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System Engineering Analysis, Design, and Development: Concepts, Principles, and Practices, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-06270-7
882 pages
February 2016
System Engineering Analysis, Design, and Development: Concepts, Principles, and Practices, 2nd Edition (1119062705) cover image

Description

Praise for the first edition:

This excellent text will be useful to every system engineer (SE) regardless of the domain. It covers ALL relevant SE material and does so in a very clear, methodical fashion. The breadth and depth of the author's presentation of SE principles and practices is outstanding.”  –Philip Allen

This textbook presents a comprehensive, step-by-step guide to System Engineering analysis, design, and development via an integrated set of concepts, principles, practices, and methodologies. The methods presented in this text apply to any type of human system -- small, medium, and large organizational systems and system development projects delivering engineered systems or services across multiple business sectors such as medical, transportation, financial, educational, governmental, aerospace and defense, utilities, political, and charity, among others.

  • Provides a common focal point for “bridging the gap” between and unifying System Users, System Acquirers, multi-discipline System Engineering, and Project, Functional, and Executive Management education, knowledge, and decision-making for developing systems, products, or services
  • Each chapter provides definitions of key terms, guiding principles, examples, author’s notes, real-world examples, and exercises, which highlight and reinforce key SE&D concepts and practices
  • Addresses concepts employed in Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), Model-Driven Design (MDD), Unified Modeling Language (UML) / Systems Modeling Language (SysML), and Agile/Spiral/V-Model Development such as user needs, stories, and use cases analysis; specification development; system architecture development; User-Centric System Design (UCSD); interface definition & control; system integration & test; and Verification & Validation (V&V)
  • Highlights/introduces a new 21st Century Systems Engineering & Development (SE&D) paradigm that is easy to understand and implement.
  • Provides practices that are critical staging points for technical decision making such as Technical Strategy Development; Life Cycle requirements; Phases, Modes, & States; SE Process; Requirements Derivation; System Architecture Development, User-Centric System Design (UCSD); Engineering Standards, Coordinate Systems, and Conventions; et al.

Thoroughly illustrated, with end-of-chapter exercises and numerous case studies and examples, Systems Engineering Analysis, Design, and Development, Second Edition is a primary textbook for multi-discipline, engineering, system analysis, and project management undergraduate/graduate level students and a valuable reference for professionals.

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Table of Contents

FOREWORD xv

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xvii

ABOUT THE COMPANION WEBSITE xxi

INTRODUCTION—HOW TO USE THIS TEXT xxiii

1 Systems, Engineering, and Systems Engineering 1

1.1 Definitions of Key Terms 2

1.2 Approach to this Chapter 2

1.3 What is a System? 3

1.4 Learning to Recognize Types of Systems 7

1.5 What is SE? 8

1.6 System Versus Systems Engineering 12

1.7 SE: Historical Notes 13

1.8 Systems Thinking and SE 13

1.9 Chapter Summary 15

1.10 Chapter Exercises 15

1.11 References 16

2 The Evolving State of SE Practice-Challenges and Opportunities 17

2.1 Definitions of Key Terms 19

2.2 Approach to this Chapter 20

2.3 The State of SE and System Development Performance 20

2.4 Understanding the Problem: Root Cause Analysis 24

2.5 Industry, Government, Academic, Professional, and Standards Organizations Solutions 27

2.6 Defining the Problem 32

2.7 Engineering Education Challenges and Opportunities 42

2.8 Chapter Summary 43

2.9 Chapter Exercises 46

2.10 References 46

PART I SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS CONCEPTS 49

3 System Attributes, Properties, and Characteristics 51

3.1 Definition of Key Terms 51

3.2 Analytical Representation of a System 53

3.3 System Stakeholders: User and End User Roles 55

3.4 System Attributes 56

3.5 System Properties 56

3.6 System Characteristics 60

3.7 The System’s State of Equilibrium and the Balance of Power 61

3.8 System/Product Life Cycle Concepts 64

3.9 System Acceptability: Challenges for Achieving Success 71

3.10 Chapter Summary 74

3.11 Chapter Exercises 74

3.12 References 75

4 User Enterprise Roles, Missions, and System Applications 76

4.1 Definitions of Key Terms 76

4.2 Approach to this Chapter 77

4.3 User Roles and Missions 78

4.4 Understanding and Defining User Missions 83

4.5 Understanding the User’s Problem, Opportunity, and Solution Spaces 88

4.6 Chapter Summary, 97

4.7 Chapter Exercises, 97

4.8 References, 98

5 User Needs, Mission Analysis, Use Cases, and Scenarios 99

5.1 Definitions of Key Terms 100

5.2 Approach to this Chapter 101

5.3 Commercial/Consumer Product Versus Contract System Development 101

5.4 User Operational Needs Identification 103

5.5 Mission Analysis 107

5.6 Mission Operational Effectiveness 114

5.7 Defining Mission and System UCs and Scenarios 117

5.8 Chapter Summary 127

5.9 Chapter Exercises 127

5.10 References 128

6 System Concepts Formulation and Development 129

6.1 Definitions of Key Terms 129

6.2 Conceptualization of System Operations 131

6.3 The System Operations Model 131

6.4 Formulating and Developing the System Concepts 138

6.5 Chapter Summary 144

6.6 Chapter Exercises 145

6.7 References 145

7 System Command and Control (C2) - Phases, Modes, and States of Operation 147

7.1 Definitions of Key Terms 148

7.2 Approach to this Chapter 149

7.3 System Phases of Operation 150

7.4 Introduction to System Modes and States 151

7.5 Enterprise Perspective—Engineered System States 154

7.6 Engineering Perspective—Modes and States 157

7.7 Applying Phases, Modes, and States of Operation 168

7.8 Modes and States Constraints 169

7.9 Chapter Summary 172

7.10 Chapter Exercises 172

7.11 References 173

8 System Levels of Abstraction, Semantics, and Elements 174

8.1 Definitions of Key Terms 174

8.2 Establishing and Bounding the System’s Context 175

8.3 System Levels of Abstraction and Semantics 176

8.4 System Decomposition Versus Integration Entity Relationships 181

8.5 Logical–Physical Entity Relationship (ER) Concepts 183

8.6 Architectural System Element Concepts 186

8.7 Chapter Summary 196

8.8 Chapter Exercises 196

8.9 References 197

9 Architectural Frameworks of the SOI and Its Operating Environment 198

9.1 Definitions of Key Terms 198

9.2 Approach to this Chapter 199

9.3 Introduction to the SOI Architecture 199

9.4 Understanding the OE Architecture 201

9.5 Other Architectural Frameworks 209

9.6 Understanding The System Threat Environment 209

9.7 SOI Interfaces 211

9.8 Chapter Summary 218

9.9 Chapter Exercises 218

9.10 References 218

10 Modeling Mission System and Enabling System Operations 219

10.1 Definitions of Key Terms 219

10.2 Approach to this Chapter 219

10.3 The System Behavioral Response Model 220

10.4 System Command & Control (C2) Interaction Constructs 221

10.5 Modeling System Control Flow and Data Flow Operations 225

10.6 Modeling Mission System and Enabling System Operations 230

10.7 Modeling an Operational Capability 235

10.8 Nested Operational Cycles 241

10.9 Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) 241

10.10 Chapter Summary 243

10.11 Chapter Exercises 243

10.12 References 243

11 Analytical Problem-Solving and Solution Development Synthesis 245

11.1 Definitions of Key Terms 245

11.2 Part I: System Engineering and Analysis Concepts

Synthesis 245

11.3 Shifting to a New Systems Engineering Paradigm 246

11.4 The Four Domain Solutions Methodology 248

11.5 Chapter Summary 251

11.6 References 254

PART II SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES 255

12 Introduction to System Development Strategies 257

12.1 Definitions of Key Terms 258

12.2 Approach to this Chapter 259

12.3 System Development Workflow Strategy 260

12.4 Multi-Level Systems Design and Development Strategy 262

12.5 Chapter Summary 268

12.6 Chapter Exercises 268

12.7 References 269

13 System Verification and Validation (V&V) Strategy 270

13.1 Definitions of Key Terms 270

13.2 Approach to this Chapter 272

13.3 System V&V Concepts Overview 275

13.4 System Verification Practices 278

13.5 System Validation Practices 283

13.6 Applying V&V to the System Development Workflow Processes 285

13.7 Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) 290

13.8 Chapter Summary 291

13.9 Chapter Exercises 292

13.10 References 292

14 The Wasson Systems Engineering Process 293

14.1 Definitions of Key Terms 293

14.2 Approach to this Chapter 294

14.3 Evolution of SE Processes 294

14.4 The Wasson SE Process Model 296

14.5 Wasson SE Process Model Characteristics 306

14.6 Application of the Wasson SE Process Model 310

14.7 The Strength of the Wasson SE Process Model 311

14.8 Chapter Summary 311

14.9 Chapter Exercises 312

14.10 References 312

15 System Development Process Models 313

15.1 Definitions of Key Terms 314

15.2 Introduction to the System Development Models 315

15.3 Waterfall Development Strategy and Model 316

15.4 “V” System Development Strategy and Model 318

15.5 Spiral Development Strategy and Model 322

15.6 Iterative and Incremental Development Model 324

15.7 Evolutionary Development Strategy and Model 325

15.8 Agile Development Strategy and Model 326

15.9 Selection of System Versus Component Development Models 341

15.10 Chapter Summary 342

15.11 Chapter Exercises 342

15.12 References 342

16 System Configuration Identification and Component Selection Strategy 344

16.1 Definitions of Key Terms 345

16.2 Items: Building Blocks of Systems 347

16.3 Understanding Configuration Identification Semantics 347

16.4 Configuration Item (CI) Implementation 352

16.5 Developmental Configuration Baselines 355

16.6 Component Selection and Development 358

16.7 Vendor Product Semantics 359

16.8 Component Selection Methodology 360

16.9 Driving Issues that Influence COTS/NDI Selection 361

16.10 Chapter Summary 363

16.11 Chapter Exercises 363

16.12 References 364

17 System Documentation Strategy 365

17.1 Definitions of Key Terms 366

17.2 Quality System and Engineering Data Records 366

17.3 System Design and Development Data 367

17.4 Data Accession List (DAL) and Data Criteria List (DCL) 368

17.5 SE and Development Documentation Sequencing 369

17.6 Documentation Levels of Formality 370

17.7 Export Control of Sensitive Data and Technology 371

17.8 System Documentation Issues 373

17.9 Chapter Summary 374

17.10 Chapter Exercises 374

17.11 References 375

18 Technical Reviews Strategy 376

18.1 Definitions of Key Terms 376

18.2 Approach to this Chapter 378

18.3 Technical Reviews Overview 378

18.4 Conduct of Technical Reviews 380

18.5 Contract Review Requirements 381

18.6 In-Process Reviews (IPRs) 383

18.7 Contract Technical Reviews 384

18.8 Chapter Summary 395

18.9 Chapter Exercises 395

18.10 References 396

19 System Specification Concepts 397

19.1 Definitions of Key Terms 397

19.2 What is a Specification? 398

19.3 Attributes of a Well-Defined Specification 400

19.4 Types of Specifications 403

19.5 Key Elements of a Specification 405

19.6 Specification Requirements 408

19.7 Chapter Summary 413

19.8 Chapter Exercises 413

19.9 References 414

20 Specification Development Approaches 415

20.1 Definitions of Key Terms 415

20.2 Approach to this Chapter 416

20.3 Introduction to Specification Development 416

20.4 Specification Development Approaches 420

20.5 Special Topics 426

20.6 Specification Reviews 426

20.7 Chapter Summary 428

20.8 Chapter Exercises 428

20.9 Reference 428

21 Requirements Derivation, Allocation, Flow Down, and Traceability 429

21.1 Definitions of Key Terms 429

21.2 Approach to this Chapter 430

21.3 Introduction to Requirements Derivation, Allocation Flowdown, & Traceability 430

21.4 Requirements Derivation Methods 436

21.5 Requirements Derivation and Allocation Across Entity Boundaries 436

21.6 Requirements Allocation 438

21.7 Requirements Traceability 439

21.8 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) 442

21.9 Chapter Summary 445

21.10 Chapter Exercises 445

21.11 References 445

22 Requirements Statement Development 446

22.1 Definition of Key Terms 446

22.2 Approach to this Chapter 446

22.3 Introduction to Requirements Statement Development 447

22.4 Preparing the Requirement Statement 449

22.5 Selection of Requirement Verification Methods 453

22.6 Requirements Traceability and Verification Tools 456

22.7 Requirements Statement Development Guidelines 459

22.8 When Does a Requirement Become “Official”? 462

22.9 Chapter Summary 462

22.10 Chapter Exercises 464

22.11 References 464

23 Specification Analysis 465

23.1 Definition of Key Terms 465

23.2 Analyzing Existing Specifications 466

23.3 Specification Assessment Checklist 467

23.4 Specification Analysis Methods 471

23.5 Specification Deficiencies Checklist 472

23.6 Resolution of Specification COI/CTI Issues 476

23.7 Requirements Compliance 477

23.8 Chapter Summary 478

23.9 Chapter Exercises 478

23.10 References 479

24 User-Centered System Design (UCSD) 480

24.1 Definitions of Key Terms 481

24.2 Approach to this Chapter 483

24.3 Introduction to UCSD 484

24.4 Understanding Human Factors (HF) and Ergonomics 493

24.5 Situational Assessment: Areas of Concern 509

24.6 Complex System Development 512

24.7 SE HF and Ergonomics Actions 512

24.8 Chapter Summary 514

24.9 Chapter Exercises 515

24.10 References 515

25 Engineering Standards of Units, Coordinate Systems, and Conventions 518

25.1 Definitions of Key Terms 518

25.2 Approach to this Chapter 519

25.3 Engineering Standards 520

25.4 Standards for Units, Weights, and Measures 520

25.5 Coordinate Reference Systems 522

25.6 Defining a System’s Free Body Dynamics 534

25.7 Applying Engineering Standards and Conventions 538

25.8 Engineering Standards and Conventions Lessons Learned 538

25.9 Chapter Summary 540

25.10 Chapter Exercises 540

25.11 References 541

26 System and Entity Architecture Development 542

26.1 Definitions of Key Terms 542

26.2 Approach to this Chapter 543

26.3 Introduction to System Architecture Development 544

26.4 Development of System Architectures 554

26.5 Advanced System Architecture Topics 559

26.6 Chapter Summary 572

26.7 Chapter Exercises 573

26.8 References 574

27 System Interface Definition, Analysis, Design, and Control 575

27.1 Definitions of Key Terms 576

27.2 Approach to this Chapter 576

27.3 Interface Ownership, Work Products, and Control Concepts 577

27.4 Interface Definition Methodology 583

27.5 Interface Design—Advanced Topics 588

27.6 Interface Definition and Control Challenges and Solutions 592

27.7 Chapter Summary 597

27.8 Chapter Exercises 598

27.9 References 598

28 System Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) 599

28.1 Definitions of Key Terms 599

28.2 SITE Fundamentals 601

28.3 Key Elements of Site 604

28.4 Planning for Site 610

28.5 Establishing the Test Organization 612

28.6 Developing Test Cases (TCs) and Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs) 613

28.7 Performing SITE Tasks 614

28.8 Common Integration and Test Challenges and Issues 617

28.9 Chapter Summary 621

28.10 Chapter Exercises 621

28.11 References 622

29 System Deployment, OM&S, Retirement, and Disposal 623

29.1 Definitions of Key Terms 624

29.2 Approach to this Chapter 625

29.3 System Deployment Operations 626

29.4 System Operation, Maintenance, & Sustainment (OM&S) 638

29.5 System Retirement (Phase-Out) Operations 645

29.6 System Disposal Operations 646

29.7 Chapter Summary 646

29.8 Chapter Exercises 646

29.9 References 647

PART III ANALYTICAL DECISION SUPPORT PRACTICES 649

30 Introduction to Analytical Decision Support 651

30.1 Definitions of Key Terms 651

30.2 What is Analytical Decision Support? 652

30.3 Attributes of Technical Decisions 652

30.4 Types of Engineering Analyses 654

30.5 System Performance Analysis and Evaluation 654

30.6 Statistical Influences on System Design 659

30.7 Chapter Summary 664

30.8 General Exercises 665

30.9 References 665

31 System Performance Analysis, Budgets, and Safety Margins 666

31.1 Definitions of Key Terms 667

31.2 Performance “Design-To” Budgets and Safety Margins 667

31.3 Analyzing System Performance 672

31.4 Real-Time Control and Frame-Based Systems 679

31.5 System Performance Optimization 679

31.6 System Analysis Reporting 680

31.7 Chapter Summary 680

31.8 Chapter Exercises 680

31.9 References 681

32 Trade Study Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) 682

32.1 Definitions of Key Terms 682

32.2 Introduction to Multivariate Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) 683

32.3 Chartering a Trade Study 688

32.4 Establishing the Trade Study Methodology 689

32.5 Trade Study Quantitative Approaches 690

32.6 Trade Study Utility or Scoring Functions 695

32.7 Sensitivity Analysis 696

32.8 Trade Study Reports (TSRs) 696

32.9 Trade Study Decision 697

32.10 Trade Study Risk Areas 699

32.11 Trade Study Lessons Learned 701

32.12 Chapter Summary 701

32.13 Chapter Exercises 701

32.14 References 701

33 System Modeling and Simulation (M&S) 703

33.1 Definitions of Key Terms 704

33.2 Technical Decision-Making Aids 705

33.3 Simulation-Based Models 705

33.4 Application Examples of M&S 709

33.5 M&S Challenges and Issues 717

33.6 Chapter Summary 719

33.7 Chapter Exercises 719

33.8 References 720

34 System Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability (RMA) 721

34.1 Definitions of Key Terms 722

34.2 Approach to this Chapter 723

34.3 System Reliability 725

34.4 Understanding System Maintainability 768

34.5 System Availability 779

34.6 Optimizing RMA Trade-Offs 781

34.7 Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) 783

34.8 System RMA Challenges 788

34.9 Chapter Summary 789

34.10 Chapter Exercises 789

34.11 References 790

EPILOG 792

Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations 795

Appendix B INCOSE Handbook Traceability 801

Appendix C System Modeling Language (SysML™) Constructs 811

INDEX 821

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Author Information

Charles S. WASSON, BSEE, MBA, ESEP, is a member of the INCOSE, ASEE, PMI, and IEEE and is President / Principal Consultant of Wasson Strategics, LLC. His professional career spans over 40 years of leadership in program/project management; system, hardware, and software design, development, integration, and test; and organizational and team development. Wasson Strategics is a provider of multi-discipline SE, technical project management, organizational and team development training and consulting services for Fortune 100 & 500 clients striving to achieve System Engineering and Development excellence.

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