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Multimedia Networks: Protocols, Design and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-119-09013-7
418 pages
March 2016
Multimedia Networks: Protocols, Design and Applications (111909013X) cover image

Description

The transportation of multimedia over the network requires timely and errorless transmission much more strictly than other data. This had led to special protocols and to special treatment in multimedia applications (telephony, IP-TV, streaming) to overcome network issues. This book begins with an overview of the vast market combined with the user’s expectations. The base mechanisms of the audio/video coding (H.26x etc.) are explained to understand characteristics of the generated network traffic. Further chapters treat common specialized underlying IP network functions which cope with multimedia data in conjunction which special time adaption measures. Based on those standard functions these chapters can treat uniformly SIP, H.248, High-End IP-TV, Webcast, Signage etc. A special section is devoted to home networks which challenge high-end service delivery due to possibly unreliable management. The whole book treats concepts described in accessible IP-based standards and which are implemented broadly. The book is aimed at graduate students/practitioners with good basic knowledge in computer networking. It provides the reader with all concepts of currently used IP technologies of how to deliver multimedia efficiently to the end user.
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Authors xv

Abbreviations xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Types of Networks 2

1.1.1 Internet 2

1.1.2 Telecommunication Provider Networks 2

1.1.3 Company Networks 3

1.1.4 University Networks 3

1.1.5 Home Networks 3

1.1.6 Overview 4

1.2 Standard Organizations 4

1.3 Market 5

2 Requirements 7

2.1 Telephony 7

2.2 Streaming 10

2.3 IPTV 11

2.4 High-End Videoconferences 12

2.5 Webcast 15

2.6 Requirement Summary 16

3 Audio, Image, Video Coding, and Transmission 19

3.1 Audio 19

3.1.1 Companding 21

3.1.2 Differential Quantization 23

3.1.3 Vocoders 26

3.2 Basics of Video Coding 30

3.2.1 Simple Compression 34

3.2.2 Motion Estimation 35

3.2.3 Statistical Compression 36

3.2.4 Transform Functions 40

3.3 JPEG 43

3.4 MPEG/H.26x Video Compression 45

3.4.1 MPEG Data Streams 47

3.4.2 H.261 49

3.4.3 MPEG-4 52

3.4.4 H.264 52

3.4.5 Scalable Video Codec 58

3.4.6 H.265 59

3.5 Other Video Compression Standards 62

3.6 Three-Dimensional Video 64

3.7 Error Resilience 66

3.8 Transcoder 68

4 Underlying Network Functions 71

4.1 Real-Time Protocol (RTP) 71

4.1.1 Elements of RTP 73

4.1.2 Details of RTP 73

4.1.3 RTP Payload 74

4.1.4 Details of RTCP 79

4.2 Session Description Protocol (SDP) 86

4.2.1 SDP Overview 86

4.2.2 Extending SDP 89

4.2.3 Javascript Session Establishment Protocol (JSEP) 89

4.3 Streaming 90

4.3.1 Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) 90

4.4 Multicast 96

4.4.1 Multicast Overview 96

4.4.2 Multicast Addressing 97

4.4.3 Types of Multicast 98

4.4.4 Multicast End Delivery 99

4.4.5 Multicast Routing Protocols 102

4.4.6 Protocol Independent Multicast – Sparse Mode 103

4.4.7 Application Layer Multicast 107

4.5 Quality of Service 108

4.5.1 Integrated Services (Intserv) 109

4.5.2 Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) 110

4.5.3 Differentiated Services (DiffServ) 111

4.5.4 QoS on the LAN 116

4.5.5 QoS in the Real World 117

4.6 NTP 118

4.7 Caching 120

4.7.1 Caching Elements 120

4.7.2 Web Cache Communications Protocol (WCCP) 122

4.7.3 Content Delivery Networks 122

4.7.4 Use of Cache Servers in Private Networks 123

5 Synchronization and Adaptation 125

5.1 End-to-End Model 125

5.2 Jitter 128

5.3 Packet Loss 129

5.4 Play-Out Time 130

5.4.1 Hypothetical Decoder 131

5.4.2 Multiple Streams 132

5.4.3 Adaptive Play-Out 133

5.5 Congestion Control 133

5.6 Delay 135

5.7 Queuing 138

5.8 Media Player 140

5.9 Storage and Retrieval 141

5.10 Integration Scripting Languages 143

5.11 Optimization 144

6 Session Initiation Protocol 147

6.1 SIP Basics 148

6.1.1 First Steps with SIP 148

6.1.2 SIP Servers 152

6.1.3 More SIP Methods 156

6.2 PSTN Interconnection 158

6.3 Conferencing 161

6.4 Presence 166

6.5 Network Address Translation 169

6.6 APIs and Scripting 172

6.7 Security and Safety 172

6.8 Planning a VoIP Company Telephony System 175

6.8.1 Dial Plan 177

6.8.2 Emergency 178

6.8.3 VoIP Network Planning 179

7 Other Standard VoIP Protocols 183

7.1 H.323 VoIP Family 183

7.1.1 H.225 185

7.1.2 H.245 189

7.1.3 Comparing SIP and H.323 191

7.2 T.120 Data Applications 192

7.3 Gateway Control 194

7.3.1 H.248 195

7.3.2 Signal Control 198

7.4 Mobile VoIP 202

7.4.1 IP Multimedia Subsystem 202

7.4.2 VoLTE 208

7.5 Skype 211

8 WebRTC 213

8.1 WebRTC Transport 215

8.1.1 ICE Revisited 217

8.2 RTP/SDP Adaptations 219

8.3 Interworking 220

9 Streaming and Over-the-Top TV 223

9.1 HTTP Live Streaming – Apple 224

9.2 Smooth Streaming – Microsoft 226

9.3 HTTP Dynamic Streaming – Adobe 227

9.4 Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP – DASH 229

9.4.1 History of MPEG-DASH 229

9.4.2 Description of MPEG-DASH 229

9.5 DASH and Network Interaction 233

9.5.1 Player Reaction to Network Conditions 234

9.5.2 Fairness, Efficiency, and Stability 234

9.5.3 Bufferbloat 235

9.6 Content Delivery Networks 237

9.6.1 CDN Technology 237

9.6.2 Akamai 240

9.6.3 The Future of CDNs 240

9.7 Providers 242

9.7.1 Amazon Instant Video 242

9.7.2 YouTube 242

9.7.3 Netflix 243

9.7.4 Hulu 243

9.7.5 Common Issues for all Providers 244

10 Home Networks 245

10.1 IETF Home Standards 246

10.1.1 IP Address Assignment 247

10.1.2 Name Resolution 247

10.1.3 Service Discovery – Zeroconf and Others 249

10.1.4 Zeroconf Implementations 251

10.2 UPnP 251

10.2.1 Service Discovery – UPnP 253

10.2.2 AV Architecture and its Elements 254

10.3 DLNA 260

10.4 Residential Gateway 261

10.4.1 IMS Integration 262

10.4.2 Network Separation 262

11 High-End IPTV 265

11.1 Overview of DVB IPTV 266

11.2 Live Media Broadcast 268

11.2.1 Retransmission 268

11.2.2 Channel Switch 271

11.3 Datacast Protocols 274

11.3.1 Flute 274

11.3.2 DVB SD&S Transport Protocol 276

11.3.3 Digital Storage Media – Command and Control 278

11.4 Management Functions 279

11.4.1 Service Discovery and Selection 279

11.4.2 Broadband Content Guide 280

11.4.3 Remote and Firmware Management 280

11.5 Content Download Service 282

11.6 Deployments 283

11.7 Companion Screen Application 285

11.8 Set-Top-Box Functions 288

11.9 Integration into Other Systems 289

11.9.1 IPTV and IMS 289

11.9.2 IPTV and IMS and WebRTC 290

11.9.3 IPTV and Home Network 290

12 Solutions and Summary 291

12.1 Global Webcast 291

12.2 Digital Signage Broadcasting 295

12.3 Call Center 297

12.3.1 Functional Components 297

12.3.2 Technical Components 299

12.4 Videoconference and TelePresence 303

12.4.1 Cisco’s Telepresence 305

12.4.2 Cisco’s Telepresence Transport Specifics 306

12.4.3 Cisco’s Telepresence Network Setup 308

12.5 Summary of Requirements versus Solutions 310

References 313

Index 345

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