Ebook
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering: From Fundamentals to Applications, 2nd EditionISBN: 9781119079538
968 pages
August 2017, WileyIEEE Press

Description
One of the most methodical treatments of electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation, and scattering—including new applications and ideas
Presented in two parts, this book takes an analytical approach on the subject and emphasizes new ideas and applications used today. Part one covers fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation, and scattering. It provides ample endofchapter problems and offers a 90page solution manual to help readers check and comprehend their work. The second part of the book explores uptodate applications of electromagnetic waves—including radiometry, geophysical remote sensing and imaging, and biomedical and signal processing applications.
Written by a world renowned authority in the field of electromagnetic research, this new edition of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering: From Fundamentals to Applications presents detailed applications with useful appendices, including mathematical formulas, Airy function, Abel’s equation, Hilbert transform, and Riemann surfaces. The book also features newly revised material that focuses on the following topics:
 Statistical wave theories—which have been extensively applied to topics such as geophysical remote sensing, bioelectromagnetics, biooptics, and bioultrasound imaging
 Integration of several distinct yet related disciplines, such as statistical wave theories, communications, signal processing, and time reversal imaging
 New phenomena of multiple scattering, such as coherent scattering and memory effects
 Multiphysics applications that combine theories for different physical phenomena, such as seismic coda waves, stochastic wave theory, heat diffusion, and temperature rise in biological and other media
 Metamaterials and solitons in optical fibers, nonlinear phenomena, and porous media
Primarily a textbook for graduate courses in electrical engineering, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering is also ideal for graduate students in bioengineering, geophysics, ocean engineering, and geophysical remote sensing. The book is also a useful reference for engineers and scientists working in fields such as geophysical remote sensing, bio–medical engineering in optics and ultrasound, and new materials and integration with signal processing.
Table of Contents
CONTENTS
ABOUT THE AUTHOR xix
PREFACE xxi
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xxv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxvii
PART I FUNDAMENTALS 1
1 INTRODUCTION 3
2 FUNDAMENTAL FIELD EQUATIONS 7
2.1 Maxwell's Equations / 7
2.2 TimeHarmonic Case / 10
2.3 Constitutive Relations / 11
2.4 Boundary Conditions / 15
2.5 Energy Relations and Poynting's Theorem / 18
2.6 Vector and Scalar Potentials / 22
2.7 Electric Hertz Vector / 24
2.8 Duality Principle and Symmetry of Maxwell's Equations / 25
2.9 Magnetic Hertz Vector / 26
2.10 Uniqueness Theorem / 27
2.11 Reciprocity Theorem / 28
2.12 Acoustic Waves / 30
Problems / 33
3 WAVES IN INHOMOGENEOUS AND LAYERED MEDIA 35
3.1 Wave Equation for a TimeHarmonic Case / 35
3.2 TimeHarmonic PlaneWave Propagation in Homogeneous Media / 36
3.3 Polarization / 37
3.4 PlaneWave Incidence on a Plane Boundary: Perpendicular Polarization (s Polarization) / 39
3.5 Electric Field Parallel to a Plane of Incidence: Parallel Polarization (p Polarization) / 43
3.6 Fresnel Formula, Brewster's Angle, and Total Reflection / 44
3.7 Waves in Layered Media / 47
3.8 Acoustic Reflection and Transmission from a Boundary / 50
3.9 Complex Waves / 51
3.10 Trapped Surface Wave (Slow Wave) and Leaky Wave / 54
3.11 Surface Waves Along a Dielectric Slab / 57
3.12 Zenneck Waves and Plasmons / 63
3.13 Waves in Inhomogeneous Media / 66
3.14 WKB Method / 68
3.15 Bremmer Series / 72
3.16 WKB Solution for the Turning Point / 76
3.17 Trapped SurfaceWave Modes in an Inhomogeneous Slab / 77
3.18 Medium With Prescribed Profile / 80
Problems / 81
4 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITIES 85
4.1 Uniform Electromagnetic Waveguides / 85
4.2 TM Modes or E Modes / 86
4.3 TE Modes or H Modes / 87
4.4 Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues / 89
4.5 General Properties of Eigenfunctions for Closed Regions / 91
4.6 kβ Diagram and Phase and Group Velocities / 95
4.7 Rectangular Waveguides / 98
4.8 Cylindrical Waveguides / 100
4.9 TEM Modes / 104
4.10 Dispersion of a Pulse in a Waveguide / 106
4.11 StepIndex Optical Fibers / 109
4.12 Dispersion of GradedIndex Fibers / 116
4.13 Radial and Azimuthal Waveguides / 117
4.14 Cavity Resonators / 120
4.15 Waves in Spherical Structures / 123
4.16 Spherical Waveguides and Cavities / 128
Problems / 133
5 GREEN'S FUNCTIONS 137
5.1 Electric and Magnetic Dipoles in Homogeneous Media / 137
5.2 Electromagnetic Fields Excited by an Electric Dipole in a Homogeneous Medium / 139
5.3 Electromagnetic Fields Excited by a Magnetic Dipole in a Homogeneous Medium / 144
5.4 Scalar Green's Function for Closed Regions and Expansion of Green's Function in a Series of Eigenfunctions / 145
5.5 Green's Function in Terms of Solutions of the Homogeneous Equation / 150
5.6 Fourier Transform Method / 155
5.7 Excitation of a Rectangular Waveguide / 157
5.8 Excitation of a Conducting Cylinder / 159
5.9 Excitation of a Conducting Sphere / 163
Problems / 166
6 RADIATION FROM APERTURES AND BEAM WAVES 169
6.1 Huygens' Principle and Extinction Theorem / 169
6.2 Fields Due to the Surface Field Distribution / 173
6.3 Kirchhoff Approximation / 176
6.4 Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction / 178
6.5 Fourier Transform (Spectral) Representation / 182
6.6 Beam Waves / 183
6.7 GoosHanchen Effect / 187
6.8 HigherOrder BeamWave Modes / 191
6.9 Vector Green's Theorem, StrattonChu Formula, and Franz Formula / 194
6.10 Equivalence Theorem / 197
6.11 Kirchhoff Approximation for Electromagnetic Waves / 198
Problems / 199
7 PERIODIC STRUCTURES AND COUPLEDMODE THEORY 201
7.1 Floquet's Theorem / 202
7.2 Guided Waves Along Periodic Structures / 203
7.3 Periodic Layers / 209
7.4 Plane Wave Incidence on a Periodic Structure / 213
7.5 Scattering from Periodic Surfaces Based on the Rayleigh Hypothesis / 219
7.6 CoupledMode Theory / 224
Problems / 229
8 DISPERSION AND ANISOTROPIC MEDIA 233
8.1 Dielectric Material and Polarizability / 233
8.2 Dispersion of Dielectric Material / 235
8.3 Dispersion of Conductor and Isotropic Plasma / 237
8.4 Debye Relaxation Equation and Dielectric Constant of Water / 240
8.5 Interfacial Polarization / 240
8.6 Mixing Formula / 241
8.7 Dielectric Constant and Permeability for Anisotropic Media / 244
8.8 Magnetoionic Theory for Anisotropic Plasma / 244
8.9 PlaneWave Propagation in Anisotropic Media / 247
8.10 PlaneWave Propagation in Magnetoplasma / 248
8.11 Propagation Along the DC Magnetic Field / 249
8.12 Faraday Rotation / 253
8.13 Propagation Perpendicular to the DC Magnetic Field / 255
8.14 The Height of the Ionosphere / 256
8.15 Group Velocity in Anisotropic Medium / 257
8.16 Warm Plasma / 259
8.17 Wave Equations for Warm Plasma / 261
8.18 Ferrite and the Derivation of Its Permeability Tensor / 263
8.19 PlaneWave Propagation in Ferrite / 266
8.20 Microwave Devices Using Ferrites / 267
8.21 Lorentz Reciprocity Theorem for Anisotropic Media / 270
8.22 BiAnisotropic Media and Chiral Media / 272
8.23 Superconductors, London Equation, and the Meissner Effects / 276
8.24 TwoFluid Model of Superconductors at High Frequencies / 278
Problems / 280
9 ANTENNAS, APERTURES, AND ARRAYS 285
9.1 Antenna Fundamentals / 285
9.2 Radiation Fields of Given Electric and Magnetic Current Distributions / 289
9.3 Radiation Fields of Dipoles, Slots, and Loops / 292
9.4 Antenna Arrays with Equal and Unequal Spacings / 296
9.5 Radiation Fields from a Given Aperture Field Distribution / 301
9.6 Radiation from Microstrip Antennas / 305
9.7 Self and Mutual Impedances of Wire Antennas with Given Current Distributions / 308
9.8 Current Distribution of a Wire Antenna / 313
Problems / 314
10 SCATTERING OF WAVES BY CONDUCTING AND DIELECTRIC OBJECTS 317
10.1 Cross Sections and Scattering Amplitude / 318
10.2 Radar Equations / 321
10.3 General Properties of Cross Sections / 322
10.4 Integral Representations of Scattering Amplitude and Absorption Cross Sections / 325
10.5 Rayleigh Scattering for a Spherical Object / 328
10.6 Rayleigh Scattering for a Small Ellipsoidal Object / 330
10.7 RayleighDebye Scattering (Born Approximation) / 334
10.8 Elliptic Polarization and Stokes Parameters / 338
10.9 Partial Polarization and Natural Light / 341
10.10 Scattering Amplitude Functions f11, f12, f21, and f22 and the Stokes Matrix / 342
10.11 Acoustic Scattering / 344
10.12 Scattering Cross Section of a Conducting Body / 346
10.13 Physical Optics Approximation / 347
10.14 Moment Method: Computer Applications / 350
Problems / 354
11 WAVES IN CYLINDRICAL STRUCTURES, SPHERES, AND WEDGES 357
11.1 Plane Wave Incident on a Conducting Cylinder / 357
11.2 Plane Wave Incident on a Dielectric Cylinder / 361
11.3 Axial Dipole Near a Conducting Cylinder / 364
11.4 Radiation Field / 366
11.5 SaddlePoint Technique / 368
11.6 Radiation from a Dipole and Parseval's Theorem / 371
11.7 Large Cylinders and the Watson Transform / 373
11.8 Residue Series Representation and Creeping Waves / 376
11.9 Poisson's Sum Formula, Geometric Optical Region, and Fock Representation / 379
11.10 Mie Scattering by a Dielectric Sphere / 382
11.11 Axial Dipole in the Vicinity of a Conducting Wedge / 390
11.12 Line Source and Plane Wave Incident on a Wedge / 392
11.13 HalfPlane Excited by a Plane Wave / 394
Problems / 395
12 SCATTERING BY COMPLEX OBJECTS 401
12.1 Scalar Surface Integral Equations for Soft and Hard Surfaces / 402
12.2 Scalar Surface Integral Equations for a Penetrable Homogeneous Body / 404
12.3 EFIE and MFIE / 406
12.4 TMatrix Method (Extended Boundary Condition Method) / 408
12.5 Symmetry and Unitarity of the TMatrix and the Scattering Matrix / 414
12.6 TMatrix Solution for Scattering from Periodic Sinusoidal Surfaces / 416
12.7 Volume Integral Equations for Inhomogeneous Bodies: TM Case / 418
12.8 Volume Integral Equations for Inhomogeneous Bodies: TE Case / 423
12.9 ThreeDimensional Dielectric Bodies / 426
12.10 Electromagnetic Aperture Integral Equations for a Conducting Screen / 427
12.11 Small Apertures / 430
12.12 Babinet's Principle and Slot and Wire Antennas / 433
12.13 Electromagnetic Diffraction by Slits and Ribbons / 439
12.14 Related Problems / 441
Problems / 441
13 GEOMETRIC THEORY OF DIFFRACTION AND LOW FREQUENCY TECHNIQUES 443
13.1 Geometric Theory of Diffraction / 444
13.2 Diffraction by a Slit for Dirichlet's Problem / 447
13.3 Diffraction by a Slit for Neumann's Problem and Slope Diffraction / 452
13.4 Uniform Geometric Theory of Diffraction for an Edge / 455
13.5 Edge Diffraction for a Point Source / 457
13.6 Wedge Diffraction for a Point Source / 461
13.7 Slope Diffraction and Grazing Incidence / 463
13.8 Curved Wedge / 463
13.9 Other HighFrequency Techniques / 465
13.10 Vertex and Surface Diffraction / 466
13.11 LowFrequency Scattering / 467
Problems / 470
14 PLANAR LAYERS, STRIP LINES, PATCHES, AND APERTURES 473
14.1 Excitation of Waves in a Dielectric Slab / 473
14.2 Excitation of Waves in a Vertically Inhomogeneous Medium / 481
14.3 Strip Lines / 485
14.4 Waves Excited by Electric and Magnetic Currents Perpendicular to Dielectric Layers / 492
14.5 Waves Excited by Transverse Electric and Magnetic Currents in Dielectric Layers / 496
14.6 Strip Lines Embedded in Dielectric Layers / 500
14.7 Periodic Patches and Apertures Embedded in Dielectric Layers / 502
Problems / 506
15 RADIATION FROM A DIPOLE ON THE CONDUCTING EARTH 509
15.1 Sommerfeld Dipole Problem / 509
15.2 Vertical Electric Dipole Located Above the Earth / 510
15.3 Reflected Waves in Air / 514
15.4 Radiation Field: SaddlePoint Technique / 517
15.5 Field Along the Surface and the Singularities of the Integrand / 519
15.6 Sommerfeld Pole and Zenneck Wave / 521
15.7 Solution to the Sommerfeld Problem / 524
15.8 Lateral Waves: Branch Cut Integration / 528
15.9 Refracted Wave / 536
15.10 Radiation from a Horizontal Dipole / 538
15.11 Radiation in Layered Media / 541
15.12 Geometric Optical Representation / 545
15.13 Mode and Lateral Wave Representation / 549
Problems / 550
PART II APPLICATIONS 553
16 INVERSE SCATTERING 555
16.1 Radon Transform and Tomography / 555
16.2 Alternative Inverse Radon Transform in Terms of the Hilbert Transform / 559
16.3 Diffraction Tomography / 561
16.4 Physical Optics Inverse Scattering / 567
16.5 Holographic Inverse Source Problem / 570
16.6 Inverse Problems and Abel's Integral Equation Applied to Probing of the Ionosphere / 572
16.7 Radar Polarimetry and Radar Equation / 575
16.8 Optimization of Polarization / 578
16.9 Stokes Vector Radar Equation and Polarization Signature / 580
16.10 Measurement of Stokes Parameter / 582
Problems / 584
17 RADIOMETRY, NOISE TEMPERATURE, AND INTERFEROMETRY 587
17.1 Radiometry / 587
17.2 Brightness and Flux Density / 588
17.3 Blackbody Radiation and Antenna Temperature / 589
17.4 Equation of Radiative Transfer / 592
17.5 Scattering Cross Sections and Absorptivity and Emissivity of a Surface / 594
17.6 System Temperature / 598
17.7 Minimum Detectable Temperature / 600
17.8 Radar Range Equation / 601
17.9 Aperture Illumination and Brightness Distributions / 602
17.10 TwoAntenna Interferometer / 604
Problems / 607
18 STOCHASTIC WAVE THEORIES 611
18.1 Stochastic Wave Equations and Statistical Wave Theories / 612
18.2 Scattering in Troposphere, Ionosphere, and Atmospheric Optics / 612
18.3 Turbid Medium, Radiative Transfer, and Reciprocity / 612
18.4 Stochastic Sommerfeld Problem, Seismic Coda, and Subsurface Imaging / 613
18.5 Stochastic Green's Function and Stochastic Boundary Problems / 615
18.6 Channel Capacity of Communication Systems with Random Media Mutual Coherence Function / 619
18.7 Integration of Statistical Waves with Other Disciplines / 621
18.8 Some Accounts of Historical Development of Statistical Wave Theories / 622
19 GEOPHYSICAL REMOTE SENSING AND IMAGING 625
19.1 Polarimetric Radar / 626
19.2 Scattering Models for Geophysical Medium and Decomposition Theorem / 630
19.3 Polarimetric Weather Radar / 632
19.4 Nonspherical Raindrops and Differential Reflectivity / 634
19.5 Propagation Constant in Randomly Distributed Nonspherical Particles / 636
19.6 Vector Radiative Transfer Theory / 638
19.7 SpaceTime Radiative Transfer / 639
19.8 Wigner Distribution Function and Specific Intensity / 641
19.9 Stokes Vector Emissivity from Passive Surface and Ocean Wind Directions / 644
19.10 Van CittertZernike Theorem Applied to Aperture Synthesis Radiometers Including Antenna Temperature / 646
19.11 Ionospheric Effects on SAR Image / 650
20 BIOMEDICAL EM, OPTICS, AND ULTRASOUND 657
20.1 Bioelectromagnetics / 658
20.2 BioEM and Heat Diffusion in Tissues / 659
20.3 BioOptics, Optical Absorption and Scattering in Blood / 663
20.4 Optical Diffusion in Tissues / 666
20.5 Photon Density Waves / 670
20.6 Optical Coherence Tomography and Low Coherence Interferometry / 672
20.7 Ultrasound Scattering and Imaging of Tissues / 677
20.8 Ultrasound in Blood / 680
21 WAVES IN METAMATERIALS AND PLASMON 685
21.1 Refractive Index n and με Diagram / 686
21.2 Plane Waves, Energy Relations, and Group Velocity / 688
21.3 SplitRing Resonators / 689
21.4 Generalized Constitutive Relations for Metamaterials / 692
21.5 SpaceTime Wave Packet Incident on Dispersive Metamaterial and Negative Refraction / 697
21.6 Backward Lateral Waves and Backward Surface Waves / 701
21.7 Negative GoosHanchen Shift / 704
21.8 Perfect Lens, Subwavelength Focusing, and Evanescent Waves / 708
21.9 Brewster's Angle in NIM and Acoustic Brewster's Angle / 712
21.10 Transformation Electromagnetics and Invisible Cloak / 716
21.11 Surface Flattening Coordinate Transform / 720
22 TIMEREVERSAL IMAGING 723
22.1 TimeReversal Mirror in Free Space / 724
22.2 Super Resolution of TimeReversed Pulse in Multiple Scattering Medium / 729
22.3 TimeReversal Imaging of Single and Multiple Targets and DORT (Decomposition of TimeReversal Operator) / 731
22.4 TimeReversal Imaging of Targets in Free Space / 735
22.5 TimeReversal Imaging and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) / 739
22.6 TimeReversal Imaging with MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) / 739
22.7 Optimum Power Transfer by TimeReversal Technique / 740
23 SCATTERING BY TURBULENCE, PARTICLES, DIFFUSE MEDIUM, AND ROUGH SURFACES 743
23.1 Scattering by Atmospheric and Ionospheric Turbulence / 743
23.2 Scattering Cross Section per Unit Volume of Turbulence / 746
23.3 Scattering for a Narrow Beam Case / 748
23.4 Scattering Cross Section Per Unit Volume of Rain and Fog / 750
23.5 Gaussian and HenyeyGreenstein Scattering Formulas / 751
23.6 Scattering Cross Section Per Unit Volume of Turbulence, Particles, and Biological Media / 752
23.7 LineofSight Propagation, Born and Rytov Approximation / 753
23.8 Modified Rytov Solution with Power Conservation, and Mutual Coherence Function / 754
23.9 MCF for LineofSight Wave Propagation in Turbulence / 756
23.10 Correlation Distance and Angular Spectrum / 759
23.11 Coherence Time and Spectral Broadening / 760
23.12 Pulse Propagation, Coherence Bandwidth, and Pulse Broadening / 761
23.13 Weak and Strong Fluctuations and Scintillation Index / 762
23.14 Rough Surface Scattering, Perturbation Solution, Transition Operator / 765
23.15 Scattering by Rough Interfaces Between Two Media / 771
23.16 Kirchhoff Approximation of Rough Surface Scattering / 774
23.17 Frequency and Angular Correlation of Scattered Waves from Rough Surfaces and Memory Effects / 779
24 COHERENCE IN MULTIPLE SCATTERING AND DIAGRAM METHOD 785
24.1 Enhanced Radar Cross Section in Turbulence / 786
24.2 Enhanced Backscattering from Rough Surfaces / 787
24.3 Enhanced Backscattering from Particles and Photon Localization / 789
24.4 Multiple Scattering Formulations, the Dyson and BetheSalpeter Equations / 791
24.5 FirstOrder Smoothing Approximation / 793
24.6 First and SecondOrder Scattering and Backscattering Enhancement / 794
24.7 Memory Effects / 795
25 SOLITONS AND OPTICAL FIBERS 797
25.1 History / 797
25.2 KDV (KortewegDe Vries) Equation for Shallow Water / 799
25.3 Optical Solitons in Fibers / 802
26 POROUS MEDIA, PERMITTIVITY, FLUID PERMEABILITY OF SHALES AND SEISMIC CODA 807
26.1 Porous Medium and Shale, Superfracking / 808
26.2 Permittivity and Conductivity of Porous Media, Archie's Law, and Percolation and Fractal / 809
26.3 Fluid Permeability and Darcy's Law / 811
26.4 Seismic Coda, PWave, SWave, and Rayleigh Surface Wave / 812
26.5 Earthquake Magnitude Scales / 813
26.6 Waveform Envelope Broadening and Coda / 814
26.7 Coda in Heterogeneous Earth Excited by an Impulse Source / 815
26.8 Swave Coda and Rayleigh Surface Wave / 819
APPENDICES 821
REFERENCES 913
INDEX 929
Author Information
Akira Ishimaru, PhD, has served as a memberatlarge of the U.S. National Committee (USNC) and was chairman of Commission B of the USNC/International Union of Radio Science. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, the Optical Society of America, the Acoustical Society of America and the Institute of Physics, U.K. He is also the recipient of numerous awards in his field. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.