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Advanced Smartgrids for Distribution System Operators

ISBN: 978-1-119-05406-1
252 pages
November 2014, Wiley-ISTE
Advanced Smartgrids for Distribution System Operators (1119054060) cover image

Description

The dynamic of the Energy Transition is engaged in many region of the World. This is a real challenge for electric systems and a paradigm shift for existing distribution networks. With the help of "advanced" smart technologies, the Distribution System Operators will have a central role to integrate massively renewable generation, electric vehicle and demand response programs. Many projects are on-going to develop and assess advanced smart grids solutions, with already some lessons learnt. In the end, the Smart Grid is a mean for Distribution System Operators to ensure the quality and the security of power supply.

Several books have been written to provide a definition of Smart grids, explore the different technical evolution needed and explain / analyse what would be the benefits. All those books are conducted on theoretical basis by academics and strategy consultants. This new book will propose a complementary and singular approach based on a practical experience from DSO's.

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Table of Contents

FOREWORD xiii

PREFACE xvii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xix

LIST OF FIGURES xxi

LIST OF ACRONYMS xxv

WELCOME TO “ADVANCED SMART GRIDS” xxxi

CHAPTER 1. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATORS IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT 1

1.1. Energy policies promoting the energy transition 1

1.2. A new era of technological revolution 9

CHAPTER 2. THE EXISTING DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS: DESIGN AND OPERATION 13

2.1. Above all, smart grids remain grids! 14

2.2. The DSO, a player at the heart of the power system 15

2.3. A necessary mastery of technical and regulatory constraints 18

2.4. Generalities of network design 22

2.4.1. Energy transformers 24

2.4.2. Wiring and architectures 25

2.4.3. Safeguard devices 28

2.4.4. Sensors, digital equipment and software 29

2.4.5. The importance of telecommunication for operating the distribution networks 31

2.5. The factors that differentiate network architecture 33

2.5.1. Voltage levels 34

2.5.2. The neutral point treatment in MV networks 36

2.5.3. The balance between automation, redundancy and reliability 39

2.5.4. The density and layout of the serviced area 40

2.5.5. The variation in building design 41

2.6. Network safety and planning 41

2.6.1. Development of distribution networks 43

2.6.2. Operating distribution networks 43

2.6.3. Studies in operational safety 44

2.6.4. Monte Carlo method 44

2.6.5. Some results from applying the Monte Carlo method 45

2.7. Progressive modernization of a distribution network – the French example 46

2.7.1. Standardization (1950–1965) and expansion of the network (1965–1985) 47

2.7.2. Achieving a minimal quality level for every customer 48

2.7.3. Targeted improvement of quality according to needs 50

2.7.4. Progressive desensitization of networks toward climate hazards 51

CHAPTER 3. MAIN DRIVERS AND FUNCTIONS OF ADVANCED SMART GRIDS 53

3.1. Drivers of the evolution of distribution grids 53

3.1.1. Massive integration of renewable energy sources 53

3.1.2. Contribution to the development of electric vehicle and the charging infrastructures 55

3.1.3. Implementation of new market mechanisms (peak shaving, capacity market, etc.) 57

3.1.4. Participation in the development of new uses contributing to energy efficiency 60

3.1.5. Urban renewal and the rise of the smart city in favor of resource optimization 61

3.1.6. Integration of energy storage solutions 62

3.2. Main functions of the advanced smart grid 68

3.2.1. Toward dynamic network management by the distribution system operators 68

3.2.2. Structuring the target model based on key functions 69

3.2.3. Enhancing efficiency in day-to-day grid operation 72

3.2.4. Ensuring network security, system control and quality of supply 75

3.2.5. Improving market functioning and customer service 77

3.2.6. European network codes 79

CHAPTER 4. METERING: A CORE ACTIVITY OF THE DSOS 81

4.1. Smart meters are key tools for the deployment of smart grids 81

4.2. A continuous improvement and innovation approach 82

4.2.1. From manual to remote reading for mass market customers 82

4.2.2. 20 years of smart metering and remote reading for industrial clients 83

4.3. AMI metering systems 84

4.4. Focus on Linky smart metering system 90

4.4.1. Scope of the project 90

4.4.2. Architecture and technical choices 92

4.4.3. A point on system operation 94

4.4.4. Scalability and security of the Linky system 99

4.4.5. Techno-economic analysis 100

4.5. Focus on G3-PLC technology 101

4.5.1. Communication principles of the power line carrier 101

4.5.2. Different types of physical level PLC modulation technique 101

4.5.3. The characteristics of G3-PLC technology 105

4.5.4. G3-PLC is a mature standard 109

4.6. The contribution of smart meters for the development of advanced smart grids 111

4.6.1. France: Linky at the service of the distribution network 111

CHAPTER 5. FOCUS ON FLEXIBILITY OPTIONS 119

5.1. Flexibility, a complementary tool for DSOs 119

5.1.1. Introduction 119

5.1.2. DSO needs in terms of flexibility 120

5.1.3. The value of flexibility 123

5.1.4. Alliander Smart Grids Cost Benefits Analysis (source: Alliander) 124

5.1.5. Two major categories of levers can be activated 126

5.1.6. Analysis of the Merit Order 127

5.1.7. Information exchange mechanism between DSO and TSO 128

5.1.8. Lessons learned from several international business cases 128

5.2. Participation of end users to flexibility services 130

5.2.1. Introduction 130

5.2.2. Focus on different tools and services downstream of the smart meter 132

5.2.3. The necessary engagement of end-customers 137

5.2.4. International benchmark and lessons learnt 138

5.3. Data management as key success factor 139

5.3.1. DSOs have a long experience in data management 139

5.3.2. DSO, the market facilitator 142

CHAPTER 6. PILOT PROJECTS AND USE CASES 145

6.1. A global dynamic with regional specificities 145

6.2. North America 147

6.2.1. Drivers of smart grids development 147

6.2.2. Primary experimental approaches 148

6.3. Asia 150

6.3.1. Drivers of smart grids development 150

6.3.2. A proactive experimental approach 151

6.4. Europe 154

6.4.1. Drivers of smart grids development 154

6.4.2. Primary experimental approaches 157

6.5. The European project Grid4EU, fosters and accelerates experience sharing 158

6.5.1. A large-scale demonstration project bringing together six European DSOs 158

6.5.2. DEMO 1 (Germany – RWE) MV network operation automation and determining the ratio of decentralized intelligence in secondary substations 160

6.5.3. DEMO 2 (Sweden – Vattenfal): a tool for LV operation and in particular identifying LV failures 161

6.5.4. DEMO 3 (Spain – Iberdrola) MV and LV failure detection, reconfiguration of the MV network during an incident 162

6.5.5. DEMO 4 (Italy – ENEL) economic model and technical operation of storage, MV voltage regulation, anti-islanding of decentralized generation 164

6.5.6. DEMO 5 (Czech Republic – CEZ) operating islanding with co-generation, MV and LV failure detection and reconfiguration of the MV network following an incident 165

6.5.7. DEMO6 (France – ERDF): project NiceGrid 167

6.6. An approach based on use cases 168

6.6.1. Definition 168

6.6.2. Advantages 169

6.6.3. The development of use cases 169

6.7. Focus on some advanced projects of the ISGAN case book about Demand Side Management 171

6.7.1. Denmark – EcoGrid EU 173

6.7.2. Japan – Kitakyushu Smart Community Creation Project 174

6.7.3. The Netherlands – PowerMatchingCity 175

6.7.4. Canada – a virtual power plant to balance wind energy 177

CHAPTER 7. SMART GRIDS ARE THE FUTURE FOR DSO 181

7.1. Advanced smart grids for DSOs worldwide 181

7.1.1. The evolution towards smart grids is ineluctable 181

7.1.2. The development of smart grids is a necessity for the DSOs 183

7.1.3. But also an opportunity 185

7.2. A necessary evolution of skills and jobs of the DSOs 186

7.2.1. Competences are necessary to conduct experimentations successfully and to get the most feedback from them 186

7.2.2. Once the experiments are finished, the resources and competences need to be reinforced in preparation for large-scale industrialization and deployment 187

7.3. The French electrical sector mobilizes: the “Smart Grids” plan 189

CHAPTER 8. KEY FINDINGS 193

8.1. Smart grids or the real network revolution 193

8.1.1. Smart grids 194

8.2. More RES means more network 195

8.3. The DSO is a facilitator 196

8.4. Consumer or “consum’player”? 197

8.5. Smart meter at the service of smart grids 199

8.6. A smart bubble? 199

8.7. Invest to save? 201

8.8. Smart grids: a genuine industrial opportunity 201

BIBLIOGRAPHY 203

INDEX 211

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Author Information

Marc Boillot, Senior Vice President, Project Development and International at ERDF, France

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