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Textbook

Essentials in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

ISBN: 978-1-119-09611-5
488 pages
April 2016, ©2016
Essentials in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (1119096111) cover image

Description

This book describes various aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It begins with an introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology and includes a historical prospective, nanotechnology working in nature, man -made nanomaterial and impact of nanotechnology illustrated with examples.

It goes on to describes general synthetic approaches and strategies and also deals with the characterization of nanomaterial using modern tools and techniques to give basic understanding to those interested in learning this emerging area.

It then deals with different kinds of nanomaterial such as inorganics, carbon based-, nanocomposites and self-assembled/supramolecular nano structures in terms of their varieties, synthesis, properties etc. In addition, it contains chapters devoted to unique properties with mathematical treatment wherever applicable and the novel applications dealing with information technology, pollution control (environment, water), energy, nanomedicine, healthcare, consumer goods etc.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

About the Authors xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definitions of Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies 1

1.2 Uniqueness of the Nanoscale 3

1.3 Nanoscience in Nature 4

1.4 Historical Perspective 10

1.5 Nanomaterials 13

1.6 Strategies for Synthesis of Nanomaterials 18

1.7 Properties of Nanomaterials 18

1.8 Significance of Nanoscience 19

1.9 Commercial Applications 20

1.10 Potential Health Hazards and Environmental Risks 24

1.11 Futuristic Outlook 25

Review Questions 26

References 27

2 Nanomaterials: General Synthetic Approaches 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Top-Down Approach 30

2.3 Bottom-Up Approaches 49

Review Questions 73

References 74

3 Characterization Tools for Nanomaterials 77

3.1 Introduction 77

3.2 Imaging Through Electron Microscopy 79

3.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) 97

3.4 Characterization Through Spectroscopy 107

3.5 Scattering Techniques 133

Review Questions 145

References 146

4 Nanomaterials 149

4.1 Introduction 149

4.2 Inorganic Nanomaterials 150

4.3 Organic Nanomaterials 161

4.4 Biological Nanomaterials 166

4.5 Nanoporous Materials 170

4.6 Quantum Dots 173

4.7 Nanoclusters 175

4.8 Nanomaterials in Different Configurations 178

Review Questions 185

References 186

5 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 189

5.1 General Introduction 189

5.2 Fullerene 192

5.3 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 196

5.4 Graphene 208

5.5 Carbon Nano-Onions 222

5.6 Carbon Nanofibers 224

5.7 Carbon Black 225

5.8 Nanodiamond 227

Review Questions 233

References 234

6 Self-Assembled and Supramolecular Nanomaterials 237

6.1 Introduction: Self-Assembly 237

6.1.1 Supramolecular Chemistry 238

6.2 Historical Perspective of Supramolecular and Self-Assembled Structures 239

6.3 Fundamental Aspects of Supramolecular Chemistry 240

6.4 Self-Assembly Via Non-Covalent Interaction 244

6.5 Synthetic Strategies for Molecular Self-Assembly 252

6.6 Biological Self-Assembly 255

6.7 Templated (Non-Molecular) Self-Assembly 256

6.8 Self-Assembled Supramolecular Nanostructures 260

6.9 Self-Folding Nanostructures 263

6.10 Applications 264

Review Questions 267

References 268

7 Nanocomposites 271

7.1 Introduction 271

7.2 Ceramic–Matrix Nanocomposites 279

7.3 Metal–Matrix Nanocomposites 284

7.4 Polymer–Matrix Nanocomposites 289

7.5 Nanocoatings 313

Review Questions 322

References 323

8 Unique Properties 326

8.1 Introduction 326

8.2 Size Effects 327

8.3 Physical Properties 334

8.4 Chemical Properties at Nanoscale 353

8.5 The Concept of Pseudo-Atoms 356

Review Questions 356

References 358

9 Applications of Nanotechnology 361

9.1 Introduction 361

9.2 Medicine and Healthcare 363

9.3 Drug Development and Drug Delivery System 368

9.4 Information and Computer Technologies 374

9.5 Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) 380

9.6 Nanotechnologies in Tags 381

9.7 Nanotechnology for Environmental Issues 382

9.8 Energy 385

9.9 Nanotechnology in Enhancing the Fuel Efficiency 401

9.10 Chemical and Biosensors Using Nanomaterials (NMs) 401

9.11 Nanotechnology in Agro Forestry 403

9.12 Defense Applications 404

9.13 Nanotechnology in Space 408

9.14 Consumer Goods 409

9.15 Sport Goods 413

Review Questions 416

References 417

10 Toxicity and Environmental Issues 419

10.1 Introduction 419

10.2 Sources of Nanoparticles and Their Health Effects 422

10.3 Toxicology of Engineered Nanoparticles 431

10.4 Positive Health Effects of Nanoparticles 445

10.5 Environmental Sustainability 445

10.6 Safe Working with Nanomaterials 447

10.7 Nanomaterial Waste Management 449

10.8 Gaps in Knowledge about Health Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles 451

10.9 Government Standards and Materials Safety Data Sheets 452

10.10 Risk Management 455

Review Questions 458

References 458

Index 463

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Author Information

Dr. Narendra Kumar, Ph.D., is a Former Director in the Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. He carried out pioneering research work in the development of Conducting Polymers, Liquid Foam, Nanomaterials and products based on them for various defence applications. Some of them viz. conducting polymer based antistatic and radio-transparent paint RDM-1 and Cam & IRR paints are already in use on military systems. Dr. Kumar has published more than 100 research papers, including four review articles, in International Journals in the areas of Nano Materials, Organometallics, Conducting Polymers, Electrochemical Synthesis etc.  Together with one Chapter in Encyclopedia on Nano Science & Technology and has 12 patents to his credit. Recently, he has been awarded with the national MRSI-ICSC Super Conductivity and Materials Science Annual prize for the year 2010 by Materials Research Society of India and Bharat Jyoti Award in 2011 by India International Friendship Society.

Dr. Sunita Kumbhat, Ph.D., is Professor and former Head of Chemistry Department  at J.N.V. University, Jodhpur. Dr. Kumbhat joined  Department of Chemistry,  J.N.V. University as permanent faculty member in 1986, selected as Associate Professor in 1992 and Professor in 2001 where she has been involved in teaching graduate and postgraduate courses on Analytical chemistry, Electrochemistry, Sensors and Nanoscience, supervising research. Her area of interest is Electrochemistry, Biosensors, Biomedical & Environmental Analysis. She has published more than 35 research paper, 03 educational films and one patent to her credit. She has supervised 14 research studentd for Ph.D. degree.  Awards and recognition includes Commonwealth Academic Staff Fellowship (1994-95) at Oxford, UK., National Associate (1997) at BARC, Mumbai and .  INSA-JSPS Visiting Scientist (2005) at Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. Dr. Kumbhat is associated with various Indian and International scientific societies and National Assessment and Accreditation council, Bangalore, India.

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