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Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-10923-5
464 pages
March 2017
Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, 2nd Edition (111910923X) cover image

Description

The comprehensive guide to engineering alternative and renewable energy systems and applications—updated for the latest trends and technologies 

This book was designed tohelp engineers develop new solutions for the current energy economy. To that end it provides technical discussions, along with numerous real-world examples of virtually all existing alternative energy sources, applications, systems and system components. All chapters focus on first-order engineering calculations, and consider alternative uses of existing and renewable energy resources. Just as important, the author describes how to apply these concepts to the development of new energy solutions. 

Since the publication of the critically acclaimed first edition of this book, the alternative, renewable and sustainable energy industries have witnessed significant evolution and growth. Hydraulic fracturing, fossil fuel reserve increases, the increasing popularity of hybrid and all-electric vehicles, and the decreasing cost of solar power already have had a significant impact on energy usage patterns worldwide. Updated and revised to reflect those and other key developments, this new edition features expanded coverage of topics covered in the first edition, as well as entirely new chapters on hydraulic fracturing and fossil fuels, hybrid and all-electric vehicles, and more.

  • Begins with a fascinating look at the changing face of global energy economy
  • Features chapters devoted to virtually all sources of alternative energy and energy systems
  • Offers technical discussions of hydropower, wind, passive solar and solar-thermal, photovoltaics, fuel cells, CHP systems, geothermal, ocean energy, biomass, and nuclear
  • Contains updated chapter review questions, homework problems, and a thoroughly revised solutions manual, available on the companion website

While Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, Second Edition is an ideal textbook/reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate level engineering courses in energy-related subjects, it is also an indispensable professional resource for engineers and technicians working in areas related to the development of alternative/renewable energy systems.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xiii

Preface to the First Edition xv

About the Companion Website xvii

1 Energy Usage in the USA and the World 1

1.1 Energy and Power 1

1.2 Energy Usage and Standard of Living 1

1.3 A Historical Perspective of Energy Usage in the USA 4

1.4 US Energy Usage in 2014 7

1.5 Worldwide Energy Use 17

1.6 Efficiencies 19

1.7 Closure 21

References 21

2 Fundamentals of Turbomachinery 23

2.1 Definition of a Turbomachine 23

2.2 Turbomachine Classifications 23

2.3 Turbomachine Analysis 23

2.4 Example Problems 28

2.5 Closure 33

References 33

Further Reading 33

3 Hydropower 35

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Examples of Hydroelectric Dams 35

3.3 Hydraulic Analysis 39

3.4 Turbine Specific Speed Considerations 44

3.5 Energy Transfer in Turbines 48

3.6 Closure 57

References 60

Further Reading 61

4 Wind Energy 63

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Fundamental Concepts 64

4.3 Wind Energy Resources 72

4.4 Wind Turbine Operation 78

4.5 Commercial Wind Turbine Examples 83

4.6 Growth in Wind Power Capacity 88

4.7 Closure 90

References 92

Further Reading 92

5 Combustion Turbines 93

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 The Combustion Turbine 93

5.3 The Air-Standard Brayton Cycle 95

5.4 Actual Gas Turbine Cycle Analysis 96

5.5 Combustion Turbine Cycle Variations 104

5.6 Examples of Commercially Available Combustion Turbines 105

5.6.1 Solar Turbines 106

5.6.2 GE Energy 107

5.6.3 Capstone Turbines 110

5.6.4 Other Gas Turbine Suppliers 112

5.7 Closure 113

References 113

Further Reading 113

6 Solar Energy Fundamentals 115

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 Radiation Heat Transfer Review 115

6.3 Sun Path Description and Calculation 126

6.4 Sun Path Development Using Mathcad 131

6.5 The National Solar Energy Database 137

6.6 Closure 140

References 140

7 Active Solar Thermal Applications 143

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 Flat-Plate Collector Fundamentals 148

7.3 Solar Collector and Weather Data 152

7.4 The f-Chart Method 159

7.5 Other Solar Thermal Systems 165

7.6 Closure 166

References 167

8 Passive Solar Energy 169

8.1 Fundamental Concepts of Passive Solar Energy 169

8.2 Quantifying Passive Solar Features 172

8.3 The First-Level Method (Rules of Thumb) 176

8.4 The Second-Level Method (the Load Collector Ratio Method) 177

8.5 Daylighting 178

8.6 Passive Solar Simulation Software 180

8.7 Closure 181

References 181

9 Photovoltaic Systems 183

9.1 Introduction 183

9.2 Photovoltaic Cell Fundamentals 183

9.3 Photovoltaic Components 190

9.4 Photovoltaic Systems 196

9.5 Growth in Photovoltaic Capacity 201

9.6 Closure 202

References 203

10 Fuel Cells 205

10.1 Introduction 205

10.2 Fuel Cell Fundamentals 205

10.3 Fuel Cell Thermodynamics Fundamentals 207

10.4 Fuel Cell Types 213

10.5 Fuel Cell Availability 220

10.6 Closure 223

References 223

11 Combined Heat and Power Systems 225

11.1 Introduction 225

11.2 Combined Heat and Power System Fundamentals 227

11.3 Combined Heat and Power System Economics and Operation 231

11.4 Economic Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Suitability 236

11.5 Thermal and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Heat and Power Metrics 240

11.6 Combined Heat and Power System Example 241

11.7 Closure 245

References 246

12 Biomass 249

12.1 Introduction 249

12.2 Biomass Availability 250

12.3 Biomass Fundamentals 253

12.4 Biomass Characteristics 255

12.5 Biomass-Based Fuels and Products 255

12.5.1 Ethanol 255

12.5.2 Methanol 261

12.5.3 Biodiesel/Vegetable Oil 261

12.5.4 Pyrolysis Liquids 263

12.5.5 Biogas 264

12.5.6 Producer Gas 265

12.5.7 Synthesis Gas 267

12.5.8 Biopower and Biofuels Statistics 270

12.6 Municipal Solid Waste 270

12.7 Closure 278

References 278

Further Reading 280

13 Geothermal Energy 281

13.1 Introduction 281

13.2 Geothermal Resources 281

13.3 Geothermal Energy Systems 286

13.3.1 Hydrothermal 286

13.3.2 Geopressurized 295

13.3.3 Magma 296

13.3.4 Enhanced Geothermal Systems 297

13.4 Geothermal Examples 297

13.5 Ground-Source Heat Pumps 300

13.6 Closure 304

References 305

Further Reading 306

14 Ocean Energy 307

14.1 Introduction 307

14.2 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 307

14.2.1 Open Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Systems 308

14.2.2 Closed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Systems 312

14.2.3 Hybrid Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Systems 315

14.2.4 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion System Outputs 315

14.2.5 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Assessment 315

14.3 Tidal energy 319

14.4 Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy 324

14.4.1 Rotating devices 330

14.5 Closure 331

References 332

15 Nuclear Energy 333

15.1 Introduction 333

15.2 Fundamentals of Nuclear Energy 334

15.3 Nuclear Power 339

15.3.1 Chernobyl 348

15.3.2 Fukashima Daiichi 350

15.3.3 Nuclear Power in the Twenty-First Century 351

15.4 Fusion Power 354

15.5 Closure 359

References 359

16 Transportation and Hybrid and Electric Vehicles 361

16.1 Transportation Energy Usage Alternatives to Internal Combustion Engines 361

16.2 Hybrid and Electric Vehicles 364

16.3 Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Past, Present, and Future 370

16.4 Closure 375

References 375

17 Hydraulic Fracturing, Oil, Natural Gas, and the New Reality 377

17.1 Introduction 377

17.2 Unconventional Oil and Gas 377

17.3 Reservoir Engineering Concepts 381

17.4 Oil and Gas Recovery from Tight Plays 386

17.5 The New Reality 392

17.6 Closure 399

References 399

Further Reading 400

Appendix A 401

Appendix B 415

Index 431

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Author Information

B. K. Hodge is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU) where he continues to be involved in MSU mechanical engineering education and research activities. His research areas include enhanced heat transfer, thermal systems simulation, and energy engineering. He also served as the Director of the MSU Industrial Assessment Center. Prior to retirement, B. K. Hodge held the Tennessee Valley Authority Professorship in Energy Systems and the Environment and was Giles Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering and a Grisham Master Teacher. He has served as Chair of the ASEE Mechanical Engineering Division and as President of the ASEE Southeastern Section. He is a Fellow of the American Society for Engineering Education and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and an Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

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