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TV White Space: The First Step Towards Better Utilization of Frequency Spectrum

ISBN: 978-1-119-11042-2
360 pages
October 2016, Wiley-IEEE Press
TV White Space: The First Step Towards Better Utilization of Frequency Spectrum (1119110424) cover image

Description

Provides an in-depth coverage of TV White Space Technology (TVWS) and the various challenges of its new innovations

This book covers the full spectrum of TVWS technology including regulations, technology, standardizations, and worldwide deployments. It begins with an introduction to cognitive radio and TVWS. The regulation activities in TVWS throughout North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific are covered in depth. After a discussion of regulations, the authors examine the standardizations developed to specify the enabling technologies of TVWS systems. The following chapter focuses on the key technologies that differentiate TVWS from a conventional wireless communication system.

  • Describes various worldwide use cases and deployments based on the needs of the consumers
  • Covers IEEE 802.19.1, IEEE 802.22, IEEE 802.11af, IEEE 802.15.4m, and IETF protocol for Accessing White Spaces
  • Studies the market and commercial potential of TVWS and other spectrum sharing technologies
  • Discusses technological trends in spectrum sharing and additional applications that could leverage on TVWS and other spectrum sharing technologies

TV White Space: The First Step Towards Better Utilization of Frequency Spectrum is written for telecommunications/networks operators, researchers, engineers, government regulators, technical managers, and network equipment manufacturers.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Abbreviations xiii

1. Introduction to Cognitive Radio and Television White Space 1

1.1 Spectrum Survey 3

1.2 Spectrum Harmonization 3

1.3 National Broadband Plan 7

1.3.1 The United States 8

1.3.2 Canada 8

1.3.3 The European Union 9

1.3.4 The United Kingdom 9

1.3.5 Japan 9

1.3.6 South Korea 10

1.3.7 Singapore 10

1.3.8 Australia 11

1.4 Cognitive Radio 11

1.5 Television White Space 13

1.5.1 TVWS Regulation 15

1.5.2 Standardization 16

1.5.3 Potential Applications 17

1.5.4 Technologies 18

1.5.5 Moving Forward 19

1.5.6 Features of TVWS 20

1.6 Summary 20

References 21

2. Regulations 23

2.1 North America 24

2.1.1 The United States of America: FCC 24

2.1.2 Canada: Industry Canada 36

2.2 Europe 42

2.2.1 The United Kingdom: Ofcom 42

2.2.2 Europe: CEPT 49

2.3 Asia Pacific 52

2.3.1 Singapore, IDA 52

2.3.2 New Zealand, Radio Spectrum Management 53

2.4 Regulation Comparison 53

2.4.1 TVWS Frequency Range 53

2.4.2 Number of Channels 55

2.4.3 Channel Bandwidth 56

2.4.4 Types of Devices 56

2.4.5 In-Channel and OOB Power Limits 56

2.4.6 WSDB Requirements 58

References 58

3. Standardizations 61

3.1 IEEE 802.19.1 62

3.1.1 Introduction 62

3.1.2 System Architecture 62

3.1.3 Entities Operations 64

3.1.4 Coexistence Mechanisms and Algorithms 66

3.2 IEEE 802.22 70

3.2.1 Introduction 70

3.2.2 Cognitive Radio Capability 72

3.2.3 MAC Sublayer 76

3.2.4 Physical Layer 78

3.3 IEEE 802.11AF 78

3.3.1 Introduction 78

3.3.2 Operating Mechanisms for TVWS 80

3.3.3 MAC Sublayer 82

3.3.4 Physical Layer 83

3.4 IEEE 802.15.4M 85

3.4.1 Introduction 85

3.4.2 MAC Sublayer 88

3.4.3 Physical Layer 92

3.5 IETF Protocol to Access White Spaces 96

References 97

4. TVWS Technology 99

4.1 Physical Layer 100

4.1.1 TVWS Antenna 101

4.1.2 Spectrum Identification 107

4.1.3 Channel Aggregation 112

4.1.4 Out-Of-Band Leakage Control 113

4.1.5 Positioning 115

4.2 Medium Access Control Layer 117

4.2.1 Secondary User Networks Coexistence Based on IPM 119

4.2.2 Dynamic Spectrum Assignment 123

4.3 Network Layer 128

4.4 Application Layer 133

4.4.1 Enhanced WSDB 134

4.4.2 REM Through WSD Networks 146

4.5 White Space Devices 152

4.5.1 KTS Wireless AWR 154

4.5.2 6Harmonics Core Adaptive Radio 155

4.5.3 Carlson’s RuralConnect WSD 155

4.5.4 WSD From Singapore Power Automation and I2R 157

4.5.5 Adaptrum ACRS 158

4.5.6 Redline RTG Connect-IWS 159

4.5.7 MELD F-Class 160

4.5.8 Others 161

4.6 Summary 161

References 162

5. Worldwide Deployment 165

5.1 North America 167

5.1.1 The United States 168

5.1.2 Canada 173

5.2 Europe 174

5.2.1 The United Kingdom 174

5.3 Asia 180

5.3.1 Bhutan 180

5.3.2 The Philippines 181

5.3.3 Japan 184

5.3.4 Taiwan 185

5.3.5 Singapore 186

5.3.6 Indonesia 189

5.3.7 Hong Kong 190

5.4 Africa 192

5.4.1 Botswana 193

5.4.2 Namibia 193

5.4.3 Ghana 193

5.4.4 South Africa 194

5.4.5 Malawi 195

5.4.6 Tanzania 195

5.4.7 Kenya 196

5.5 The Rest of the World 196

5.5.1 Uruguay 196

5.5.2 New Zealand 196

References 197

6. Commercial and Market Potential 199

6.1 Introduction 199

6.2 Spectrum Trading and Management 207

6.2.1 Primary Users’ Incentives to Share the Spectrum 209

6.2.2 Secondary Users’ Incentives to Buy the Spectrum 209

6.2.3 Case Study: High Priority Channel in Singapore’s TV White Space Regulation 210

6.3 Potential Application Scenarios 210

6.3.1 Wi-Fi with Cognitive Access to TV White Space 210

6.3.2 UMTS and LTE Extension over TV White Space 212

6.3.3 Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds (DVB-H) with Cognitive Access to TVWS 214

6.3.4 M2M Communications 215

6.3.5 Smart City Deployments and Applications 216

6.3.6 Agricultural Automation 217

6.3.7 Public Safety with Cognitive Access to TVWS 218

6.3.8 PMSE with Cognitive Access to TVWS 219

6.4 Summary 219

References 219

7. Future Development 221

7.1 Regulation 221

7.1.1 Citizens Broadband Radio Service (3.5 GHz) 223

7.1.2 Spectrum Refarming and Trading 223

7.1.3 Sharing in Licensed Bands 224

7.1.4 Spectrum Sharing for IoT 225

7.2 Technologies 225

7.2.1 Spectrum Sensing 226

7.2.2 WSDB 227

7.2.3 Antenna 229

7.2.4 Related Technologies 229

7.2.5 Privacy and Enforcement 232

7.3 Applications and Business Model 233

7.4 Summary 233

References 234

Appendix A. Dynamic Spectrum Alliance Model White Spaces Rules 235

A.1 Generalized Description of Propagation Model 246

A.1.1 Introduction 246

A.1.2 The Longley–Rice Algorithm 247

A.2 Longley–Rice Parameters for TV Broadcast Field Strength Calculations 261

A.2.1 Introduction 261

A.2.2 Model Parameters 262

A.2.3 Path Calculations 265

A.2.4 Summary 266

A.3 Calculation of Available TV White Space Frequencies and Power Limits 266

A.3.1 Introduction 266

A.3.2 Definitions 266

A.3.3 Calculations 273

A.4 Information Regarding ITU-R P-1812 278

A.4.1 Introduction 278

Appendix B. Performance of SEA 281

Appendix C. Self-Positioning Based on DVB-T2 Signals 285

C.1 DVB-T2-Based Positioning 285

C.1.1 Threshold-Based Timing Estimation Approach 287

C.1.2 Iterative Timing Estimation Approach 289

Appendix D. Algorithm for Dynamic Spectrum Assignment 297

D.1 System Model 297

D.2 Problem Formulation and Optimal Spectrum Assignment Policy 298

Appendix E. Calculation for Area-Based WSDB 301

E.1 Method 1: Channel Availability for an Area Based on Center Location and Radius 301

E.1.1 M1-Scheme 1-Step 1: Checking the Center Location and Radius 301

E.1.2 M1-Scheme 1-Step 2 (Optional): Finding a Subset of PU Keep-Out Contour Coordinates 302

E.1.3 M1-Scheme 1-Step 3: Determine the Area of Circle Is Outside of PU Keep-Out Area 303

E.1.4 M1-Scheme 2-Step 1: Checking the Center Location and Radius 306

E.1.5 M1-Scheme 2-Step 2: Determine a Set of Location Check Points 307

E.1.6 M1-Scheme 2-Step 3: Determine If All the LCPs Are Outside of the PU Keep-Out Contour 307

E.2 Method 2: Channel Availability for an Arbitrary Area Bounded by a Series of Location Information 308

E.2.1 M2-Scheme 1 309

E.2.2 M2-Scheme 2 310

Appendix F. Embedded Broadcast WSDB 313

F.1 Teletext-Based Broadcast WSDB 313

F.2 DVB- or HBB-Based Broadcast WSDB 313

F.3 DAB- or HD Radio-Based Broadcast WSDB 315

Appendix G. Revenue Maximization of WSDB-Q 317

G.1 Maximizing Revenue of WSDB Provider 317

Index 321

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Author Information

Ser Wah Oh is the Head of the White Space Communications Department at the Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), Singapore. He is also the co-founder and co-chair of the Singapore White Spaces Pilot Group, co-chair of Singapore TVWS Task Force, and member of Singapore Telecom Standards Advisory Committee. He previously led a team to contribute to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) TVWS field trial in 2008 that helped to shape the TVWS landscape today.

Yugang Ma
 is a Senior Scientist and the Group Leader for White Space Research in the White Space Communications Department at I2R. His research areas cover CDMA, OFDM, UWB, mmWave, TVWS systems, synchronization, interference suppression, positioning, and antenna technologies. Dr. Ma was a Distinguished Engineer of Sony Corporation and has won 8 patent invention awards of Sony Electronics. He is also a member of Singapore TVWS Task Force.

Ming-Hung Tao is a Research Scientist in the White Space Communications Department at I2R. Before joining I2R, he was an Assistant Manager at Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Taiwan. He is an experienced delegate in IEEE (WiMAX) and 3GPP (RAN2) standard meetings. He also has rich experience on developing MAC and network protocols for various wireless technologies including LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, ZigBee, and TV White Space.

Edward Peh was a Research Scientist in the White Space Communications Department at I2R. He is now working with the Centre for Strategic Infocomm Technologies, Singapore.

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