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Atlas of Canine and Feline Urinalysis

ISBN: 978-1-119-11035-4
200 pages
August 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Atlas of Canine and Feline Urinalysis (1119110351) cover image


Atlas of Canine and Feline Urinalysis offers an image-based reference for performing canine and feline urinalyses, with hundreds of full-color images depicting techniques, physical characteristics, urine chemistry, and microscopic characteristics of urine sediment in dogs and cats.

  • Presents hundreds of full-color images for reference and picture-matching while using urinalysis as a diagnostic tool
  • Provides a complete guide to properly performing a urinalysis exam in the veterinary practice
  • Emphasizes collection techniques, physical assessment, urine chemistry, and the microscopic sediment exam
  • Covers casts, crystals, cells, organisms, and artefacts
  • Offers a practical, visual resource for incorporating urinalysis into the clinic


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Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Section 1: Sample Collection and Handling 2

Collection of Urine Samples 2

Free Catch Urine Collection 2

Transurethral Catheterization 3

Cystocentesis 6

Urine Sample Handlin g 7

Culture 7

Section II: Urine: Physical Characteristics 10

Volume 10

Color 10

Clarity/Turbidity 11

Odor 11

Urine Specific Gravity 11

Section III Urine Chemistry 13

Urine pH 13

Protein 14

Glucose 19

Ketones 20

Blood 22

Bilirubin 24

Section IV Urine Sediment 26

Preparation for Microscopic Examination 26

Casts 27

Hyaline Casts 27

Cellular Casts 28

Granular Casts 30

Waxy Casts 31

Fatty Casts 32

Hemoglobin Casts 32

Mixed Casts 33

Psuedo Casts 33

Crystals 34

Crystals associated with urolith formation34

Struvite/Triple Phosphate Crystals 34

Calcium oxalate dihydrate 35

Calcium oxalate monohydrate 36

Calcium Phosphate 37

Urate/Ammonium Biurate 37

Uric Acid 38

Cystine 39

Xanthine 39

Amorphous (Phosphate, Urate, Silicates) 40

Crystals not typically associated with urolith formation41

Tyrosine and leucine 41

Bilirubin 42

Melamine 42

Drug Induced 43

Sulfonamides 43

Ampicillin 44

Radiopaque Contrast Agents 44

Cholesterol 45

Cells 45

Transitional Epithelial Cells 45

Squamous Epithelial Cells 46

Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells 47

Leukocytes 48

Erythrocytes 49

Atypical (Neoplastic) Cells 50


Bacteria 52

Fungal Hyphae 53

Yeast 54

Dioctophyma renale Ova 54

Capillaria (Pearsonema) plica and Capillaria felis cati Ova 55

Microfilaria 56

Miscellaneous Findings and Artifacts 56

Pollen 56

Fungal spores 57

Mucus 58

Lipid Droplets 58

Sperm 59

Air Bubbles 59

Starch Granules (Glove Powder) 60

Fiber 60

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Author Information

The authors
Theresa E. Rizzi,
DVM, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), is a Clinical Associate Professor in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology at Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.

Amy Valenciano, DVM, MS, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), is a Clinical Pathologist at IDEXX Laboratories in Dallas, Texas, USA.

Mary Bowles, DVM, DACVIM, is an emeritus Associate Professor and former Small Animal Medicine Section Chief in the Department of Clinical Sciences at Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.

Rick Cowell, DVM, MS, MRCVS, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), is a Clinical Pathologist at IDEXX Laboratories Inc. in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.

Ronald Tyler, DVM, PhD, DACVP (Clinical Pathology and Anatomic Pathology), DABT, is consulting pathologist and toxicologist to U.S., European, and Chinese pharmaceutical companies, contract laboratories, and regulatory agencies with adjunct appointments in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology at Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA and Department of Pathology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University in Chennai, India.

Dennis B. DeNicola, DVM, PhD, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), is Chief Veterinary Educator at IDEXX Laboratories in Westbrook, Maine, USA.

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‘The book covers all aspects of urinalysis including appropriate collection, storage, preparation of urine for laboratory analysis, and chemical and microscopic evaluation. It presents practical techniques for urine collection, has many images of sediment structures, and helpful tables that summarize information … This book mirrors those available in human medicine. It is thorough and the images are excellent’ Doody’s, December 2017

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