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Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System

Charles R. Chappell (Editor), Robert W. Schunk (Co-Editor), Peter M. Banks (Co-Editor), Richard M. Thorne (Co-Editor), James L. Burch (Co-Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-06677-4
414 pages
October 2016, American Geophysical Union
Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System (1119066778) cover image


Over a half century of exploration of the Earth’s space environment, it has become evident that the interaction between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere plays a dominant role in the evolution and dynamics of magnetospheric plasmas and fields. Interestingly, it was recently discovered that this same interaction is of fundamental importance at other planets and moons throughout the solar system. Based on papers presented at an interdisciplinary AGU Chapman Conference at Yosemite National Park in February 2014, this volume provides an intellectual and visual journey through our exploration and discovery of the paradigm-changing role that the ionosphere plays in determining the filling and dynamics of Earth and planetary environments. The 2014 Chapman conference marks the 40th anniversary of the initial magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling conference at Yosemite in 1974, and thus gives a four decade perspective of the progress of space science research in understanding these fundamental coupling processes. Digital video links to an online archive containing both the 1974 and 2014 meetings are presented throughout this volume for use as an historical resource by the international heliophysics and planetary science communities.

Topics covered in this volume include:

  • Ionosphere as a source of magnetospheric plasma
  • Effects of the low energy ionospheric plasma on the stability and creation of the more energetic plasmas
  • The unified global modeling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere at the Earth and other planets
  • New knowledge of these coupled interactions for heliophysicists and planetary scientists, with a cross-disciplinary approach involving advanced measurement and modeling techniques

Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of space and planetary science, atmospheric science, space physics, astronomy, and geophysics.

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Table of Contents

Contributors ix

Prologue xvii

Acknowledgments xxi

Part I Introduction

Video J. L. Burch (1974) with Remarks by C. R. Chappell (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3C30S

1 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling, Past to Future
James L. Burch 3

Part II The Earth's Ionosphere as a Source

Video W. I. Axford (1974) with Remarks by P. M. Banks (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T35K5N

2 Measurements of Ion Outflows from the Earth's Ionosphere
Andrew W. Yau, William K. Peterson, and Takumi Abe 21

3 Low-energy Ion Outflow Observed by Cluster: Utilizing the Spacecraft Potential
S. Haaland, M. Andre, A. Eriksson, K. Li, H. Nilsson, L. Baddeley, C. Johnsen, L. Maes, B. Lybekk, and A. Pedersen 33

Video W. B. Hanson (1974) with Remarks by R. A. Heelis (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T31S3Q

4 Advances in Understanding Ionospheric Convection at High Latitudes
R. A. Heelis 49

5 Energetic and Dynamic Coupling of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System
Gang Lu 61

Video R. G. Johnson (1974) with Remarks by C. R. Chappell (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3X30R

6 The Impact of O+ on Magnetotail Dynamics
Lynn M. Kistler 79

7 Thermal and Low-energy Ion Outflows in and through the Polar Cap: The Polar Wind and the Low-energy Component of the Cleft Ion Fountain
Naritoshi Kitamura, Kanako Seki, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Takumi Abe, Manabu Yamada, Shigeto Watanabe, Atsushi Kumamoto, Atsuki Shinbori, and Andrew W. Yau 91

8 Ionospheric and Solar Wind Contributions to Magnetospheric Ion Density and Temperature throughout the Magnetotail
Michael W. Liemohn and Daniel T. Welling 101

Part III The Effect of Low-energy Plasma on the Stability of Energetic Plasmas

Video (1974) and Remarks (2014) by R. M. Thorne
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3HS32

9 How Whistler-Mode Waves and Thermal Plasma Density Control the Global Distribution of the Diffuse Aurora and the Dynamical Evolution of Radiation Belt Electrons
Richard M. Thorne, Jacob Bortnik, Wen Li, Lunjin Chen, Binbin Ni, and Qianli Ma 117

10 Plasma Wave Measurements from the Van Allen Probes
George B. Hospodarsky, W. S. Kurth, C. A. Kletzing, S. R. Bounds, O. Santolik, Richard M. Thorne, Wen Li, T. F. Averkamp, J. R. Wygant, and J. W. Bonnell 127

Video D. J. Williams (1974) with Remarks by L. J. Lanzerotti (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3GW2D

11 Ring Current Ions Measured by the RBSPICE Instrument on the Van Allen Probes Mission
Louis J. Lanzerotti and Andrew J. Gerrard 145

12 Global Modeling of Wave Generation Processes in the Inner Magnetosphere
Vania K. Jordanova 155

Part IV Unified Global Modeling of Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Earth

Video P. M. Banks (1974) with Remarks by R. W. Schunk (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T30W22

13 Modeling Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Ion Outflow: Past, Present, and Future
R. W. Schunk 169

14 Coupling the Generalized Polar Wind Model to Global Magnetohydrodynamics: Initial Results
Daniel T. Welling, Abdallah R. Barakat, J. Vincent Eccles, R. W. Schunk, and Charles R. Chappell 179

Video D. H. Fairfield (1974) with Remarks by J. A. Slavin (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T38C78

15 Coupling Ionospheric Outflow into Magnetospheric Models: Transverse Heating from Wave-Particle Interactions
Alex Glocer 195

16 Modeling of the Evolution of Storm-Enhanced Density Plume during the 24 to 25 October 2011 Geomagnetic Storm
Shasha Zou and Aaron J. Ridley 205

Video (1974) and Remarks by R. A. Wolf (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T34K5B

17 Forty-Seven Years of the Rice Convection Model
R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, S. Sazykin, F. R. Toffoletto, and J. Yang 215

18 Magnetospheric Model Performance during Conjugate Aurora
William Longley, Patricia Reiff, Jone Peter Reistad, and Nikolai Ostgaard 227

Video C. G. Park (1974) with Remarks by D. L. Carpenter (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3NK50

19 Day-to-Day Variability of the Quiet-Time Plasmasphere Caused by Thermosphere Winds
Jonathan Krall, Joseph D. Huba, Douglas P. Drob, Geoff Crowley, and Richard E. Denton 235

Part V The Coupling of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Other Planets and Moons in the Solar System

Video (1974) and Remarks (2014) by A. F. Nagy
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3RC7M

20 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling at Planets and Satellites
Thomas E. Cravens 245

21 Plasma Measurements at Non-Magnetic Solar System Bodies
Andrew J. Coates 259

Video F. V. Coroniti (1976) with Remarks by M. G. Kivelson (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3W30F

22 Plasma Wave Observations with Cassini at Saturn
George B. Hospodarsky, J. D. Menietti, D. Piša, W. S. Kurth, D. A. Gurnett, A. M. Persoon, J. S. Leisner, and T. F. Averkamp 277

23 Titan's Interaction with Saturn's Magnetosphere
Joseph H. Westlake, Thomas E. Cravens, Robert E. Johnson, Stephen A. Ledvina, Janet G. Luhmann, Donald G. Mitchell, Matthew S. Richard, Ilkka Sillanpaa, Sven Simon, Darci Snowden, J. Hunter Waite, Jr., and Adam K.
Woodson 291

Part VI The Unified Modeling of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere at Other Planets and Moons in the Solar System

Video T. W. Hill and P. H. Reiff (1976) with Remarks by T. W. Hill (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T37C7Z

24 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling at Jupiter and Saturn
Thomas W. Hill 309

25 Global MHD Modeling of the Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere System at Saturn
Xianzhe Jia, Margaret G. Kivelson, and Tamas I. Gombosi 319

Video G. C. Reid (1976) with Remarks by R. L. McPherron (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3S888

26 Simulation Studies of Magnetosphere and Ionosphere Coupling in Saturn's Magnetosphere
Raymond J. Walker and Keiichiro Fukazawa 335

27 Characterizing the Enceladus Torus by Its Contribution to Saturn's Magnetosphere
Ying-Dong Jia, Hanying Wei, and Christopher T. Russell 345

Part VII Future Directions for Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Research

Video E. R. Schmerling and L. D. Kavanagh (1974) with Remarks by P. M. Banks (2014) and J. R. Doupnik (2014)
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3MK5P

28 Future Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling Study Requirements
Thomas E. Moore, Kevin S. Brenneman, Charles R. Chappell, James H. Clemmons, Glyn A. Collinson, Christopher Cully, Eric Donovan, Gregory D. Earle, Daniel J. Gershman, R. A. Heelis, Lynn M. Kistler, Larry Kepko, George Khazanov, David J. Knudsen, Marc Lessard, Elizabeth A. MacDonald, Michael J. Nicolls, Craig J.
Pollock, Robert Pfaff, Douglas E. Rowland, Ennio Sanchez, R. W. Schunk, Joshua Semeter, Robert J.
Strangeway, and Jeffrey Thayer 357

DOI List 377

Index 379

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Author Information

Dr. Chappell has been involved in space science research related to the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere for almost 50 years. His career has included research at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Vanderbilt University. He has worked on particle data from satellite missions for his entire career and has been a Principal Investigator for instruments on two NASA spacecraft. He is the author of more than 125 published articles and has planned AGU conferences and sessions in his area of research. He has edited a conference proceeding and has written articles for encyclopedias. He has co-authored a book, "Worlds Apart" which examines the subject of science and the media. He has represented NASA in the media and has given hundred’s of talks to public audiences.

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