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Chipless RFID Sensors

ISBN: 978-1-119-07811-1
272 pages
March 2016
Chipless RFID Sensors (1119078113) cover image

Description

A systematic treatment of the design and fabrication of chipless RFID sensors

This book presents various sensing techniques incorporated into chipless RFID systems. The book is divided into five main sections: Introduction to Chipless RFID Sensors; RFID Sensor Design; Smart Materials; Fabrication, Integration and Testing; and Applications of Chipless RFID Sensors. After a comprehensive review of conventional RFID sensors, the book presents various passive microwave circuit designs to achieve compact, high data density and highly sensitive tag sensors for a number of real-world ubiquitous sensing applications. The book reviews the application of smart materials for microwave sensing and provides an overview of various micro- and nano-fabrication techniques with the potential to be used in the development of chipless RFID sensors. The authors also explore a chipless RFID reader design capable of reading data ID and sensory information from the chipless RFID sensors presented in the book. The unique features of the book are:

  • Evaluating new chipless RFID sensor design that allow non-invasive PD detection and localization, real-time environment monitoring, and temperature threshold detection and humidity
  • Providing a classification of smart materials based on sensing physical parameters (i.e. humidity, temperature, pH, gas, strain, light, etc.)
  • Discussing innovative micro- and nano-fabrication processes including printing suitable for chipless RFID sensors
  • Presenting a detailed case study on various real-world applications including retail, pharmaceutical, logistics, power, and construction industries

Chipless RFID Sensors is primarily written for researchers in the field of RF sensors but can serve as supplementary reading for graduate students and professors in electrical engineering and wireless communications.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xxi

Abbreviations xxiii

Symbols xxv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Tracking ID Technology, 1

1.1.1 Barcoding, 1

1.1.2 Radio-Frequency Identification, 3

1.1.3 Chipless RFID, 4

1.1.4 Chipless RFID Sensors, 4

1.2 Chipless RFID Sensor System, 6

1.3 Proposed Chipless RFID Sensor, 7

1.4 Chapter Overview, 7

1.4.1 Chapter 1: Introduction, 7

1.4.2 Chapter 2: Literature Review, 7

1.4.3 Chapter 3: Passive Microwave Designs, 8

1.4.4 Chapter 4: Smart Materials for Chipless RFID Sensors, 9

1.4.5 Chapter 5: Characterization of Smart Materials, 9

1.4.6 Chapter 6: Chipless RFID Sensor for Noninvasive PD Detection and Localization, 9

1.4.7 Chapter 7: Chipless RFID Sensor for Real-Time Environment Monitoring, 10

1.4.8 Chapter 8: Chipless RFID Temperature Memory and Multiparameter Sensor, 10

1.4.9 Chapter 9: Nanofabrication Techniques for Chipless RFID Sensor, 10

1.4.10 Chapter 10: Chipless RFID Reader Architecture, 10

1.4.11 Chapter 11: Case Studies, 11

References, 11

2 Literature Review 13

2.1 Introduction, 13

2.2 Traditional RFID Sensors, 14

2.2.1 Active RFID Sensors, 14

2.2.2 Passive RFID Sensors, 15

2.2.3 Low-Cost Chipless RFID Sensors, 16

2.3 Challenges and Limitations of Current Chipless RFID Sensors, 21

2.3.1 Fully Printable, 21

2.3.2 Smart Sensing Materials, 22

2.3.3 Multiple Parameter Sensing, 22

2.3.4 Chipless RFID Sensor Systems, 22

2.3.5 Applications, 22

2.4 Motivation for a Novel Chipless RFID Sensor, 23

2.5 Proposed Chipless RFID Sensor, 23

2.5.1 Noninvasive PD Detection and Localization, 23

2.5.2 Real-Time Environment Monitoring, 24

2.5.3 Nonvolatile Memory Sensor for Event Detection, 24

2.5.4 Single-Node Multiparameter Chipless RFID Sensor, 24

2.6 Conclusion, 24

References, 25

3 Passive Microwave Design 29

3.1 Introduction, 29

3.2 Chapter Overview, 29

3.3 Theory, 31

3.3.1 Passive Microwave Components, 31

3.3.2 Integrated Chipless RFID Sensor, 39

3.4 Design, 40

3.4.1 Tri-Step SIR, 40

3.4.2 Semicircular Patch Antenna, 43

3.4.3 Cascaded Multiresonator-Based Chipless RFID Sensor, 43

3.4.4 Multislot Patch Resonator, 44

3.4.5 ELC Resonator for RF Sensing, 48

3.4.6 Backscatterer-Based Chipless RFID Tag Sensor, 49

3.5 Simulation and Measured Results, 54

3.5.1 Tri-Step SIR, 54

3.5.2 Semicircular Patch Antenna, 55

3.5.3 Cascaded Multiresonator-Based Chipless RFID Sensor, 56

3.5.4 Multislot Patch Resonator, 56

3.5.5 ELC Resonator, 62

3.5.6 Backscatterer-Based Chipless RFID Tag Sensor, 62

3.6 Conclusion, 65

References, 67

4 Smart Materials for Chipless RFID Sensors 69

4.1 Introduction, 69

4.2 Sensing Materials, 70

4.2.1 Smart Materials, 71

4.2.2 Classification of Smart Materials for RF Sensing, 72

4.3 Temperature Sensing Materials, 73

4.3.1 Phenanthrene, 73

4.3.2 Ionic Plastic Crystal, 73

4.3.3 Nanostructured Metal Oxide, 76

4.4 Humidity Sensing Materials, 77

4.4.1 Kapton, 77

4.4.2 Polyvinyl Alcohol, 78

4.5 pH Sensing Materials, 78

4.6 Gas Sensing Materials, 79

4.7 Strain and Crack Sensing Materials, 80

4.8 Light Sensing Materials, 80

4.8.1 SIR Loaded with CdS Photoresistor, 81

4.9 Other Potentials Smart Materials for RF Sensing, 82

4.9.1 Graphene, 83

4.9.2 Nanowires, 85

4.9.3 Nanoparticles, 85

4.9.4 Nanocomposites, 86

4.10 Discussion, 88

4.11 Conclusion, 93

References, 94

5 Characterization of Smart Materials 99

5.1 Introduction, 99

5.2 Characterization of Materials for Microwave Sensing, 101

5.3 X-Ray Diffraction, 101

5.4 Raman Scattering Spectroscopy, 102

5.5 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer, 103

5.6 Transmission Electron Microscopy, 104

5.7 Scanning Electron Microscope, 104

5.8 Atomic Force Microscopy, 105

5.9 Infrared Spectroscopy (Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection), 106

5.10 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, 106

5.10.1 Basic Steps for a Model-Based Analysis, 111

5.10.2 Layered Optical Model, 111

5.10.3 Optical Model for Surface Roughness, 112

5.10.4 Approximation of Surface Roughness As an Oxide Layer, 112

5.10.5 Optical Model for Index Gradients, 112

5.10.6 Procedure for an Ellipsometric Modeling, 113

5.10.7 Regression, 113

5.10.8 Dielectric Film, 114

5.10.9 Mixed or Composite Materials, 114

5.10.10 Accuracy and Precision of SE Experiments, 114

5.11 UV–Visible Spectrophotometers, 115

5.12 Electrical Conductivity Measurement, 115

5.13 Microwave Characterization (Scattering Parameters—Complex Permittivity, Dielectric Loss, and Reflection Loss) for Sensing Materials, 117

5.13.1 Basic Microwave-Material Interaction Aspects, 118

5.13.2 Methods of Measurement of Dielectric Properties, 119

5.14 Discussion on Characterization of Smart Materials, 120

5.15 Conclusion, 121

References, 123

6 Chipless RFID Sensor for Noninvasive PD Detection and Localization 125

6.1 Introduction, 125

6.1.1 Radiometric PD Detection, 127

6.2 Theory, 128

6.2.1 Proposed PD Sensor, 128

6.2.2 PD Sensor System Overview, 129

6.2.3 Simultaneous PD Detection, 130

6.3 PD Localization Using Cascaded Multiresonator-Based Sensor, 133

6.3.1 PD Sensor, 133

6.3.2 Experimentation with PD Signal, 133

6.3.3 Data Encoding in PD Signal, 134

6.4 Simultaneous PD Detection, 138

6.4.1 Time–Frequency Analysis, 138

6.4.2 Effect of Time and Frequency Resolution, 138

6.4.3 Simultaneous PD Detection Incorporating Time Delay, 141

6.5 Conclusion, 143

References, 145

7 Chipless RFID Sensor for Real-Time Environment Monitoring 149

7.1 Introduction, 149

7.2 Phase 1. Humidity Sensing Polymer Characterization and Sensitivity Analysis, 149

7.2.1 Theory of Dielectric Sensor, 149

7.2.2 Characterization of Humidity Sensing Polymers, 151

7.2.3 Sensitivity Curve and Comparative Study, 156

7.3 Phase 2. Chipless RFID Humidity Sensor, 161

7.3.1 Backscatterer-Based Chipless RFID Humidity Sensor, 161

7.3.2 Experimentation and Results, 162

7.3.3 Calibration Curve for Humidity Sensor, 163

7.3.4 Hysteresis Analysis, 165

7.4 Conclusion, 168

References, 169

8 Chipless RFID Temperature Memory and Multiparameter Sensor 171

8.1 Introduction, 171

8.2 Phase 1: Chipless RFID Memory Sensor, 173

8.2.1 Theory, 173

8.2.2 Design of Memory Sensor with ELC Resonator, 174

8.2.3 Experimentation for Chipless RFID Memory Sensor, 175

8.3 Phase 2: Chipless RFID Multiparameter Sensor, 178

8.3.1 Theory, 178

8.3.2 Design, 179

8.3.3 Experimentation for Multiple Parameter Sensing, 180

8.3.4 Practical Challenges of Multiparameter Chipless Sensors, 183

8.4 Conclusion, 183

References, 184

9 Nanofabrication Techniques for Chipless RFID Sensors 187

9.1 Chapter Overview, 187

9.2 Fabrication Techniques, 188

9.2.1 Introduction, 188

9.2.2 Classification of Fabrication Techniques, 188

9.3 Electrodeposition, 189

9.4 Physical Vapor Deposition, 189

9.4.1 Thermal Evaporation, 190

9.4.2 Sputtering, 190

9.4.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy, 191

9.5 Wet Chemical Synthesis, 192

9.6 Plasma Processing, 193

9.7 Etching, 194

9.8 Laser Processing, 195

9.9 Lithography, 196

9.9.1 Photolithography, 196

9.9.2 Electron beam lithography, 198

9.9.3 Ion beam lithography, 200

9.9.4 Nanoimprint lithography (NIL)/Hot Embossing, 201

9.9.5 Thermal Nanoimprint Lithography, 201

9.9.6 UV-Based Nanoimprint Lithography, 202

9.9.7 Reverse Contact UVNIL–RUVNIL, 203

9.10 Surface or Bulk Micromachining, 203

9.11 Printing Techniques, 204

9.11.1 Screen Printing, 205

9.11.2 Inkjet Printing, 207

9.11.3 Laser Printing, 209

9.12 Discussion on Nanofabrication Techniques, 209

9.13 Chipless RFID Sensors on Flexible Substrates, 213

9.14 Conclusion, 213

References, 215

10 Chipless RFID Reader Architecture 217

10.1 Introduction, 217

10.2 Reader Architecture, 217

10.2.1 RF Module, 218

10.2.2 Digital Module, 219

10.3 Operational Flowchart of a Chipless RFID Reader, 221

10.3.1 Reader Calibration, 221

10.3.2 Real-Time Sensor Data Decoding, 223

10.3.3 Tag ID Decoding, 223

10.4 Conclusion, 223

References, 224

11 Case Studies 225

11.1 Introduction, 225

11.2 Food Safety, 226

11.3 Health, 229

11.4 Emergency Services, 232

11.5 Smart Home, 234

11.6 Agricultural Industry, 234

11.7 Infrastructure Condition Monitoring, 236

11.8 Transportation and Logistics, 236

11.9 Authentication and Security, 236

11.9.1 Solution, 237

11.10 Power Industry, 238

11.11 Conclusion and Original Contributions, 239

References, 241

Index 243

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