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Model Predictive Control of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

ISBN: 978-1-119-08296-5
512 pages
December 2016, Wiley-IEEE Press
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Description

Model Predictive Control of Wind Energy Conversion Systems addresses the predicative control strategy that has emerged as a promising digital control tool within the field of power electronics, variable-speed motor drives, and energy conversion systems.

The authors provide a comprehensive analysis on the model predictive control of power converters employed in a wide variety of variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The contents of this book includes an overview of wind energy system configurations, power converters for variable-speed WECS, digital control techniques, MPC, modeling of power converters and wind generators for MPC design. Other topics include the mapping of continuous-time models to discrete-time models by various exact, approximate, and quasi-exact discretization methods, modeling and control of wind turbine grid-side two-level and multilevel voltage source converters. The authors also focus on the MPC of several power converter configurations for full variable-speed permanent magnet synchronous generator based WECS, squirrel-cage induction generator based WECS, and semi-variable-speed doubly fed induction generator based WECS. Furthermore, this book:

  • Analyzes a wide variety of practical WECS, illustrating important concepts with case studies, simulations, and experimental results
  • Provides a step-by-step design procedure for the development of predictive control schemes for various WECS configurations
  • Describes continuous- and discrete-time modeling of wind generators and power converters, weighting factor selection, discretization methods, and extrapolation techniques
  • Presents useful material for other power electronic applications such as variable-speed motor drives, power quality conditioners, electric vehicles, photovoltaic energy systems, distributed generation, and high-voltage direct current transmission.
  • Explores S-Function Builder programming in MATLAB environment to implement various MPC strategies through the companion website

Reflecting the latest technologies in the field, Model Predictive Control of Wind Energy Conversion Systems is a valuable reference for academic researchers, practicing engineers, and other professionals. It can also be used as a textbook for graduate-level and advanced undergraduate courses.

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Table of Contents

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

Acronyms xxv

Symbols xxix

PART I PRELIMINARIES

1 Basics of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Wind Energy Preliminaries 5

1.3 Major Components of WECS 16

1.4 Grid Code Requirements for High-PowerWECS 23

1.5 WECS Commercial Configurations 26

1.6 Power Electronics in Wind Energy Systems 33

1.7 Control of Wind Energy Systems 35

1.8 Finite Control-Set Model Predictive Control 50

1.9 Classical and Model Predictive Control of WECS 53

1.10 Concluding Remarks 58

References 58

2 Review of Generator–Converter Configurations for WECS 61

2.1 Introduction 61

2.2 Requirements for Power Converters in MW-WECS 63

2.3 Overview of Power Converters forWECS 64

2.4 Back-to-Back Connected Power Converters 68

2.5 Passive Generator-side Power Converters 76

2.6 Power Converters for Multiphase Generators 80

2.7 Power Converters without an Intermediate DC Link 85

2.8 Concluding Remarks 87

References 89

3 Overview of Digital Control Techniques 91

3.1 Introduction 91

3.2 The Past, Present, and Future of Control Platforms 93

3.3 Reference Frame Theory 95

3.4 Digital Control of Power Conversion Systems 99

3.5 Classical Control Techniques 102

3.6 Advanced Control Techniques 110

3.7 Predictive Control Techniques 112

3.8 Comparison of Digital Control Techniques 114

3.9 Concluding Remarks 115

References 116

4 Fundamentals of Model Predictive Control 117

4.1 Introduction 117

4.2 Sampled-DataModel 119

4.3 Basics of Model Predictive Control 120

4.4 Cost Function Flexibility 128

4.5 Weighting Factor Selection 134

4.6 Delay CompensationMethods 137

4.7 Extrapolation Techniques 141

4.8 Selection of Sampling Time 145

4.9 Concluding Remarks 146

References 146

PART II MODELING OF POWER CONVERTERS AND WIND GENERATORS

5 Modeling of Power Converters for Model Predictive Control 151

5.1 Introduction 151

5.2 Objectives for the Modeling of Power Converters 153

5.3 Notation Employed for the Modeling 154

5.4 Two-Level Voltage Source Converter 156

5.5 Extensions to 2L-VSC Modeling 161

5.6 Neutral-Point Clamped Converter 162

5.7 Extensions to NPC Converter Modeling 166

5.8 Modeling of Other Power Converters 169

5.9 Concluding Remarks 174

References 175

6 Modeling of Wind Generators for Model Predictive Control 177

6.1 Introduction 177

6.2 Overview of Wind Generators for Variable-SpeedWECS 179

6.3 Objectives for the Dynamic Modeling of Wind Generators 181

6.4 Notation Employed for the Dynamic Modeling 182

6.5 Modeling of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator 184

6.6 Simulation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator 191

6.7 Modeling of Induction Generator 193

6.8 Simulation of Induction Generator 201

6.9 Generator Dynamic Models for Predictive Control 204

6.10 Concluding Remarks 205

References 205

7 Mapping of Continuous-Time Models to Discrete-Time Models 207

7.1 Introduction 207

7.2 Model Predictive Control of WECS 209

7.3 Correlation Between CT and DT Models 210

7.4 Overview of Discretization Methods 213

7.5 Exact Discretization by ZOH Method 215

7.6 Approximate Discretization Methods 216

7.7 Quasi-Exact Discretization Methods 222

7.8 Comparison of Discretization Methods 229

7.9 Offline Calculation of DT Parameters Using MATLAB 231

7.10 Concluding Remarks 233

References 234

PART III CONTROL OF VARIABLE-SPEED WECS

8 Control of Grid-side Converters in WECS 237

8.1 Introduction 237

8.2 Configuration of GSCs in Type 3 and 4 WECS 239

8.3 Design and Control of GSC 242

8.4 Modeling of Three-Phase GSC 247

8.5 Calculation of Reference Grid-side Variables 259

8.6 Predictive Current Control of 2L-VSI in dq-Frame 262

8.7 Predictive Current Control of NPC Inverter in αβ-Frame 270

8.8 Predictive Power Control of NPC Inverter with Grid-side MPPT 277

8.9 Real-Time Implementation of MPC Schemes 282

8.10 Concluding Remarks 282

References 283

9 Control of PMSG WECS with Back-to-Back Connected Converters 285

9.1 Introduction 285

9.2 Configuration of PMSG WECS with BTB Converters 287

9.3 Modeling of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator 289

9.4 Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator 292

9.5 Digital Control of BTB Converter-Based PMSG WECS 294

9.6 Predictive Current Control of BTB 2L-VSC-Based PMSG WECS 299

9.7 Predictive Current Control of BTB-NPC-Converter-Based PMSG WECS 308

9.8 Predictive Torque Control of BTB 2L-VSC-Based PMSG WECS 318

9.9 Other MPC Schemes for PMSG WECS 323

9.10 Real-Time Implementation of MPC Schemes 324

9.11 Concluding Remarks 326

References 327

10 Control of PMSG WECS with Passive Generator-side Converters 329

10.1 Introduction 329

10.2 Configuration of PMSG WECS with PGS Converters 331

10.3 Modeling of the Two-Level Boost Converter 334

10.4 Modeling of the Three-Level Boost Converter 338

10.5 Digital Control of PGS Converter-Based PMSG WECS 343

10.6 Predictive Current Control of 2L-PGS-Converter-Based PMSG WECS 346

10.7 Predictive Current Control of 3L-PGS-Converter-Based PMSG WECS 349

10.8 Analysis of PMSG WECS Performance with PGS Converters 352

10.9 Other MPC Schemes for PMSG WECS 362

10.10 Real-Time Implementation of MPC Schemes 363

10.11 Concluding Remarks 365

References 366

11 Control of SCIG WECS with Voltage Source Converters 367

11.1 Introduction 367

11.2 Configuration of SCIG WECS with BTB Converters 369

11.3 Modeling of Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator 370

11.4 Control of Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator 374

11.5 Digital Control of BTB Converter-Based SCIG WECS 378

11.6 Predictive Current Control of BTB 2L-VSC-Based SCIG WECS 382

11.7 Predictive Torque Control of BTB NPC Converter-Based SCIG WECS 391

11.8 Real-Time Implementation of MPC Schemes 398

11.9 Concluding Remarks 400

References 400

12 Control of DFIG WECS with Voltage Source Converters 403

12.1 Introduction 403

12.2 Configuration of DFIG WECS and Power Flow 405

12.3 Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator 407

12.4 Modeling of Doubly Fed Induction Generator 411

12.5 Digital Control of BTB Converter-Based DFIG WECS 417

12.6 Indirect Predictive Current Control of DFIG WECS 419

12.7 Direct Predictive Current Control of DFIG WECS 430

12.8 Concluding Remarks 435

References 436

Appendix A Turbine and Generator Parameters 437

A.1 Notation of Generator Variables 438

A.2 Base Values 439

A.3 Per-Unit Values 440

A.4 Wind Turbine Parameters 444

A.5 Three-Phase Grid Parameters 445

A.6 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Parameters 446

A.7 Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator Parameters 450

A.8 Doubly Fed Induction Generator Parameters 451

Appendix B Chapter Appendices 453

B.1 Appendix for Chapter 4 453

References 454

B.2 Appendix for Chapter 5 455

Appendix C MATLAB Demo Projects 461

Index 463

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Author Information

Venkata Yaramasu is currently working as an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering in the School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, USA. He has published more than 50 peer-reviewed technical papers including 22 journal papers, and 10 technical reports for the industry. Dr. Yaramasu worked closely with Rockwell Automation, Toronto Hydro, Hydro One, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Wind Energy Strategic Network and Connect Canada, and completed 8 industrial projects in Power Electronics, Electric Drives and Renewable Energy. Dr. Yaramasu is recipient of over 15 awards for research and teaching excellence.

Bin Wu is currently a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Canada and is the Senior NSERC/Rockwell Automation Industrial Research Chair in Power Electronics and Electric Drives. Dr. Wu has published more than 350 peer-reviewed technical papers, two Wiley-IEEE Press books, and holds more than 30 issued and pending patents in power electronics, adjustable-speed drives and renewable energy systems. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), Engineering Institute of Canada (EIC), and Canadian Academy of Engineering (CAE). Dr. Wu is a Registered Professional Engineer in the Province of Ontario, Canada.

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