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Transience and Permanence in Urban Development

John Henneberry (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-05565-5
280 pages
May 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Temporary urban uses innovative ways to transform cities or new means to old ends?

The scale and variety of temporary – or meanwhile or interim – urban uses and spaces has grown rapidly in response to the dramatic increase in vacant and derelict land and buildings, particularly in post-industrial cities. To some, this indicates that a paradigm shift in city making is underway. To others, alternative urbanism is little more than a distraction that temporarily cloaks some of the negative outcomes of conventional urban development. However, rigorous, theoretically informed criticism of temporary uses has been limited. The book draws on international experience to address this shortcoming from the perspectives of the law, sociology, human geography, urban studies, planning and real estate.

It considers how time – and the way that it is experienced – informs alternative perspectives on transience. It emphasises the importance, for analysis, of the structural position of a temporary use in an urban system in spatial, temporal and socio-cultural terms. It illustrates how this position is contingent upon circumstances. What may be deemed a helpful and acceptable use to established institutions in one context may be seen as a problematic, unacceptable use in another. What may be a challenging and fulfilling alternative use to its proponents may lose its allure if it becomes successful in conventional terms. Conceptualisations of temporary uses are, therefore, mutable and the use of fixed or insufficiently differentiated frames of reference within which to study them should be avoided. It then identifies the major challenges of transforming a temporary use into a long-term use. These include the demands of regulatory compliance, financial requirements, levels of expertise and so on. Finally, the potential impacts of policy on temporary uses, both inadvertent and intended, are considered. 

The first substantive, critical review of temporary urban uses, Transience and Permanence in Urban Development is essential reading for academics, policy makers, practitioners and students of cities worldwide. 

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Notes on Contributors xv

Preface xxi

Acknowledgements xxv

1 Introduction: Temporary Uses as Alternative Practices 1
John Henneberry

Vacant land and temporary use 1

Theorising and conceptualising temporary use 3

Describing and analysing temporary uses 6

Critical analysis of temporary use 9

The coverage of the book 11

Acknowledgement 13

References 14

2 Forcing the Empties Back to Work? Ruinphobia and the Bluntness of Law and Policy 17
Luke Bennett

Introduction: gazing upon the New Ruins 17

How ruinphobia unsettles us 18

Tracing ruinphobia into urban law and policy 20

Time is always running out for a building and its uses 26

Is ruinphobia forcing empties back to work, or are law’s tools blunt? 27

References 28

3 Liminal Spaces and Theorising the Permanence of Transience 31
Nicola Livingstone and Peter Matthews

Introduction 31

Theorising transient spatialities 33

Food banks as spaces of the in-between 36

Temporalities and ‘yet-ness’ in Wester Hailes 39

Conclusion 42

References 43

4 Temporary Uses Producing Difference in Contemporary Urbanism 47
Panu Lehtovuori and Sampo Ruoppila

Introduction 47

The difference that temporary uses may produce 48

Temporary uses, appropriation and the Right to the City 49

Towards a socio-spatial theory of temporary uses – margins, fallows, amenities, commons 51

Difference driven by users 54

Temporary uses, regeneration and gentrification 57

Conclusion: non-commodified spaces in a commodifying city 60

References 62

5 Short-Term Projects, Long-Term Ambitions: Facets of Transience in Two London Development Sites 65
Krystallia Kamvasinou

Introduction 65

Historical framework 66

Case study 1: Canning Town Caravanserai: semi-public community and events space with emphasis on up-cycling 68

Case study 2: Cultivate London Brentford Lock: urban farm and social enterprise project 73

Analytical framework: key themes 78

Concluding thoughts 80

Acknowledgements 82

References 82

6 Navigating the Rapids of Urban Development: Lessons from the Biospheric Foundation, Salford, UK 85
Beth Perry, Vincent Walsh and Catherine Barlow

Introduction 85

From vision to practice 86

The Janus faces of urban socio-ecological experimentation 95

Acknowledgements 98

References 98

7 The Urban Voids of Istanbul 101
Basak Tanulku

Istanbul: global city of Turkey with no ‘vacancy’ 102

Different types of urban voids in Istanbul 103

Three case studies 105

Physical void: from ghostly historic homes to high-value offices 105

Physical void: squatting as an alternative space 108

Symbolic void: the Ataturk Cultural Centre 111

Conclusion 114

Acknowledgments 115

References 115

8 Institutionalizing Urban Possibility: Urban Greening and Vacant Land Governance in Three American Cities 117
Katherine Foo

State strategies in urban shrinkage 117

Environmental coalitions in urban shrinkage 118

Methods 119

Civic environmental coalitions in weak land markets 120

Windows of opportunity: political coalitions in Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore 122

Political will and investment capacity: a counter-cyclical relationship 128

References 129

9 The Trajectory of Berlin’s ‘Interim Spaces’: Tensions and Conflicts in the Mobilisation of ‘Temporary Uses’ of Urban Space in Local Economic Development 131
Claire Colomb

‘Temporary uses’ and ‘interim spaces’ in reunified Berlin 132

The mobilisation of ‘temporary uses’ in local economic development and place marketing policies 134

The dilemmas and tensions inherent in the mobilisation of temporary uses as a tool of urban revitalisation: trajectories, conflicts and resistance 136

The contested future of the Tempelhof airfield 141

Conclusion 146

References 147

10 Pop-up Justice? Reflecting on Relationships in the Temporary City 151
Amelia Thorpe, Timothy Moore and Lee Stickells

Tactics and interventions 151

Justice in the city 154

Attending to the particular 157

Attending to the collective 161

Conclusion 165

Acknowledgements 166

References 166

11 Planning, Property Rights, and the Tragedy of the Anticommons: Temporary Uses in Portland and Detroit 171
Matthew F Gebhardt

Introduction 171

The Tragedy of the Anticommons 172

Anticommons and real estate development 173

Anticommons, informality, and temporary use 175

Case studies 177

Conclusion 182

References 183

12 Valuation and the Evolution of New Uses and Buildings 185
Neil Crosby and John Henneberry

Introduction 185

The acceptance of the new 186

The comparative approach to property valuation 189

The institutional context of the application of comparison techniques 193

The calculative regime of comparative valuation 195

References 196

13 Public Policy and Urban Transience: Provoking New Urban Development through Contemporary Models of Property Based Finance in England 199
Kevin Muldoon-Smith and Paul Greenhalgh

Introduction: public policy and urban transience 199

Conceptual framework 200

Fiscal decentralisation and the urban built environment 202

Financing urban transience 206

Discussion and conclusion 210

References 212

14 Tackling Hardcore Vacancy through Compulsory Sale Orders 215
David Adams

Introduction 215

Hardcore vacancy 216

An institutional explanation of hardcore vacancy 220

Compulsory Sale Orders 224

Balancing property rights and responsibilities 226

Conclusions 228

References 229

15 Frameworks for Temporary Use: Experiments of Urban Regeneration in Bremen, Rome and Budapest 231
Daniela Patti and Levente Polyak

The conditions of temporary use 232

Transferring models 233

Municipality-initiated temporary use: ZwischenZeitZentrale, Bremen 235

Formalising activism: temporary use experiments in Rome 238

Establishing trust: public and private initiatives for temporary use in Budapest 242

Conclusions 246

References 248

16 Conclusions: The Tensions and Dilemmas of Transience 249
John Henneberry

Time, transience and temporality 250

The structural position of transience in the urban system 252

The transition from temporary to established use 256

Policy and transience 260

Conclusions 263

Acknowledgements 264

References 264

Index 265

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Author Information

About the Editor

John Henneberry is Professor of Property Development Studies at The University of Sheffield, UK, and a Chartered Planner and Chartered Surveyor. He has researched and published on property development and investment and their roles in urban and regional development for over 30 years. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences, UK.

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