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Shaping Light in Nonlinear Optical Fibers

Sonia Boscolo (Editor), Christophe Finot (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-08815-8
504 pages
March 2017
Shaping Light in Nonlinear Optical Fibers (1119088151) cover image

Description

This book is a contemporary overview of selected topics in fiber optics. It focuses on the latest research results on light wave manipulation using nonlinear optical fibers, with the aim of capturing some of the most innovative developments on this topic. The book’s scope covers both fundamentals and applications from both theoretical and experimental perspectives, with topics including linear and nonlinear effects, pulse propagation phenomena and pulse shaping, solitons and rogue waves, novel optical fibers, supercontinuum generation, polarization management, optical signal processing, fiber lasers, optical wave turbulence, light propagation in disordered fiber media, and slow and fast light. With contributions from leading-edge scientists in the field of nonlinear photonics and fiber optics, they offer an overview of the latest advances in their own research area.  The listing of recent research papers at the end of each chapter is useful for researchers using the book as a reference. As the book addresses fundamental and practical photonics problems, it will also be of interest to, and benefit, broader academic communities, including areas such as nonlinear science, applied mathematics and physics, and optical engineering. It offers the reader a wide and critical overview of the state-of-the-art within this practical – as well as fundamentally important and interesting – area of modern science, providing a useful reference which will encourage further research and advances in the field.

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Table of Contents

Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

1   Modulation Instability, Four-Wave Mixing and their Applications 1

Tobias Hansson, Alessandro Tonello, Stefano Trillo, and Stefan Wabnitz

 

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Modulation Instability 2

1.2.1 Linear and Nonlinear Theory of MI 2

1.2.2 Polarization MI (PMI) in Birefringent Fibers 7

1.2.3 Collective MI of Four-Wave-Mixing 9

1.2.4 Induced MI Dynamics, Rogue Waves, and Optimal Parametric

Amplification 11

1.2.5 High-Order Induced MI 13

1.2.6 MI Recurrence Break-Up and Noise 14

1.3 Four-Wave Mixing Dynamics 17

1.3.1 FWM Processes with Two Pumps 17

1.3.2 Bragg Scattering FWM 18

1.3.3 Applications of BS-FWM to Quantum Frequency Conversion 20

1.4 Fiber Cavity MI and FWM 20

1.4.1 Dynamics of MI in a Passive Fiber Cavity 20

1.4.2 Parametric Resonances and Period Doubling Phenomena 23

1.4.3 FWM in a Fiber Cavity for Optical Buffer Applications 25

References 27

 

2   Phase-Sensitive Amplification and Regeneration 35

Francesca Parmigiani

2.1 Introduction to Phase-Sensitive Amplifiers 35

2.2 Operation Principles and Realization of Phase-Sensitive Parametric

Devices 36

2.3 One-Mode Parametric Processes 40

2.4 Two-Mode Parametric Processes 54

2.5 Four-Mode Parametric Processes 56

2.6 Conclusion 58

Acknowledgments 59

References 60

 

3   Novel Nonlinear Optical Phenomena in Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic

Crystal Fibers 65

Mohammed F. Saleh and Fabio Biancalana

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Nonlinear Pulse Propagation in Guided Kerr Media 66

3.3 Ionization Effects in Gas-Filled HC-PCFs 67

3.3.1 Short Pulse Evolution 68

3.3.2 Long-Pulse Evolution 72

3.4 Raman Effects in Gas-Filled HC-PCFs 76

3.4.1 Density Matrix Theory 76

3.4.2 Strong Probe Evolution 82

3.5 Interplay Between Ionization and Raman Effects in Gas-Filled HC-PCFs 85

3.6 Conclusion 89

Acknowledgments 89

References 89

 

4   Modulation Instability in Periodically Modulated Fibers 95

Arnaud Mussot, Matteo Conforti, and Alexandre Kudlinski

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Basic Theory of Modulation Instability in Periodically Modulated

Waveguides 96

4.2.1 Piecewise Constant Dispersion 100

4.3 Fabrication of Periodically Modulated Photonic Crystal Fibers 101

4.3.1 Fabrication Principles 101

4.3.2 Typical Example 101

4.4 Experimental Results 104

4.4.1 Experimental Setup 104

4.4.2 First Observation of Multiple Simultaneous MI Side Bands in

Periodically Modulated Fibers 104

4.4.3 Impact of the Curvature of the Dispersion 105

4.4.4 Other Modulation Formats 107

4.5 Conclusion 111

Acknowledgments 111

References 111

 

5   Pulse Generation and Shaping Using Fiber Nonlinearities 115

Christophe Finot and Sonia Boscolo

5.1 Introduction 115

5.2 Picosecond Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers 116

5.3 Pulse Compression and Ultrahigh-Repetition-Rate Pulse

Train Generation 117

5.3.1 Pulse Compression 117

5.3.2 High-Repetition-Rate Sources 121

5.4 Generation of Specialized Temporal Waveforms 124

5.4.1 Pulse Evolution in the Normal Regime of Dispersion 124

5.4.2 Generation of Parabolic Pulses 125

5.4.3 Generation of Triangular and Rectangular Pulses 127

5.5 Spectral Shaping 128

5.5.1 Spectral Compression 129

5.5.2 Generation of Frequency-Tunable Pulses 132

5.5.3 Supercontinuum Generation 133

5.6 Conclusion 137

Acknowledgments 138

References 138

 

6   Nonlinear-Dispersive Similaritons of Passive Fibers: Applications in

Ultrafast Optics 147

Levon Mouradian and Alain Barth´el´emy

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 Spectron and Dispersive Fourier Transformation 150

6.3 Nonlinear-Dispersive Similariton 15   1

6.3.1 Spectronic Nature of NL-D Similariton: Analytical Consideration 152

6.3.2 Physical Pattern of Generation of NL-D Similariton, Its Character and

Peculiarities on the Basis of Numerical Studies 153

6.3.3 Experimental Study of NL-D Similariton by Spectral Interferometry

(and also Chirp Measurements by Spectrometer and Autocorrelator) 155

6.3.4 Bandwidth and Duration of NL-D Similariton 158

6.3.5 Wideband NL-D Similariton 159

6.4 Time Lens and NL-D Similariton 160

6.4.1 Concept of Time Lens: Pulse Compression—Temporal Focusing, and

Spectral Compression—“Temporal Beam” Collimation/Spectral

Focusing 160

6.4.2 Femtosecond Pulse Compression 161

6.4.3 Classic and “All-Fiber” Spectral Compression 163

6.4.4 Spectral Self-Compression: Spectral Analogue of Soliton-Effect

Compression 165

6.4.5 Aberration-Free Spectral Compression with a Similariton-Induced

Time Lens 167

6.4.6 Frequency Tuning Along with Spectral Compression in

Similariton-Induced Time Lens 168

6.5 Similariton for Femtosecond Pulse Imaging and Characterization 172

6.5.1 Fourier Conversion and Spectrotemporal Imaging in

SPM/XPM-Induced Time Lens 173

6.5.2 Aberration-Free Fourier Conversion and Spectrotemporal Imaging in

Similariton-Induced Time Lens: Femtosecond Optical Oscilloscope 177

6.5.3 Similariton-Based Self-Referencing Spectral Interferometry 181

6.5.4 Simple Similaritonic Technique for Measurement of Femtosecond

Pulse Duration, an Alternative to the Autocorrelator 185

6.5.5 Reverse Problem of NL-D Similariton Generation 187

6.5.6 Pulse Train Shaped by Similaritons’ Superposition 188

6.6 Conclusion 190

References 191

 

7   Applications of Nonlinear Optical Fibers and Solitons in Biophotonics

And Microscopy 199

Esben R. Andresen and Herv´e Rigneault

7.1 Introduction 199

7.2 Soliton Generation 200

7.2.1 Fundamental Solitons 200

7.2.2 A Sidenote on Dispersive Wave Generation 202

7.2.3 Spatial Properties of PCF Output 204

7.3 TPEF Microscopy 204

7.4 SHG Microscopy 205

7.5 Coherent Raman Scattering 206

7.6 MCARS Microscopy 207

7.7 ps-CARS Microscopy 210

7.8 SRS Microscopy 211

7.9 Pump-Probe Microscopy 213

7.10 Increasing the Soliton Energy 215

7.10.1 SC-PBG Fibers 216

7.10.2 Multiple Soliton Generation 217

7.11 Conclusion 218

References 218

 

8   Self-Organization of Polarization State in Optical Fibers 225

Julien Fatome and Massimiliano Guasoni

8.1 Introduction 225

8.2 Principle of Operation 227

8.3 Experimental Setup 229

8.4 Theoretical Description 230

8.5 Bistability Regime and Related Applications 234

8.6 Alignment Regime 238

8.7 Chaotic Regime and All-Optical Scrambling for WDM Applications 241

8.8 Future Perspectives: Towards an All-Optical Modal Control in Fibers 247

8.9 Conclusion 250

Acknowledgments 251

References 251

 

9   All-Optical Pulse Shaping in the Sub-Picosecond Regime Based on Fiber

Grating Devices 257

Maria R. Fern´andez-Ruiz, Alejandro Carballar, Reza Ashrafi, Sophie LaRochelle,

and Jos´e Aza˜na

9.1 Introduction 257

9.2 Non-Fiber-Grating-Based Optical Pulse Shaping Techniques 258

9.3 Motivation of Fiber-Grating Based Optical Pulse Shaping 260

9.3.1 Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) 264

9.3.2 Long Period Gratings (LPGs) 267

9.4 Recent Work on Fiber Gratings-Based Optical Pulse Shapers:

Reaching the Sub-Picosecond Regime 268

9.4.1 Recent Findings on FBGs 268

9.4.2 Recent Findings on LPGs 276

9.5 Advances towards Reconfigurable Schemes 284

9.6 Conclusion 285

References 285

 

10   Rogue Breather Structures in Nonlinear Systems with an Emphasis on

Optical Fibers as Testbeds 293

Bertrand Kibler

10.1 Introduction 293

10.2 Optical Rogue Waves as Nonlinear Schr¨odinger Breathers 295

10.2.1 First-Order Breathers 295

10.2.2 Second-Order Breathers 301

10.3 Linear-Nonlinear Wave Shaping as Rogue Wave Generator 303

10.3.1 Experimental Configurations 304

10.3.2 Impact of Initial Conditions 306

10.3.3 Higher-Order Modulation Instability 308

10.3.4 Impact of Linear Fiber Losses 309

10.3.5 Noise and Turbulence 311

10.4 Experimental Demonstrations 311

10.4.1 Peregrine Breather 312

10.4.2 Periodic First-Order Breathers 313

10.4.3 Higher-Order Breathers 315

10.5 Conclusion 317

Acknowledgments 318

References 318

 

11   Wave-Breaking and Dispersive Shock Wave Phenomena in Optical Fibers 325

Stefano Trillo and Matteo Conforti

11.1 Introduction 325

11.2 Gradient Catastrophe and Classical Shock Waves 326

11.2.1 Regularization Mechanisms 327

11.3 Shock Formation in Optical Fibers 329

11.3.1 Mechanisms of Wave-Breaking in the Normal GVD Regime 330

11.3.2 Shock in Multiple Four-Wave Mixing 333

11.3.3 The Focusing Singularity 335

11.3.4 Control of DSW and Hopf Dynamics 336

11.4 Competing Wave-Breaking Mechanisms 337

11.5 Resonant Radiation Emitted by Dispersive Shocks 338

11.5.1 Phase Matching Condition 339

11.5.2 Step-Like Pulses 340

11.5.3 Bright Pulses 341

11.5.4 Periodic Input 342

11.6 Shock Waves in Passive Cavities 343

11.7 Conclusion 345

Acknowledgments 345

References 345

 

12   Optical Wave Turbulence in Fibers 351

Antonio Picozzi, Josselin Garnier, Gang Xu, and Guy Millot

12.1 Introduction 351

12.2 Wave Turbulence Kinetic Equation 354

12.2.1 Supercontinuum Generation 354

12.2.2 Breakdown of Thermalization 360

12.2.3 Turbulence in Optical Cavities 365

12.3 Weak Langmuir Turbulence Formalism 371

12.3.1 NLS Model 372

12.3.2 Short-Range Interaction: Spectral Incoherent Solitons 372

12.3.3 Long-Range Interaction: Incoherent Dispersive Shock Waves 375

12.4 Vlasov Formalism 378

12.4.1 Incoherent Modulational Instability 380

12.4.2 Incoherent Solitons in Normal Dispersion 381

12.5 Conclusion 384

Acknowledgments 385

References 385

 

13   Nonlocal Disordered Media and Experiments in Disordered Fibers 395

Silvia Gentilini and Claudio Conti

13.1 Introduction 395

13.2 Nonlinear Behavior of Light in Transversely Disordered Fiber 396

13.3 Experiments on the Localization Length in Disordered Fibers 399

13.4 Shock Waves in Disordered Systems 403

13.5 Experiments on Shock Waves in Disordered Media 407

13.5.1 Experimental Setup 407

13.5.2 Samples 407

13.5.3 Measurements 409

13.6 Conclusion 412

Acknowledgments 413

References 413

 

14   Wide Variability of Generation Regimes in Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers 415

Sergey V. Smirnov, Sergey M. Kobtsev, and Sergei K. Turitsyn

14.1 Introduction 415

14.2 Variability of Generation Regimes 417

14.3 Phenomenological Model of Double-Scale Pulses 425

14.4 Conclusion 428

Acknowledgments 429

References 429

 

 

15   Ultralong Raman Fiber Lasers and Their Applications 435

Juan Diego Ania-Casta˜n´on and Paul Harper

15.1 Introduction 435

15.2 Raman Amplification 436

15.3 Ultralong Raman Fiber Lasers Basics 439

15.3.1 Theory of Ultralong Raman Lasers 439

15.3.2 Amplification Using URFLs 444

15.4 Applications of Ultralong Raman Fiber Lasers 452

15.4.1 Applications in Telecommunications 453

15.4.2 Applications in Sensing 455

15.4.3 Supercontinuum Generation 455

15.5 Conclusion 456

References 456

 

16   Shaping Brillouin Light in Specialty Optical Fibers 461

Jean-Charles Beugnot and Thibaut Sylvestre

16.1 Introduction 461

16.2 Historical Background 462

16.3 Theory 463

16.3.1 Elastodynamics Equation 463

16.4 Tapered Optical Fibers 465

16.4.1 Principles 465

16.4.2 Experiments 466

16.4.3 Numerical Simulations 467

16.4.4 Photonic Crystal Fibers 469

16.5 Conclusion 473

References 474

 

Index 477

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Author Information

Edited by
Sonia Boscolo,
Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

Christophe Finot, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France

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