisses PDO – France 399

10.2.1 Introduction 399

10.2.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 400

10.2.3 Method of Manufacture 400

10.2.4 Relevant Research 401

10.3 Esrom PGI – Denmark 401

10.3.1 Introduction 402

10.3.2 Type 402

10.3.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 402

10.3.4 Method of Manufacture 402

10.4 Hohenheim Trappisten – Germany 403

10.4.1 Introduction 403

10.4.2 Type 403

10.4.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 403

10.4.4 Method of Manufacture 403

10.5 Maroilles PDO – France 404

10.5.1 Introduction 404

10.5.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 405

10.5.3 Method of Manufacture 406

10.5.4 Relevant Research 406

10.6 Reblochon PDO – France 407

10.6.1 Introduction 407

10.6.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 408

10.6.3 Method of Manufacture 408

10.6.4 Relevant Research 409

10.7 Vacherin Mont-d’Or PDO – Switzerland 409

10.7.1 Introduction 410

10.7.2 Type 410

10.7.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 410

10.7.4 Method of Manufacture 410

10.7.5 Relevant Research 411

References 412

11 Blue-Veined Cheeses 415
Maria Belén López Morales, Ylva Ardö, Françoise Berthier, Kimon-Andreas G. Karatzas and Thomas Bintsis

11.1 Cabrales PDO – Spain 415

11.1.1 Introduction 415

11.1.2 Type 416

11.1.3 Milk 416

11.1.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 416

11.1.5 Method of Manufacture 417

11.1.6 Relevant Research 417

11.2 Danablu PGI – Denmark 418

11.2.1 Introduction 418

11.2.2 Type 418

11.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 418

11.2.4 Method of Manufacture 419

11.2.5 Relevant Research 419

11.3 Fourme d’Ambert PDO – France 420

11.4 Fourme de Montbrison PDO – France 420

11.4.1 Introduction 420

11.4.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 422

11.4.3 Method of Manufacture 422

11.4.4 Relevant Research 423

11.5 Gamonedo PDO – Spain 423

11.5.1 Introduction 424

11.5.2 Type 424

11.5.3 Milk 424

11.5.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 424

11.5.5 Method of Manufacture 425

11.5.6 Relevant Research 425

11.6 Roquefort PDO – France 426

11.6.1 Introduction 426

11.6.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 427

11.6.3 Method of Manufacture 427

11.6.4 Relevant Research 428

11.7 Stilton PDO – United Kingdom 429

11.7.1 Introduction 429

11.7.2 Type 430

11.7.3 Milk 430

11.7.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 430

11.7.5 Method of Manufacture 430

11.7.6 Relevant Research 431

References 432

12 Acid-Coagulated Cheeses 436
Katja Hartmann, Françoise Berthier and Giuseppe Licitra

12.1 Acid Curd (Harzer) – Germany 436

12.1.1 Introduction 436

12.1.2 Type 436

12.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 437

12.1.4 Method of Manufacture 437

12.2 Crottin de Chavignol PDO – France 438

12.2.1 Introduction 438

12.2.2 Description and Sensory Characteristics 439

12.2.3 Method of Manufacture 439

12.2.4 Relevant Research 440

12.3 Quark – Germany 441

12.3.1 Introduction 441

12.3.2 Type 441

12.3.3 Milk 441

12.3.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 441

12.3.5 Method of Manufacture 442

12.4 Robiola di Roccaverano PDO – Italy 442

12.4.1 Introduction 443

12.4.2 Type 443

12.4.3 Milk 443

12.4.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 443

12.4.5 Method of Manufacture 443

12.4.6 Relevant Research 444

References 444

13 Whey Cheeses (Heat Coagulated) 446
Photis Papademas, Thomas Bintsis, Efstathios Alichanidis and Ylva Ardö

13.1 Anari – Cyprus 446

13.1.1 Introduction 446

13.1.2 Type 447

13.1.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 447

13.1.4 Method of Manufacture 447

13.2 Anthotyros – Greece 447

13.2.1 Introduction 448

13.2.2 Type 448

13.2.3 Description and Sensory Characteristics 448

13.2.4 Method of Manufacture 448

13.2.5 Relevant Research 448

13.3 Manouri PDO – Greece 449

13.3.1 Introduction 449

13.3.2 Type 449

13.3.3 Whey 449

13.3.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 449

13.3.5 Method of Manufacture 449

13.3.6 Relevant Research 450

13.4 Mesost and Messmör – Sweden 450

13.4.1 Introduction 450

13.4.2 Type 451

13.4.3 Whey 451

13.4.4 Description and Sensory Characteristics 451

13.4.5 Method of Manufacture 451

References 451

Index 453

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Author Information

About the Editors
PHOTIS PAPADEMAS
is Assistant Professor of Dairy Science and Technology at the Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.

THOMAS BINTSIS is a consultant to the dairy industry and auditor of food safety management systems, and was formerly an adjunct lecturer at the Technological Education Institute of West Macedonia, Greece.

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