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Industrial Power Distribution, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-06334-6
440 pages
December 2015, Wiley-IEEE Press
Industrial Power Distribution, 2nd Edition (1119063345) cover image

Description

This new edition of Industrial Power Distribution addresses key areas of electric power distribution from an end-user perspective, which will serve industry professionals and students develop the necessary skills for the power engineering field.
  • Expanded treatment of one-line diagrams, the per-unit system, complex power, transformer connections, and motor applications
  • New topics in this edition include lighting systems and arc flash hazard
  • Concept of AC Power is developed step by step from the basic definition of power
  • Fourier analysis is described in a graphical sense
  • End-of-chapter exercises 

If you are an instructor and adopted this book for your course, please email ieeeproposals@wiley.com to get access to the instructor files for this book.
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Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xiii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xv

ABOUT THE AUTHOR xvii

CHAPTER 1 UTILITY SOURCE 1

1.1 Electrical Safety 1

1.2 Delivery Voltage 3

1.3 One-Line Diagrams 4

1.4 Zones of Protection 5

1.5 Source Configuration 6

1.6 The Per-Unit System 14

1.7 Power in AC Systems 18

1.8 Voltage Drop Calculations 20

1.9 Short-Circuit Availability 22

1.10 Conductor Sizing 23

1.11 Transformer Sizing 26

1.12 Liquid-Immersed Transformer kVA Ratings 30

Summary 32

For Further Reading 33

Questions 33

Problems 34

CHAPTER 2 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS AND METERING 37

2.1 Definitions 37

2.2 Instrument Transformers 39

2.2.1 Fundamentals 39

2.2.2 Correction Factors 46

2.2.3 Burden Calculations 47

2.2.4 ANSI Accuracy Classes 49

2.3 Metering Fundamentals 49

2.4 Watthour Metering 50

2.4.1 Single-Stator Watthour Metering 50

2.4.2 Multi-Stator Watthour Metering 52

2.5 Demand Metering 52

2.5.1 Kilowatt Demand 53

2.5.2 Kilovar and kVA Demand 53

2.6 Pulse-Operated Meters 54

2.7 Time-of-Use Meters 54

2.8 Special Metering 55

2.8.1 Voltage and Current Metering 55

2.8.2 Var and Q Metering 57

2.8.3 Compensating Metering 59

2.8.4 Totalizing Metering 60

2.8.5 Pulse Recorders 60

2.9 Digital Metering 61

2.10 Smart Meters 61

Summary 62

For Further Reading 63

Questions 63

Problems 64

CHAPTER 3 TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS 65

3.1 Voltage Selection 65

3.2 Ideal Transformer Model 66

3.3 Transformer Fundamentals 68

3.4 Transformer Circuit Model 71

3.5 Single-Phase Transformer Connections 71

3.6 Three-Phase Transformer Connections 73

3.6.1 Delta–Delta 74

3.6.2 Wye–Wye 76

3.6.3 Delta–Wye 78

3.6.4 Wye–Delta 82

3.6.5 Open Delta–Open Delta 82

3.6.6 Open Wye–Open Delta 86

3.7 Two-Phase Transformer Connections 88

3.7.1 T-Connection (Scott Connection) 89

3.8 Six-Phase Transformer Connections 92

3.9 Transformer Phase Shifts 93

3.10 Grounding Transformers 95

3.10.1 Wye–Delta 96

3.10.2 Zig–Zag Connection 96

3.11 Ferroresonance 97

Summary 98

For Further Reading 98

Questions 99

Problems 99

CHAPTER 4 FAULT CALCULATIONS 101

4.1 Overview 101

4.2 Types of Faults 102

4.3 Data Preparation 103

4.4 First-Cycle Symmetrical Current Calculations 105

4.5 Contact-Parting Symmetrical Current Calculations 112

4.6 Analyzing Unbalanced Systems 113

4.7 Physical Example of Vector Components 114

4.8 Application of Symmetrical Components to a Three-Phase Power System 116

4.9 Electrical Characteristics of the Sequence Currents 121

4.10 Sequence Networks 124

4.11 Short-Circuit Faults 134

4.11.1 Three-Phase Fault 134

4.11.2 Line-to-Ground Fault 136

4.11.3 Double Line-to-Ground Fault 138

4.11.4 Line-to-Line Fault 141

4.12 Open-Circuit Faults 143

4.12.1 One-Line-Open Fault 143

4.12.2 Two-Lines-Open Fault 147

Summary 150

For Further Reading 150

Questions 151

Problems 152

CHAPTER 5 PROTECTIVE DEVICE SELECTION AND COORDINATION 155

5.1 Overview 155

5.2 Power Circuit Breaker Selection 158

5.3 Fused Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker Selection 160

5.4 Molded-Case Circuit Breaker Selection 162

5.5 Medium-Voltage Fuse Selection 163

5.6 Current-Limiting Fuse Selection 166

5.7 Low-Voltage Fuse Selection 168

5.8 Overcurrent Device Coordination 169

5.9 Summary 174

For Further Reading 175

Questions 175

Problems 176

CHAPTER 6 RACEWAY DESIGN 179

6.1 Overview 179

6.2 Conduit and Duct Systems 181

6.2.1 Pulling Tension 187

6.2.2 Sidewall Pressure 188

6.2.3 Design Examples 189

6.3 Cable Tray Systems 194

6.3.1 Design Example 202

Summary 203

For Further Reading 203

Questions 204

Problems 204

CHAPTER 7 SWITCHGEAR AND MOTOR CONTROL CENTERS 207

7.1 Overview 207

7.2 NEMA Enclosures 208

7.3 Switchgear 208

7.3.1 Source Transfer 213

7.3.2 Configuration 214

7.3.3 Ratings 215

7.3.4 Circuit Breakers 217

7.4 Motor Control Centers 222

7.4.1 Configuration 223

7.4.2 Ratings 223

7.4.3 Starters 223

7.4.4 Protection 225

7.5 ARC Flash Hazard 226

Summary 231

For Further Reading 232

Questions 233

Problems 233

CHAPTER 8 LADDER LOGIC 235

8.1 Fundamentals 235

8.2 Considerations When Designing Logic 236

8.3 Logic Implementation 239

8.4 Seal-In Circuits 240

8.5 Interlocks 243

8.6 Remote Control and Indication 245

8.7 Reversing Starters 246

8.8 Jogging 248

8.9 Plugging 250

Summary 251

For Further Reading 251

Questions 251

Problems 252

CHAPTER 9 MOTOR APPLICATION 255

9.1 Fundamentals 255

9.2 Energy Conversion and Losses 259

9.3 Speed–Torque Curves 260

9.4 Motor Starting Time 263

9.5 Cable Sizing 264

9.6 Motor Protection 265

9.7 Circuit Protection 266

9.8 Winding Protection 266

9.9 Motor Starting Methods 267

9.9.1 Across-the-Line 267

9.9.2 Reduced Voltage Starting 267

9.9.3 Wye–Delta Starting 276

9.9.4 Part-Winding Starting 278

9.9.5 Solid-State Starting Options 278

Summary 283

For Further Reading 283

Questions 283

Problems 284

CHAPTER 10 LIGHTING SYSTEMS 287

10.1 Fundamentals 287

10.2 Lighting Technologies 288

10.2.1 Incandescent 288

10.2.2 Low-Pressure Discharge 290

10.2.3 High-Intensity Discharge 294

10.2.4 Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Lighting 297

10.3 Luminaire Designs 299

10.4 Electrical Requirements 301

10.5 Lighting System Design Examples 303

10.5.1 Parking Lot Lighting 303

10.5.2 Interior Lighting 311

Summary 315

For Further Reading 316

Questions 316

Problems 317

CHAPTER 11 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION 319

11.1 Overview 319

11.2 Configuration 321

11.2.1 Delta 321

11.2.2 Wye 322

11.2.3 Grounded Wye 322

11.3 Sizing and Placement 323

11.4 Capacitor Switching 324

11.5 Harmonics 329

11.6 Resonance 330

11.7 Protection 330

Summary 331

For Further Reading 332

Questions 332

Problems 332

CHAPTER 12 POWER QUALITY 335

12.1 Overview 335

12.2 Historical Perspective 335

12.3 Quantifying Power Quality 336

12.4 Continuity of Service 338

12.5 Voltage Requirements 340

12.6 Transients 341

12.7 Harmonics 341

12.7.1 Fourier Analysis 343

12.7.2 Effects of Harmonics 346

12.7.3 Harmonic Filters 349

12.8 Power Factor 352

Summary 353

For Further Reading 354

Questions 355

Problems 355

APPENDIX A: UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 357

APPENDIX B: CIRCUIT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 361

APPENDIX C: PHASORS AND COMPLEX NUMBER MATHEMATICS 369

APPENDIX D: IMPEDANCE DATA 373

APPENDIX E: AMPACITY DATA 381

APPENDIX F: CONDUIT DATA 401

INDEX 405

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Author Information

Ralph E. Fehr, III is an Instructor in the College of Engineering at the University of South Florida, Tampa USA. Dr. Fehr received the IEEE Region 3 Joseph M. Biedenbach Outstanding Engineering Educator award in 2011. He is an active IEEE Power and Energy Society Executive Committee Member and past IEEE PES Education Committee Panelist for educational reform. Dr. Fehr's current research interests are in power system planning methods and reliability enhancement techniques, infrastructure design improvements, high-power semiconductor applications at medium voltages, and engineering education reform.

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