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Engineering Information Security: The Application of Systems Engineering Concepts to Achieve Information Assurance, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-10479-7
784 pages
December 2015, Wiley-IEEE Press
Engineering Information Security: The Application of Systems Engineering Concepts to Achieve Information Assurance, 2nd Edition (1119104793) cover image

Description

Engineering Information Security covers all aspects of information security using a systematic engineering approach and focuses on the viewpoint of how to control access to information.

  • Includes a discussion about protecting storage of private keys, SCADA, Cloud, Sensor, and Ad Hoc networks
  • Covers internal operations security processes of monitors, review exceptions, and plan remediation
  • Over 15 new sections
  • Instructor resources such as lecture slides, assignments, quizzes, and a set of questions organized as a final exam
If you are an instructor and adopted this book for your course, please email ieeeproposals@wiley.com to get access to the additional instructor materials for this book.
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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments xxiii

About the Companion Website xxvii

1 WHAT IS SECURITY? 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Subject of Security 2

1.2.1 Branches of Security 2

1.2.2 Defining Security by Function 5

1.2.3 The Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) Security Domains 8

1.3 A Twenty-First Century Tale 15

1.3.1 The Actors 15

1.3.2 What Actually Occurred 17

1.3.3 How Could All This Have Been Prevented? 19

1.3.4 They Did Not Live Happily Ever After 20

1.4 Why Are You Important to Computer Security? 21

1.4.1 What Are the Threats to Your Computer? 22

1.4.2 As a User, What to Do? 23

1.4.3 The Reality of Cybercrime and Cyberwarfare 23

1.5 End of the Beginning 25

1.6 Chapter Summary 29

1.7 Further Reading and Resources 30

2 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING 31

2.1 So What Is Systems Engineering? 31

2.1.1 Similar Systems Engineering Process 32

2.1.2 Another Systems Engineering View 38

2.1.3 Process Variations 41

2.2 Process Management 41

2.2.1 ISO 9000 Processes and Procedures 41

2.2.2 Capability Maturity Model (CMM) 43

2.3 Organization Environments 46

2.3.1 Economic, Legal, and Political Contexts 47

2.3.2 Business/Organizational Types 52

2.3.3 National Critical Infrastructure 56

2.4 Chapter Summary 59

2.5 Further Reading and Resources 59

3 FOUNDATION CONCEPTS 61

3.1 Security Concepts and Goals 62

3.1.1 Subjects and Objects 63

3.1.2 What Is Trust? 63

3.1.3 Domains, Security, and Trust 64

3.1.4 Security Goals/Objectives 65

3.1.5 X.800 Security Services 66

3.1.6 A Modern Definition of Security Services 69

3.2 Role of Cryptography in Information Security 77

3.2.1 Cryptographic Hash Algorithms 81

3.2.2 Encryption Algorithms 86

3.2.3 Cryptanalysis and Other Key Issues 101

3.2.4 Key Management 108

3.2.5 Cryptographic Authentication 112

3.3 Key Management Revisited 120

3.4 Chapter Summary 121

3.5 Further Reading and Resources 122

4 AUTHENTICATION OF SUBJECTS 123

4.1 Authentication Systems 123

4.1.1 Kerberos-Based Authentication 124

4.1.2 Public-Key Infrastructure 128

4.1.3 Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service and EAP 144

4.1.4 Diameter 149

4.1.5 Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) 150

4.1.6 Authentication Systems Summary 154

4.2 Human Authentication 154

4.2.1 What the Subject Has Factor 155

4.2.2 What the Subject Knows Factor 155

4.2.3 What the Subject Is Factor 156

4.2.4 Where the Subject Is Factor 157

4.2.5 Combinations of Factors 157

4.2.6 Rainbow Tables 158

4.2.7 Proxies for Humans 159

4.3 Chapter Summary 167

4.4 Further Reading and Resources 168

5 SECURITY SYSTEMS ENGINEERING 169

5.1 Security Policy Development 170

5.2 Senior Management Oversight and Involvement 170

5.3 Security Process Management and Standards 170

5.3.1 ISO 27002 172

5.3.2 ISO 27001 185

5.3.3 Policy Hierarchy 186

5.3.4 An Enterprise Security Policy Example 189

5.3.5 COBIT 189

5.3.6 Information Technology Infrastructure Library 194

5.3.7 Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) 196

5.4 Information Security Systems Engineering Methodology 199

5.4.1 Existing Asset Inventory and Classification 201

5.4.2 Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Risk 203

5.4.3 Dealing with Risk 224

5.4.4 Risk Management Framework 232

5.4.5 Risk Assignment 240

5.5 Requirements Analysis and Decomposition 240

5.6 Access Control Concepts 244

5.6.1 Subjects, Objects, and Access Operations 245

5.6.2 Mandatory Access Control using a Matrix or Lattice Approach 246

5.6.3 Discretionary Access Control using an Access Control List Approach 246

5.6.4 Mandatory Access Control using a Capability List Approach 247

5.6.5 Administrative Tasks in Access Control Methods 248

5.6.6 Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) 249

5.7 Security Modeling and Security-Related Standards 251

5.7.1 Confidentiality Policies and Integrity Policies 252

5.7.2 Bell–LaPadula Model 253

5.7.3 Graham–Denning Confidentiality Model 254

5.7.4 Chinese Wall Multilateral Confidentiality Model 255

5.7.5 Biba Integrity Model 256

5.7.6 Clark–Wilson Model 256

5.7.7 Security Model Summary 258

5.7.8 Security Standards 259

5.8 Chapter Summary 265

5.8.1 Things to Remember 266

6 TRADITIONAL NETWORK CONCEPTS 269

6.1 Networking Architectures 269

6.1.1 OSI Network Model 270

6.1.2 Internet Network Model 272

6.2 Types of Networks 274

6.2.1 Local Area Network (LAN) 274

6.2.2 Wireless LAN (WLAN) 277

6.2.3 Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) 277

6.2.4 Wide Area Networks (WAN) 278

6.2.5 The Internet 279

6.2.6 Circuit Switched Networks 279

6.2.7 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems 284

6.2.8 Sensor Networks 288

6.2.9 Clouds 289

6.2.10 Cellular Networks 294

6.2.11 IEEE 802.16 Networks 295

6.2.12 Long-Term Evolution Networks 295

6.3 Network Protocols 295

6.3.1 Layer 1—Physical 296

6.3.2 Layer 2—Data Link Protocols 296

6.3.3 Layer 3—Internetworking Layer Protocols 310

6.3.4 Layer 4—Transport 332

6.3.5 Layer 5—User Application Protocols 342

6.3.6 Layer 5—Signaling and Control Application Protocols 349

6.3.7 Layer 5—Management Application Protocols 363

6.4 Chapter Summary 368

6.5 Further Reading and Resources 370

7 NEXT-GENERATION NETWORKS 371

7.1 Framework and Topology of the NGN 372

7.1.1 Functional Entities and Groups 372

7.1.2 Domains 373

7.1.3 Interfaces 374

7.1.4 Protocol Layers, Functional Planes, and Interfaces 376

7.2 The NGN Functional Reference Model 380

7.2.1 Strata 380

7.2.2 Management Functional Group 381

7.2.3 Application Functional Group 381

7.2.4 The Transport Stratum 381

7.2.5 The Service Stratum 385

7.2.6 The Service Stratum and the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 385

7.3 Relationship Between NGN Transport and Service Domains 389

7.4 Enterprise Role Model 390

7.5 Security Allocation within the NGN Transport Stratum Example 393

7.6 Converged Network Management (TMN and eTOM) 393

7.7 General Network Security Architectures 401

7.7.1 The ITU-T X.800 Generic Architecture 402

7.7.2 The Security Frameworks (X.810–X.816) 402

7.7.3 The ITU-T X.805 Approach to Security 403

7.8 Chapter Summary 405

7.9 Further Reading and Resources 405

8 GENERAL COMPUTER SECURITY ARCHITECTURE 409

8.1 The Hardware Protects the Software 410

8.1.1 Processor States and Status 411

8.1.2 Memory Management 412

8.1.3 Interruption of Processor Activity 420

8.1.4 Hardware Encryption 421

8.2 The Software Protects Information 424

8.3 Element Security Architecture Description 426

8.3.1 The Kernel 429

8.3.2 Security Contexts 430

8.3.3 Security-Critical Functions 432

8.3.4 Security-Related Functions 435

8.4 Operating System (OS) Structure 435

8.4.1 Security Management Function 437

8.4.2 Networking Subsystem Function 437

8.5 Security Mechanisms for Deployed Operating Systems (OSs) 437

8.5.1 General Purpose (GP) OSs 438

8.5.2 Minimized General Purpose Operating Systems 438

8.5.3 Embedded (“Real-Time”) Operating Systems 449

8.5.4 Basic Input–Output Systems (BIOS) 451

8.6 Chapter Summary 456

8.7 Further Reading and Resources 460

9 COMPUTER SOFTWARE SECURITY 461

9.1 Specific Operating Systems (OSs) 461

9.1.1 Unix and Linux Security 462

9.1.2 Solaris Operating System and Role-Based Access Controls 473

9.1.3 Windows OSs 476

9.1.4 Embedded OSs 496

9.2 Applications 498

9.2.1 Application Security Issues 498

9.2.2 Malicious Software (Malware) 503

9.2.3 Anti-malware Applications 512

9.3 Chapter Summary 515

9.4 Further Reading and Resources 516

10 SECURITY SYSTEMS DESIGN—DESIGNING NETWORK SECURITY 517

10.1 Introduction 517

10.2 Security Design for Protocol Layer 1 520

10.2.1 Wired and Optical Media 520

10.2.2 Wireless Media 522

10.3 Layer 2—Data Link Security Mechanisms 524

10.3.1 IEEE 802.1x 524

10.3.2 IEEE 802.1ae 525

10.3.3 IEEE 802.11 WPA and 802.11i 528

10.4 Security Design for Protocol Layer 3 530

10.4.1 IP Security (IPsec) 530

10.5 IP Packet Authorization and Access Control 558

10.5.1 Network and Host Packet Filtering 559

10.5.2 The Demilitarized Zone 563

10.5.3 Application-Level Gateways 564

10.5.4 Deep-Packet Inspection (DPI) 567

10.6 Chapter Summary 571

10.7 Further Reading and Resources 571

11 TRANSPORT AND APPLICATION SECURITY DESIGN AND USE 573

11.1 Layer 4—Transport Security Protocols 573

11.1.1 TLS, DTLS, and SSL 574

11.1.2 Secure Shell (SSH) 581

11.1.3 Comparison of SSL, TLS, DTLS, and IPsec 581

11.2 Layer 5—User Service Application Protocols 582

11.2.1 Email 583

11.2.1.1 Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) 583

11.2.2 World Wide Web (Web) and Identity Management 589

11.2.3 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) 596

11.2.4 DNS Security Extensions 605

11.2.5 Instant Messaging and Chat 608

11.2.6 Peer-to-Peer Applications 615

11.2.7 Ad hoc Networks 616

11.2.8 Java 618

11.2.9 .NET 622

11.2.10 Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) 624

11.2.11 Distributed Computing Environment 626

11.2.12 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Security 630

11.3 Chapter Summary 632

11.4 Further Reading and Resources 632

12 SECURING MANAGEMENT AND MANAGING SECURITY 633

12.1 Securing Management Applications 633

12.1.1 Management Roots 633

12.1.2 The Telecommunications Management Network 634

12.1.3 TMN Security 640

12.1.4 Management of Security Mechanisms 642

12.1.5 A Security Management Framework 645

12.2 Operation, Administration, Maintenance, and Decommissioning 648

12.2.1 Operational Security Mechanisms 649

12.2.2 Operations Security 654

12.2.3 Operations Compliance 664

12.3 Systems Implementation or Procurement 671

12.3.1 Development 672

12.3.2 Procurement 673

12.3.3 Forensic Tools 681

12.4 Chapter Summary 681

12.5 Further Reading and Resources 681

About the Author 683

Glossary 685

Index 725

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Author Information

Stuart Jacobs is a Lecturer at Boston University, teaching graduate courses on Network and Computer Security and Enterprise Information Security, along with advising on security curricula issues. Mr. Jacobs also serves as an Industry Security Subject Matter Expert for the Alliance for the Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) and as the Technical Editor of the ATIS Technical Report “Information and Communications Security for NGN Converged Services IP Networks and Infrastructure” and ITU-T M.3410, “Guidelines and Requirements for Security Management Systems”. Stuart holds an MSc degree and CISSP Certification, and is a member of IEEE and IEEE Computer Society, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)2, Information Systems Security Association (ISSA) and InfraGuard.
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