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Mobile Terminal Receiver Design: LTE and LTE-Advanced

ISBN: 978-1-119-10730-9
420 pages
May 2017
Mobile Terminal Receiver Design: LTE and LTE-Advanced (111910730X) cover image

Description

Combines in one volume the basics of evolving radio access technologies and their implementation in mobile phones
  • Reviews the evolution of radio access technologies (RAT) used in mobile phones and then focuses on the technologies needed to implement the LTE (Long term evolution) capability
  • Coverage includes the architectural aspects of the RF and digital baseband parts before dealing in more detail with some of the hardware implementation
  • Unique coverage of design parameters and operation details for LTE-A phone transceiver
  • Discusses design of multi-RAT Mobile with the consideration of cost and form factors
  • Provides in one book a review of the evolution of radio access technologies and a good overview of LTE and its implementation in a handset
  • Unveils the concepts and research updates of 5G technologies and the internal hardware and software of a 5G phone
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Abbreviations xiii

1 Introduction to Mobile Terminals 1

1.1 Introduction to Mobile Terminals 1

1.1.1 Building Blocks of a Smartphone 2

1.2 History of the Mobile Phone 4

1.3 Growth of the Mobile Phone Market 5

1.4 Past, Present, and Future of Mobile Communication Devices 8

Further Reading 8

2 Cellular Systems Modems 9

2.1 Introduction to Modems 9

2.2 Telecommunication Networks 10

2.3 Cellular Concepts 14

2.4 Evolution of Mobile Cellular Networks 16

2.5 First ]Generation (1G) Cellular Systems 16

2.5.1 First ]Generation Mobile Phone Modem Anatomy 18

2.6 Cellular System Standardization 18

2.7 Second ]Generation (2G) Cellular Systems 19

2.7.1 GSM System 20

2.8 GSM Mobile Phone Modem Anatomy 27

2.8.1 Receiver Unit 27

2.8.2 Transmitter Unit 33

2.9 Channel Estimation and Equalization in GSM Mobile Terminals 33

2.9.1 Channel Condition Detection Techniques 34

2.9.2 Protocol Stack of GSM Mobile 38

2.10 Third ]Generation (3G) Cellular Systems 40

2.10.1 Overview of UMTS System Architecture 40

2.10.2 UMTS Air Interface 41

2.10.3 Physical Channel Transmission 46

2.10.4 UMTS UE Protocol Architecture 52

2.10.5 UMTS Addressing Mechanism 57

2.10.6 Radio Links, Radio Bearers, and Signal Radio Bearers 58

2.11 UMTS UE System Operations 58

2.11.1 Carrier RSSI Scan 58

2.11.2 Cell Search 58

2.11.3 System Information Reception 60

2.11.4 Paging Reception and DRX 61

2.11.5 RRC Connection Establishment 62

2.12 WCDMA UE Transmitter Anatomy 65

2.13 WCDMA UE Receiver Anatomy 67

2.13.1 Baseband Architecture 67

2.14 Evolution of the UMTS System 71

2.14.1 HSDPA 72

2.14.2 HSUPA 76

2.14.3 HSPA+ 81

2.14.4 Receiver Architecture (RAKE and G-RAKE) Evolution for WCDMA 83

References 85

Further Reading 85

3 LTE Systems 87

3.1 LTE Cellular Systems 87

3.2 3GPP Long ]Term Evolution (LTE) Overview 88

3.2.1 LTE Design Goals 88

3.3 3GPP LTE Specifications 89

3.4 LTE Network Architecture 89

3.5 Interfaces 91

3.6 System Protocol Architecture 91

3.6.1 User Plane Data Flow Diagram 93

3.6.2 Protocol States 93

3.6.3 Bearer Service Architecture 95

3.7 LTE ]Uu Downlink and Uplink Transmission Schemes and Air Interface 95

3.7.1 Downlink Transmission Scheme 95

3.7.2 LTE Downlink Frame Structure 100

3.7.3 Uplink Transmission Scheme and Frame Structure 103

3.8 Channel Structure 104

3.8.1 Downlink Channel Structure and Transmission Mechanism 105

3.8.2 Downlink Physical Channel Processing 124

3.8.3 Uplink Channel Structure and Transmission Mechanism 128

3.8.4 Uplink Physical Channel Processing 131

3.9 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) 133

3.9.1 MIMO in the LTE System 135

3.9.2 Transmission Mode (TM) 136

3.10 Uplink Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) 137

3.11 UE Categories 137

3.12 LTE UE Testing 137

References 139

Further Reading 139

4 LTE UE Operations Procedures and Anatomy 140

4.1 UE Procedures 140

4.2 Network and Cell Selection in Terminals 142

4.2.1 PLMN Selection 142

4.2.2 Closed Subscriber Group Selection 144

4.2.3 Cell Selection Criteria 144

4.3 Cell Search and Acquisition 145

4.3.1 Cell Search and Synchronization Procedure 145

4.4 Cell ]Specific Reference (CRS) Signal Detection 148

4.5 PBCH (MIB) Reception 150

4.6 PCFICH Reception 152

4.7 PHICH Reception 152

4.8 PDCCH Reception 152

4.8.1 Implementation of Control Channel Decoder 153

4.9 PDSCH Reception 155

4.10 SIB Reception 155

4.11 Paging Reception 155

4.11.1 Calculation of Paging Frame Number 156

4.11.2 Paging Procedure 156

4.12 UE Measurement Parameters 158

4.13 Random Access Procedure (RACH Transmission) 159

4.13.1 Preamble Transmission by UE 160

4.14 Data Transmission 162

4.15 Handover 164

4.15.1 Idle State Mobility Management 166

4.15.2 Interoperability with Legacy Systems (I ]RAT) 166

4.16 Anatomy of an LTE UE 167

4.17 Channel Estimation 168

4.18 Equalization 170

4.19 Detection 172

4.20 Decoder 173

Reference 173

Further Reading 173

5 Smartphone Hardware and System Design 174

5.1 Introduction to Smartphone Hardware 174

5.2 Smartphone Processors 174

5.2.1 Processor Operations 178

5.2.2 Processor Types 179

5.2.3 Advanced Risk Machine (ARM) 181

5.2.4 DSP ]Based Implementation 189

5.2.5 SOC ]Based Architecture 189

5.2.6 Commonly Used Processors in Smart Phones 190

5.3 LTE Smartphone Hardware Implementation 190

5.4 Memory 191

5.4.1 Read ]Only Memory (ROM) 192

5.4.2 Flash Memory 193

5.4.3 Random ]Access Memory (RAM) 194

5.5 Application Processing Unit 196

5.5.1 Application Processor Peripherals 196

5.6 Multimedia Modules 197

5.7 Microphone 197

5.7.1 Principle of Operation 197

5.8 Loudspeaker 200

5.9 Camera 201

5.10 Display 202

5.11 Keypad and Touchscreen 203

5.12 Analog ]to ]Digital Conversion (ADC) Module 205

5.13 Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Module 207

5.14 Frequency Generation Unit 209

5.15 Automatic Frequency Correction (AFC) Module 212

5.15.1 The Analog VC ]TCXO 213

5.15.2 Digitally Controlled Crystal Oscillators – DCXO 213

5.16 Alert Signal Generation 215

5.17 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) 216

5.18 Connectivity Modules 217

5.18.1 Bluetooth 217

5.18.2 USB 219

5.18.3 WiFi 222

5.19 RF Baseband (BB) Interface 226

5.20 System Design 226

5.20.1 System Design Goal and Metrics 227

5.20.2 System Architecture 228

Reference 229

Further Reading 229

6 UE RF Components and System Design 230

6.1 Introduction to RF Systems 230

6.2 RF Front ]End Module (FEM) 230

6.2.1 Antenna 230

6.2.2 Baluns 242

6.2.3 Mixers 247

6.3 RF Downconversion 251

6.3.1 Different Types of RF Downconversion Techniques 251

6.3.2 Homodyne Receivers 256

6.3.3 Low IF Receiver 264

6.3.4 Wideband IF Receivers 267

6.4 Receiver Performance Evaluation Parameters 269

6.4.1 Receiver Architecture Comparison 272

6.4.2 Other Feasible Architectures 272

6.4.3 Path to Future Receivers 272

6.5 RF Transmitter 272

6.5.1 Power ]Limited and Bandwidth ]Limited Digital Communication System Design 275

6.5.2 Investigation of the Tradeoffs between Modulation and Amplifier Nonlinearity 278

6.6 Transmitter Architecture Design 279

6.6.1 Nonlinear Transmitters 280

6.6.2 Linear Transmitters 280

6.6.3 Common Architecture for Nonlinear and Linear Transmitters 281

6.6.4 Polar Transmitter 283

6.6.5 Power Amplifier (PA) 285

6.7 Transmitter Performance Measures 288

6.7.1 Design Challenges 289

6.8 LTE Frequency Bands 289

Further Reading 291

7 Software Architecture Design 292

7.1 Introduction 292

7.2 Booting Process 292

7.2.1 Initialization (Boot) Code 294

7.3 Operating System 298

7.3.1 Commonly Used Mobile Operating Systems 299

7.3.2 Real ]Time Operating System 302

7.3.3 OS Operation 302

7.3.4 Selection of an Operating System 303

7.4 Device Driver Software 303

7.5 Speech and Multimedia Application Software 304

7.5.1 Speech Codec 304

7.5.2 Voice Support in LTE 309

7.5.3 Audio Codec 310

7.5.4 Images 311

7.5.5 Video 313

7.6 UE Protocol Stack Software 314

Further Reading 316

8 Battery and Power Management Unit Design 317

8.1 Introduction to the Power Management Unit 317

8.2 Battery Charging Circuit 318

8.2.1 Battery Charging from a USB Port 319

8.2.2 Wireless Charging 320

8.3 Battery 320

8.3.1 Battery Working Principles 320

8.3.2 Power versus Energy 322

8.3.3 Talk Time and Standby Time 322

8.3.4 Types of Rechargeable Batteries and Performance Parameters 322

8.4 Mobile Terminal Energy Consumption 324

8.4.1 System ]Level Analysis of Power Consumption 325

8.5 Low ]Power Smartphone Design 326

8.6 Low ]Power Design Techniques 327

8.6.1 System ]Level Power Optimization 327

8.6.2 Algorithmic Level 329

8.6.3 Technology 330

8.6.4 Circuit/Logic 331

8.6.5 Architecture 332

8.6.6 Power Consumption in Microprocessors 332

8.6.7 Power Consumption in Memory 332

Further Reading 335

9 4G and Beyond 337

9.1 Introduction to LTE ]Advanced 337

9.2 LTE ]Advanced Features 337

9.2.1 Carrier Aggregation 337

9.2.2 Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access 341

9.2.3 Enhanced Multiple Antenna Transmission 342

9.2.4 Relaying 342

9.2.5 Device to Device 342

9.2.6 Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) 344

9.2.7 Heterogeneous Networks and Enhanced ICIC 344

9.2.8 LTE Self ]Optimizing Networks (SON) 346

9.3 LTE ]A UE Modem Processing 346

9.4 LTE ]A UE Implementation 347

9.5 Future Generations (5G) 348

9.6 Internet of Things (IoT) 350

Further Reading 351

Index 352

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Author Information

Dr. Sajal Kumar Das, ERICSSON, MODEM R&D, India. Over the last 16 years, Das has extensively worked on 2G, 3G and 4G mobile receiver algorithms and system development. He has implemented several innovative architectures and algorithms related to mobile phones technology. Before joining ERICSSON, he worked with Nokia, Texas Instruments, STMicroelectronics, Lucent Technologies, and Bharat Electronics. Das is the author of two technical books and more than 25 technical papers. Over 20 US patents were granted for his outstanding performance in the mobile communication field. He is also a member of the 3GPP mobile standardization group and IEEE.

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