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Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks

ISBN: 978-1-119-07995-8
186 pages
July 2016, Wiley-IEEE Press
Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks (1119079950) cover image

Description

Explores real-world wireless sensor network development, deployment, and applications
  • Presents state-of-the-art protocols and algorithms
  • Includes end-of-chapter summaries, exercises, and references
  • For students, there are hardware overviews, reading links, programming examples, and tests available at [website]
  • For Instructors, there are PowerPoint slides and solutions available at [website]
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Table of Contents

How to Use This Book xiii

1 What are Wireless Sensor Networks? 1

1.1 Wireless Sensor Networks, 1

1.2 Sample Applications Around the World, 3

1.3 Types of Wireless Sensor Networks, 7

Summary, 10

Further Reading, 10

2 Anatomy of a Sensor Node 11

2.1 Hardware Components, 11

2.2 Power Consumption, 13

2.3 Operating Systems and Concepts, 15

2.3.1 Memory Management, 17

2.3.2 Interrupts, 23

2.3.3 Tasks, Threads, and Events, 24

2.4 Simulators, 26

2.5 Communication Stack, 28

2.5.1 Sensor Network Communication Stack, 28

2.5.2 Protocols and Algorithms, 30

Anatomy of a Sensor Node: Summary, 30

Further Reading, 30

3 Radio Communications 33

3.1 Radio Waves and Modulation/Demodulation, 33

3.2 Properties of Wireless Communications, 36

3.2.1 Interference and Noise, 37

3.2.2 Hidden Terminal Problem, 38

3.2.3 Exposed Terminal Problem, 39

3.3 Medium Access Protocols, 39

3.3.1 Design Criteria for Medium Access Protocols, 41

3.3.2 Time Division Multiple Access, 42

3.3.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access, 45

3.3.4 Sensor MAC, 48

3.3.5 Berkeley MAC, 50

3.3.6 Optimizations of B-MAC, 51

3.3.7 Other Protocols and Trends, 51

Radio Communications: Summary, 53

Questions and Exercises, 53

Further Reading, 54

4 Link Management 57

4.1 Wireless Links Introduction, 57

4.2 Properties of Wireless Links, 59

4.2.1 Links and Geographic Distance, 59

4.2.2 Asymmetric Links, 60

4.2.3 Link Stability and Burstiness, 61

4.3 Error Control, 62

4.3.1 Backward Error Control, 62

4.3.2 Forward Error Control, 63

4.4 Naming and Addressing, 64

4.4.1 Naming, 64

4.4.2 Addressing, 65

4.4.3 Assignment of Addresses and Names, 65

4.4.4 Using Names and Addresses, 66

4.5 Link Estimation Protocols, 66

4.5.1 Design Criteria, 66

4.5.2 Link Quality Based, 67

4.5.3 Delivery Rate Based, 68

4.5.4 Passive and Active Estimators, 69

4.5.5 Collection Tree Protocol, 69

4.6 Topology Control, 71

4.6.1 Centralized Topology Control, 71

4.6.2 Distributed Topology Control, 72

Link Management: Summary, 73

Questions and Exercises, 73

Further Reading, 74

5 Multi-Hop Communications 77

5.1 Routing Basics, 77

5.2 Routing Metrics, 80

5.2.1 Location and Geographic Vicinity, 80

5.2.2 Hops, 81

5.2.3 Number of Retransmissions, 82

5.2.4 Delivery Delay, 83

5.3 Routing Protocols, 84

5.3.1 Full-Network Broadcast, 85

5.3.2 Location-Based Routing, 87

5.3.3 Directed Diffusion, 90

5.3.4 Collection Tree Protocol, 92

5.3.5 Zigbee, 94

Multi-Hop Communications: Summary, 95

Questions and Exercises, 96

Further Reading, 96

6 Data Aggregation and Clustering 99

6.1 Clustering Techniques, 99

6.1.1 Random Clustering, 101

6.1.2 Nearest Sink, 102

6.1.3 Geographic Clustering, 103

6.1.4 Clustering Summary, 104

6.2 In-Network Processing and Data Aggregation, 104

6.2.1 Compression, 104

6.2.2 Statistical Techniques, 107

6.3 Compressive Sampling, 109

Data Aggregation and Clustering: Summary, 110

Questions and Exercises, 111

Further Reading, 111

7 Time Synchronization 113

7.1 Clocks and Delay Sources, 113

7.2 Requirements and Challenges, 114

7.3 Time Synchronization Protocols, 117

7.3.1 Lightweight Tree Synchronization, 117

7.3.2 Reference Broadcast Synchronization, 118

7.3.3 NoTime Protocol, 118

Time Synchronization: Summary, 120

Questions and Exercises, 121

Further Reading, 121

8 Localization Techniques 123

8.1 Localization Challenges and Properties, 123

8.1.1 Types of Location Information, 124

8.1.2 Precision Against Accuracy, 125

8.1.3 Costs, 125

8.2 Pre-Deployment Schemes, 126

8.3 Proximity Schemes, 126

8.4 Ranging Schemes, 128

8.4.1 Triangulation, 129

8.4.2 Trilateration, 129

8.5 Range-Based Localization, 129

8.6 Range-Free Localization, 130

8.6.1 Hop-Based Localization, 130

8.6.2 Point in Triangle (PIT), 131

Localization: Summary, 132

Questions and Exercises, 133

Further Reading, 133

9 Sensing Techniques 135

9.1 Types of Sensors, 135

9.2 Sensing Coverage, 136

9.3 High-Level Sensors, 137

9.4 Special Case: The Human As a Sensor, 138

9.5 Actuators, 138

9.6 Sensor Calibration, 139

9.7 Detecting Errors, 140

Sensing Techniques: Summary, 141

Questions and Exercises, 141

10 Designing and Deploying WSN Applications 143

10.1 Early WSN Deployments, 143

10.1.1 Murphy Loves Potatoes, 144

10.1.2 Great Duck Island, 144

10.2 General Problems, 145

10.2.1 Node Problems, 146

10.2.2 Link/Path Problems, 147

10.2.3 Global Problems, 148

10.3 General Testing and Validation, 149

10.4 Requirements Analysis, 151

10.4.1 Analyzing the Environment, 151

10.4.2 Analyzing Lifetime and Energy Requirements, 153

10.4.3 Analyzing Required Data, 153

10.4.4 Analyzing User Expectations, 154

10.5 The Top-Down Design Process, 154

10.5.1 The Network, 154

10.5.2 The Node Neighborhood, 155

10.5.3 The Node, 156

10.5.4 Individual Components of the Node, 156

10.6 Bottom-Up Implementation Process, 157

10.6.1 Individual Node-Level Modules, 158

10.6.2 The Node As an Entity, 159

10.6.3 The Network As an Entity, 159

Designing and Deploying WSN Applications: Summary, 160

Further Reading, 160

11 Summary and Outlook 163

Index 167

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Author Information

Anna Förster is a Professor and Head of the Sustainable Communication Networks Group at the University of Bremen, Germany. She earned her MSc in Computer Science and Aerospace Engineering from the Free University of Berlin and her PhD from the University of Lugano, Switzerland. Her main research interests lie in the area of sustainable communication networks and their applications to sustainability. Her passion is teaching these topics, both to students and the general public.
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