Wiley.com
Print this page Share

Future Trends in Microelectronics: Journey into the Unknown

Serge Luryi (Editor), Jimmy Xu (Editor), Alexander Zaslavsky (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-06911-9
384 pages
October 2016
Future Trends in Microelectronics: Journey into the Unknown (1119069114) cover image

Description

Presents the developments in microelectronic-related fields, with comprehensive insight from a number of leading industry professionals

The book presents the future developments and innovations in the developing field of microelectronics. The book’s chapters contain contributions from various authors, all of whom are leading industry professionals affiliated either with top universities, major semiconductor companies, or government laboratories, discussing the evolution of their profession. A wide range of microelectronic-related fields are examined, including solid-state electronics, material science, optoelectronics, bioelectronics, and renewable energies. The topics covered range from fundamental physical principles, materials and device technologies, and major new market opportunities.

  • Describes the expansion of the field into hot topics such as energy (photovoltaics) and medicine (bio-nanotechnology)
  • Provides contributions from leading industry professionals in semiconductor micro- and nano-electronics
  • Discusses the importance of micro- and nano-electronics in today’s rapidly changing and expanding information society

Future Trends in Microelectronics: Journey into the Unknown is written for industry professionals and graduate students in engineering, physics, and nanotechnology.

See More

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xix
S. Luryi, J. M. Xu, and A. Zaslavsky

Acknowledgments xxiii

I FUTURE OF DIGITAL SILICON

1.1 Prospects of Future Si Technologies in the Data-Driven World 3
Kinam Kim and Gitae Jeong

1. Introduction 3

2. Memory – DRAM 4

3. Memory – NAND 6

4. Logic technology 8

5. CMOS image sensors 11

6. Packaging technology 13

7. Silicon photonics technology 16

8. Concluding remarks 18

Acknowledgments 18

References 18

1.2 How Lithography Enables Moore’s Law 23
J. P. H. Benschop

1. Introduction 23

2. Moore’s Law and the contribution of lithography 23

3. Lithography technology: past and present 24

4. Lithography technology: future 26

5. Summary 31

6. Conclusion 31

Acknowledgments 31

References 32

1.3 What Happened to Post-CMOS? 35
P. M. Solomon

1. Introduction 35

2. General constraints on speed and energy 35

3. Guidelines for success 38

4. Benchmarking and examples 40

5. Discussion 46

6. Conclusion 47

Acknowledgments 47

References 47

1.4 Three-Dimensional Integration of Ge and Two-Dimensional Materials for One-Dimensional Devices 51
M. Östling, E. Dentoni Litta, and P.-E. Hellström

1. Introduction 51

2. FEOL technology and materials for 3D integration 54

3. Integration of “more than Moore” functionality 57

4. Implications of 3D integration at the system level 59

5. Conclusion 61

Acknowledgments 62

References 63

1.5 Challenges to Ultralow-Power Semiconductor Device Operation 69
Francis Balestra

1. Introduction 69

2. Ultimate MOS transistors 70

3. Small slope switches 76

4. Conclusion 77

Acknowledgments 78

References 78

1.6 A Universal Nonvolatile Processing Environment 83
T. Windbacher, A. Makarov, V. Sverdlov, and S. Selberherr

1. Introduction 83

2. Universal nonvolatile processing environment 84

3. Bias-field-free spin-torque oscillator 87

4. Summary 90

Acknowledgments 90

References 90

1.7 Can MRAM (Finally) Be a Factor? 93
Jean-Pierre Nozières

1. Introduction 93

2. What is MRAM? 93

3. Current limitations for stand-alone memories 96

4. Immediate opportunities: embedded memories 98

5. Conclusion 101

References 101

1.8 Nanomanufacturing for Electronics or Optoelectronics 103
M. J. Kelly

1. Introduction 103

2. Nano-LEGO® 104

3. Tunnel devices 105

4. Split-gate transistors 106

5. Other nanoscale systems 108

6. Conclusion 108

Acknowledgments 109

References 109

II NEW MATERIALS AND NEW PHYSICS

2.1 Surface Waves Everywhere 113
M. I. Dyakonov

1. Introduction 113

2. Water waves 113

3. Surface acoustic waves 116

4. Surface plasma waves and polaritons 117

5. Plasma waves in two-dimensional structures 117

6. Electronic surface states in solids 119

7. Dyakonov surface waves (DSWs) 121

References 123

2.2 Graphene and Atom-Thick 2D Materials: Device Application Prospects 127
Sungwoo Hwang, Jinseong Heo, Min-Hyun Lee, Kyung-Eun Byun, Yeonchoo Cho, and Seongjun Park

1. Introduction 127

2. Conventional low-dimensional systems 127

3. New atomically thin material systems 129

4. Device application of new material systems 133

5. Components in Si technology 137

6. Graphene on Ge 142

7. Conclusion 142

References 142

2.3 Computing with Coupled Relaxation Oscillators 147
N. Shukla, S. Datta, A. Parihar, and A. Raychowdhury

1. Introduction 147

2. Vanadium dioxide-based relaxation oscillators 148

3. Experimental demonstration of pairwise coupled HVFET oscillators 150

4. Computing with pairwise coupled HVFET oscillators 150

5. Associative computing using pairwise coupled oscillators 153

6. Conclusion 155

References 156

2.4 On the Field-Induced Insulator–Metal Transition in VO2 Films 157
Serge Luryi and Boris Spivak

1. Introduction 157

2. Electron concentration-induced transition 159

3. Field-induced transition in a film 161

4. Need for a ground plane 163

5. Conclusion 163

References 164

2.5 Group IV Alloys for Advanced Nano- and Optoelectronic Applications 167
Detlev Grützmacher

1. Introduction 167

2. Epitaxial growth of GeSn layers by reactive gas source epitaxy 168

3. Optically pumped GeSn laser 172

4. Potential of GeSn alloys for electronic devices 175

5. Conclusion 178

Acknowledgments 178

References 178

2.6 High Sn-Content GeSn Light Emitters for Silicon Photonics 181
D. Stange, C. Schulte-Braucks, N. von den Driesch, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, S. Lenk, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. M. Hartmann, and Z. Ikonic

1. Introduction 181

2. Experimental details of the GeSn material system 183

3. Direct bandgap GeSn light emitting diodes 185

4. Group IV GeSn microdisk laser on Si(100) 188

5. Conclusion and outlook 191

References 191

2.7 Gallium Nitride-Based Lateral and Vertical Nanowire Devices 195
Y.-W. Jo, D.-H. Son, K.-S. Im, and J.-H. Lee

1. Introduction 195

2. Crystallographic study of GaN nanowires using TMAH wet etching 196

3. Ω-shaped-gate lateral AlGaN/GaN FETs 199

4. Gate-all-around vertical GaN FETs 200

5. Conclusion 203

Acknowledgments 204

References 204

2.8 Scribing Graphene Circuits 207
N. Rodriguez, R. J. Ruiz, C. Marquez, and F. Gamiz

1. Introduction 207

2. Graphene oxide from graphite 208

3. GO exfoliation 209

4. Selective reduction of graphene oxide 210

5. Raman spectroscopy 211

6. Electrical properties of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide 212

7. Future perspectives 214

Acknowledgments 215

References 215

2.9 Structure and Electron Transport in Irradiated Monolayer Graphene 217
I. Shlimak, A.V. Butenko, E. Zion, V. Richter, Yu. Kaganovskii, L. Wolfson, A. Sharoni, A. Haran, D. Naveh, E. Kogan, and M. Kaveh

1. Introduction 217

2. Samples 217

3. Raman scattering (RS) spectra 218

4. Sample resistance 220

5. Hopping magnetoresistance 225

References 229

2.10 Interplay of Coulomb Blockade and Luttinger-Liquid Physics in Disordered 1D InAs Nanowires with Strong Spin–Orbit Coupling 233
R. Hevroni, V. Shelukhin, M. Karpovski, M. Goldstein, E. Sela, A. Palevski, and Hadas Shtrikman

1. Introduction 233

2. Sample preparation and the experimental setup 234

3. Experimental results 234

4. Conclusion 240

Acknowledgments 240

References 240

III MICROELECTRONICS IN HEALTH, ENERGY HARVESTING, AND COMMUNICATIONS

3.1 Image-Guided Intervention and Therapy: The First Time Right 245
B. H. W. Hendriks, D. Mioni, W. Crooijmans, and H. van Houten

1. Introduction 245

2. Societal challenge: Rapid rise of cardiovascular diseases 246

3. Societal challenge: Rapid rise of cancer 252

4. Drivers of change in healthcare 256

5. Conclusion 257

Acknowledgments 257

References 257

3.2 Rewiring the Nervous System, Without Wires 259
D. A. Borton

1. Introduction 259

2. Why go wireless? 260

3. One wireless recording solution used to explore primary motor cortex control of locomotion 262

4. Writing into the nervous system with epidural electrical stimulation of spinal circuits effectively modulates gait 265

5. Genetic technology brings a better model to neuroscience 267

6. The wireless bridge for closed-loop control and rehabilitation 268

7. Conclusion 269

Acknowledgments 270

References 270

3.3 Nanopower-Integrated Electronics for Energy Harvesting, Conversion, and Management 275
A. Romani, M. Dini, M. Filippi, M. Tartagni, and E. Sangiorgi

1. Introduction 275

2. Commercial ICs for micropower harvesting 276

3. State-of-the-art integrated nanocurrent power converters for energy-harvesting applications 278

4. A multisource-integrated energy-harvesting circuit 281

5. Conclusion 286

Acknowledgments 286

References 286

3.4 Will Composite Nanomaterials Replace Piezoelectric Thin Films for Energy Transduction Applications? 291
R. Tao, G. Ardila, R. Hinchet, A. Michard, L. Montès, and M. Mouis

1. Introduction 291

2. Thin film piezoelectric materials and applications 292

3. Individual ZnO and GaN piezoelectric nanowires: experiments and simulations 293

4. Piezoelectric composite materials using nanowires 295

5. Conclusion 303

Acknowledgments 304

References 304

3.5 New Generation of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Interconnects 309
N. Ledentsov Jr, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt

1. Introduction 309

2. VCSEL requirements 310

3. Optical leakage 312

4. Experiment 313

5. Simulation 316

6. Conclusion 323

Acknowledgments 323

References 323

3.6 Reconfigurable Infrared Photodetector Based on Asymmetrically Doped Double Quantum Wells for Multicolor and Remote Temperature Sensing 327
X. Zhang, V. Mitin, G. Thomain, T. Yore, Y. Li, J. K. Choi, K. Sablon, and A. Sergeev

1. Introduction 327

2. Fabrication of DQWIP with asymmetrical doping 328

3. Optoelectronic characterization of DQWIPs 329

4. Temperature sensing 333

5. Conclusion 334

Acknowledgments 335

References 335

3.7 Tunable Photonic Molecules for Spectral Engineering in Dense Photonic Integration 337
M. C. M. M. Souza, G. F. M. Rezende, A. A. G. von Zuben, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. C. Frateschi, and L. A. M. Barea

1. Introduction 337

2. Photonic molecules and their spectral features 338

3. Coupling-controlled mode-splitting: GHz-operation on a tight footprint 340

4. Reconfigurable spectral control 341

5. Toward reconfigurable mode-splitting control 343

6. Conclusion 346

Acknowledgments 346

References 347

INDEX 349

See More

Author Information

Serge Luryi, PhD, is a Distinguished Professor and Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Stony Brook University, as well as the Director of New York State Center for Advanced Technology in Sensor Systems. He has worked in microelectronics for over 30 years, published over 250 papers and has been awarded 53 US patents. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, of the American Physical Society, and of the Optical Society of America.

Jimmy Xu, PhD, is the Charles C. Tillinghast Jr. '32 University Professor of Engineering and Physics at Brown University. Prior to 1999, he was the James Ham Chair of Optoelectronics, as well as the Director of the Nortel Institute for Telecommunications at the University of Toronto. He has worked in microelectronics for over 30 years. He is a Fellow of the AAAS, APS, Guggenheim Foundation, IEEE, and the Institute of Physics.

Alex Zaslavsky, PhD, is a Professor of Engineering and Physics at Brown University. During 2009-2012 he was a Visiting Senior Chair of Excellence at the Nanosciences Foundation in Grenoble, France. He has worked in microelectronics for over 25 years and has published over 130 journal papers and book chapters. He has been an editor of the Solid State Electronics international journal since 2003.

See More

Related Titles

Back to Top