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Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-05209-8
792 pages
September 2016
Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 4th Edition (1119052092) cover image

Description

An advanced, practical approach to the first and second laws of thermodynamics

Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics bridges the gap between engineering applications and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Going beyond the basic coverage offered by most textbooks, this authoritative treatment delves into the advanced topics of energy and work as they relate to various engineering fields. This practical approach describes real-world applications of thermodynamics concepts, including solar energy, refrigeration, air conditioning, thermofluid design, chemical design, constructal design, and more. This new fourth edition has been updated and expanded to include current developments in energy storage, distributed energy systems, entropy minimization, and industrial applications, linking new technologies in sustainability to fundamental thermodynamics concepts. Worked problems have been added to help students follow the thought processes behind various applications, and additional homework problems give them the opportunity to gauge their knowledge.

The growing demand for sustainability and energy efficiency has shined a spotlight on the real-world applications of thermodynamics. This book helps future engineers make the fundamental connections, and develop a clear understanding of this complex subject.

  • Delve deeper into the engineering applications of thermodynamics
  • Work problems directly applicable to engineering fields
  • Integrate thermodynamics concepts into sustainability design and policy
  • Understand the thermodynamics of emerging energy technologies

Condensed introductory chapters allow students to quickly review the fundamentals before diving right into practical applications. Designed expressly for engineering students, this book offers a clear, targeted treatment of thermodynamics topics with detailed discussion and authoritative guidance toward even the most complex concepts. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics is the definitive modern treatment of energy and work for today's newest engineers.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xvii

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xxi

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION xxv

PREFACE xxix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxxvii

1 THE FIRST LAW 1

1.1 Terminology, 1

1.2 Closed Systems, 4

1.3 Work Transfer, 7

1.4 Heat Transfer, 12

1.5 Energy Change, 16

1.6 Open Systems, 18

1.7 History, 23

References, 31

Problems, 33

2 THE SECOND LAW 39

2.1 Closed Systems, 39

2.2 Open Systems, 54

2.3 Local Equilibrium, 56

2.4 Entropy Maximum and Energy Minimum, 57

2.5 Carathéodory’s Two Axioms, 62

2.6 A Heat Transfer Man’s Two Axioms, 71

2.7 History, 77

References, 78

Problems, 80

3 ENTROPY GENERATION, OR EXERGY DESTRUCTION 95

3.1 Lost Available Work, 96

3.2 Cycles, 102

3.3 Nonflow Processes, 109

3.4 Steady-Flow Processes, 113

3.5 Mechanisms of Entropy Generation, 119

3.6 Entropy Generation Minimization, 126

References, 132

Problems, 133

4 SINGLE-PHASE SYSTEMS 140

4.1 Simple System, 140

4.2 Equilibrium Conditions, 141

4.3 The Fundamental Relation, 146

4.4 Legendre Transforms, 154

4.5 Relations between Thermodynamic Properties, 163

4.6 Partial Molal Properties, 179

4.7 Ideal Gas Mixtures, 183

4.8 Real Gas Mixtures, 186

References, 189

Problems, 190

5 EXERGY ANALYSIS 195

5.1 Nonflow Systems, 195

5.2 Flow Systems, 198

5.3 Generalized Exergy Analysis, 201

5.4 Air Conditioning, 203

References, 210

Problems, 210

6 MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS 213

6.1 The Energy Minimum Principle, 213

6.2 The Stability of a Simple System, 219

6.3 The Continuity of the Vapor and Liquid States, 224

6.4 Phase Diagrams, 236

6.5 Corresponding States, 247

References, 264

Problems, 266

7 CHEMICALLY REACTIVE SYSTEMS 271

7.1 Equilibrium, 271

7.2 Irreversible Reactions, 287

7.3 Steady-Flow Combustion, 295

7.4 The Chemical Exergy of Fuels, 316

7.5 Combustion at Constant Volume, 320

References, 324

Problems, 325

8 POWER GENERATION 328

8.1 Maximum Power Subject to Size Constraint, 328

8.2 Maximum Power from a Hot Stream, 332

8.3 External Irreversibilities, 338

8.4 Internal Irreversibilities, 344

8.5 Advanced Steam Turbine Power Plants, 352

8.6 Advanced Gas Turbine Power Plants, 366

8.7 Combined Steam Turbine and Gas Turbine Power Plants, 376

References, 379

Problems, 381

9 SOLAR POWER 394

9.1 Thermodynamic Properties of Thermal Radiation, 394

9.2 Reversible Processes, 403

9.3 Irreversible Processes, 404

9.4 The Ideal Conversion of Enclosed Blackbody Radiation, 413

9.5 Maximization of Power Output Per Unit Collector Area, 424

9.6 Convectively Cooled Collectors, 431

9.7 Extraterrestrial Solar Power Plant, 436

9.8 Climate, 438

9.9 Self-Pumping and Atmospheric Circulation, 449

References, 453

Problems, 455

10 REFRIGERATION 461

10.1 Joule–Thomson Expansion, 461

10.2 Work-Producing Expansion, 468

10.3 Brayton Cycle, 471

10.4 Intermediate Cooling, 477

10.5 Liquefaction, 492

10.6 Refrigerator Models with Internal Heat Leak, 502

10.7 Magnetic Refrigeration, 509

References, 518

Problems, 521

11 ENTROPY GENERATION MINIMIZATION 531

11.1 Competing Irreversibilities, 531

11.2 Balanced Counterflow Heat Exchangers, 543

11.3 Storage Systems, 555

11.4 Power Maximization or Entropy Generation Minimization, 570

11.5 From Entropy Generation Minimization to Constructal Law, 583

References, 592

Problems, 595

12 IRREVERSIBLE THERMODYNAMICS 601

12.1 Conjugate Fluxes and Forces, 602

12.2 Linearized Relations, 606

12.3 Reciprocity Relations, 607

12.4 Thermoelectric Phenomena, 610

12.5 Heat Conduction in Anisotropic Media, 625

12.6 Mass Diffusion, 635

References, 640

Problems, 642

13 THE CONSTRUCTAL LAW 646

13.1 Evolution, 646

13.2 Mathematical Formulation of the Constructal Law, 649

13.3 Inanimate Flow Systems, 655

13.4 Animate Flow Systems, 673

13.5 Size and Efficiency: Economies of Scale, 689

13.6 Growth, Spreading, and Collecting, 691

13.7 Asymmetry and Vascularization, 693

13.8 Human Preferences for Shapes, 697

13.9 The Arrow of Time, 699

References, 702

Problems, 706

APPENDIX 725

Constants, 725

Mathematical Formulas, 726

Variational Calculus, 727

Properties of Moderately Compressed Liquid States, 728

Properties of Slightly Superheated Vapor States, 729

Properties of Cold Water Near the Density Maximum, 729

References, 730

SYMBOLS 731

INDEX 741

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Author Information

ADRIAN BEJAN is the J.A. Jones Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Duke University, and an internationally-recognized authority on thermodynamics. The father of the field of design in nature or constructal law, which accounts for the universal natural tendency of all flow systems to evolve freely toward easier flow access, his research covers a broad range of topics in thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, convection, and porous media. Professor Bejan has been awarded eighteen honorary doctorates by universities in eleven countries, and is the recipient of numerous awards including the Max Jacob Memorial Award (ASME & AIChE), the Worcester Reed Warner Medal (ASME), and the Ralph Coats Roe Award (ASEE). The author of over 630 journal articles, he is considered one of the 100 most-cited engineering researchers of all disciplines, in all countries.

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