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Climate Extremes: Patterns and Mechanisms

ISBN: 978-1-119-06784-9
408 pages
June 2017, American Geophysical Union
Climate Extremes: Patterns and Mechanisms (1119067847) cover image

Description

Climate Extremes: Patterns and Mechanisms is a compilation of recent advancements in the identification of the extreme event patterns and mechanisms. This volume covers a comprehensive documentation of the processes and mechanisms unique to individual weather and climate extremes events, which will advance the understanding and prediction of future extreme events. Currently, most of the developing theories about the changing patterns of weather and climate extremes are scattered in the literature and, therefore, this is a dedicated volume that summarizes everything in one place for the larger research community and graduate students. Mid-latitude and subtropical climate extremes (heat waves, hurricanes, droughts, etc.) have increased and the dynamical processes leading to the increase have been linked to common theories such as arctic amplification, jet stream meandering, tropical expansion, etc. However, the dynamical processes of individual extreme events are manifold and cannot be generalized. The goal of this volume is to document the various climate extreme events and associated changes that have been analyzed through diagnostics, modeling, and statistical approaches.

Volume highlights include:

  • Breaking the mold of over-generalized mechanisms of extreme events and their increases and intensification
  • Physical underpinning of climate extremes, which is one of the frontier sciences today
  • State of the art of climate model performance in terms of simulating high-impact weather/climate extremes, and how much of a "lead time" current predictions can get
  • Summary of the various existing theories, including controversial ones, on how climate extremes will continue to become stronger and more frequent

Climate Extremes: Patterns and Mechanisms is a valuable resource for scientists and students in the fields of geophysics, climate physics, natural hazards, and environmental science.

 

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Table of Contents

Table of Content:

Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Part I: Forcings of Climate Extremes             

1       Changing El Nino-Southern Oscillation and Associated Climate Extremes

     Jin-Yi Yu, Xin Wang, Song Yang, Houk Paek, and Mengyan Chen

2   Arctic-Midlatitude Interactions and Link to Weather Extremes

   Timo Vihma

3   Aerosol Impacts on Regional Changes in Climate Extremes

   Jana Sillmann, and Jinho Yoon                

4   Weakened Flow, Persistent Circulation and Prolonged Weather Extremes

   Dim Coumou, Kai Kornhuber, Jascha Lehmann, and Vladimir Petoukhov

5   Land Processes as the Forcing of Extremes: A Review

   Min-Hui Lo, Tzu-Hsien Kuo, Hao-Wei Wey, Chia-Wei Lan, and Jen-Ping Chen

Part II: Processes of Climate Extremes

6   Timing of Anthropogenic Emergence in Climate Extremes

   Andrew King, Markus G. Donat, David J. Karoly, and Ed Hawkins

7   Recent Increases in Extreme Temperature Occurrence Over Land

   Scott Weaver, Arun Kumar, and Mingyue Chen

8   Why Future Shifts in Tropical Precipitation Will Likely Be Small?

   Aaron Donohoe, and Aiko Voigt

9   Weather-Climate Interactions and MJO Influences

   Paul Roundy, Lawrence Gloeckler, Kyle MacRitchie, and Naoko Sakaeda

10   West Pacific Warming as a Forcing of Climate Extremes

   Chris Funk, and Andrew Hoell

11   Heat Waves and Association with Circumglobal Teleconnection: The Northern Hemisphere

   Haiyan Teng, and Grant Branstator

Part III: Regional Climate Extremes

12   North American Drought and Links to Northern Eurasia: The Role of Stationary Rossby Waves

   Hailan Wang, Siegfried D. Schubert, and Randal D. Koster

13   The California Drought: Trends and Impacts

   Simon Wang, Jinho Yoon, Robert Gillies, and Huang-Hsiung Hsu

14  US Tornadoes: Observed Trends

  Adam Clark

15  Australia’s Recent Climate Extremes: Changes and Mechanisms

  Sophie Lewis, David J. Karoly, Andrew King, Sarah E. Perkins, and Markus G. Donat

16  Unraveling East Africa’s Climate Paradox

  Bradfield Lyon, and Nicolas Vigaud

17  Extreme Drought Over Southwest Asia: A Physical Model

  Andy Hoell, Mathew Barlow, and Forest Cannon

Part IV: Prediction of Climate Extremes

18     Extratropical Precursors of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation

          Kathy Pegion, and Christopher Selman

19     North Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Prediction: Underlying Science and an Evaluation of Statistical Models

          Phil Klotzbach, Mark Saunders, Gerry Bell, and Eric Blake

20     Predicting Subseasonal Precipitation Variations Based on the MJO

          Charles Jones

21     Prediction of Short-Term Climate Extremes with a Multi-Model Ensemble

          Emily Becker

22     Towards Predicting US Tornadoes in the Late 21st Century

          Adam Clark  

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