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Understanding Mammalian Locomotion: Concepts and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-119-11372-0
432 pages
January 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Understanding Mammalian Locomotion will formally introduce the emerging perspective of collision dynamics in mammalian terrestrial locomotion and explain how it influences the interpretation of form and functional capabilities. The objective is to bring the reader interested in the function and mechanics of mammalian terrestrial locomotion to a sophisticated conceptual understanding of the relevant mechanics and the current debate ongoing in the field.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xv

Preface xvii

Chapter 1 Concepts Through Time: Historical Perspectives on Mammalian Locomotion 1
John E. A. Bertram

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The ancients and the contemplation of motion 2

1.3 The European Renaissance and foundations of the age of discovery 3

1.4 The era of technological observation 5

1.5 Physiology and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion – cost and consequences 7

1.6 Comparative studies of gait 10

1.6 Re?]interpreting the mechanics: a fork in the road, or simply seeing the other side of the coin? 13

1.7 The biological source of cost 13

1.8 The physical source of cost (with biological consequences) – the road less traveled 14

1.9 Conclusions 21

References 21

Chapter 2 Considering Gaits: Descriptive Approaches 27
John E. A. Bertram

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Defining the fundamental gaits 28

2.3 Classifying and comparing the fundamental gaits 30

2.4 Symmetric gaits 32

2.5 A symmetric gaits 34

2.6 Beyond “Hildebrand plots” 40

2.7 Statistical classification 43

2.8 Neural regulation and emergent criteria 45

2.9 Mechanical measures as descriptions of gaits 47

2.10 Conclusion 47

References 48

Chapter 3 Muscles as Actuators 51
Anne K. Gutmann and John E. A. Bertram

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Basic muscle operation 52

3.2.1 Sliding filament theory – the basis for cross?]bridge theory 52

3.2.2 Basic cross?]bridge theory 52

3.2.3 Multi?]state cross?]bridge models 57

3.3 Some alternatives to cross?]bridge theory 59

3.4 Force production 60

3.4.1 Isometric force production 60

3.4.2 Non?]isometric force production 63

3.5 The Hill?]type model 66

3.6 Optimizing work, power, and efficiency 68

3.7 Muscle architecture 70

3.7.1 The sarcomere as the fundamental contractile unit 70

3.7.2 Muscle geometry 70

3.7.3 Elastic energy storage and return 72

3.7.4 Damping/energy dissipation 72

3.8 Other factors that influence muscle performance 73

3.8.1 Fiber type 73

3.9 A ctivation and recruitment 75

3.10 What does muscle do best? 76

References 76

Chapter 4 Concepts in Locomotion: Levers, Struts, Pendula and Springs 79
John E. A. Bertram

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 The limb: How details can obscure functional role 83

4.3 Limb function in stability and the concept of the “effective limb” 85

4.3.1 Considering the mechanisms of stability 85

4.3.2 The role of the effective limb 88

4.4 Levers and struts 89

4.5 Ground reaction force in gaits 92

4.5.1 Trot 94

4.5.2 Walk 96

4.5.3 Gallop 97

4.6 The consequence of applied force: CoM motion, pendula and springs 98

4.7 Energy exchange in locomotion – valuable or inevitable? 102

4.8 Momentum and energy in locomotion: dynamic fundamentals 103

4.9 Energy – lost unless recovered, or available unless lost? 104

References 105

Chapter 5 Concepts in Locomotion: Wheels, Spokes, Collisions and Insight from the Center of Mass 111
John E. A. Bertram

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Understanding brachiation: an analogy for terrestrial locomotion 112

5.3 Bipedal walking: inverted pendulum or inverted “collision?]limiting brachiator analog”? 117

5.4 Basic dynamics of the step?]to?]step transition in bipedal walking 120

5.5 Subtle dynamics of the step?]to?]step transition in bipedal walking and running 124

5.6 Pseudo?]elastic motion and true elastic return in running gaits 130

5.7 Managing CoM motion in quadrupedal gaits 131

5.7.1 Walk 132

5.7.2 Trot 133

5.7.3 Gallop 133

5.8 Conclusion 138

References 139

Chapter 6 Reductionist Models of Walking and Running 143
James R. Usherwood

6.1 Part 1: Bipedal locomotion and “the ultimate cost of legged locomotion?” 143

6.1.1 Introduction 143

6.1.2 Reductionist models of walking 144

6.1.3 The benefit of considering locomotion as inelastic 150

6.2 Part 2: quadrupedal locomotion 158

6.2.1 Introduction 158

6.2.2 Quadrupedal dynamic walking and collisions 158

6.2.3 Higher speed quadrupedal gaits 161

6.2.4 Further success of reductionist mechanics 162

Appendix A: Analytical approximation for costs of transport including legs and “guts and gonads” losses 166

6A.1 List of symbols 166

6A.2 Period definitions for a symmetrically running biped 166

6A.3 Ideal work for the leg 167

6A.4 Vertical work calculations for leg 168

6A.5 Horizontal work calculations for leg 169

6A.6 Hysteresis costs of “guts and gonads” deflections 169

6A.7 Cost of transport 170

References 170

Chapter 7 Whole?]Body Mechanics: How Leg Compliance Shapes the Way We Move 173
Andre Seyfarth, Hartmut Geyer, Susanne Lipfert, J. Rummel, Yvonne Blum, M. Maus and D. Maykranz

7.1 Introduction 173

7.2 Jumping for distance – a goal?]directed movement 175

7.3 Running for distance – what is the goal? 177

7.4 Cyclic stability in running 178

7.5 The wheel in the leg – how leg retraction enhances running stability 179

7.6 Walking with compliant legs 180

7.7 A dding an elastically coupled foot to the spring?]mass model 184

7.8 The segmented leg – how does joint function translate into leg function? 185

7.9 Keeping the trunk upright during locomotion 187

7.10 The challenge of setting up more complex models 188

Notes 190

References190

Chapter 8 The Most Important Feature of an Organism’s Biology: Dimension, Similarity and Scale 193
John E. A. Bertram

8.1 Introduction 193

8.2 The most basic principle: surface area to volume relations 194

8.3 A ssessing scale effects 197

8.4 Physiology and scaling 198

8.5 The allometric equation: the power function of scaling 203

8.6 The standard scaling models 207

8.6.1 Geometric similarity 208

8.6.2 Static stress similarity 209

8.6.3 Elastic similarity 209

8.7 Differential scaling – where the limit may change 210

8.7.1 A ssessing the assumptions 215

8.8 A fractal view of scaling 215

8.9 Making valid comparisons: measurement, dimension and functional criteria 217

8.9.1 Considering units 217

8.9.2 Fundamental and derived units 219

8.9.3 Froude number: a dimensionless example 222

References 223

Chapter 9 Accounting for the Influence of Animal Size on Biomechanical Variables: Concepts and Considerations 229
Sharon Bullimore

9.1 Introduction 229

9.2 Commonly used approaches to accounting for size differences 230

9.2.1 Dividing by body mass 230

9.2.2 Dimensionless parameters 232

9.3 Empirical scaling relationships 237

9.4 Selected biomechanical parameters 238

9.4.1 Ground reaction force 238

9.4.2 Muscle force 239

9.4.3 Muscle velocity 242

9.4.4 Running speed 242

9.4.5 Jump height 244

9.4.6 Elastic energy storage 246

9.5 Conclusions 247

Acknowledgements 247

References 247

Chapter 10 Locomotion in Small Tetrapods: Size?]Based Limitations to “Universal Rules” in Locomotion 251
Audrone R. Biknevicius, Stephen M. Reilly and Elvedin Kljuno

10.1 Introduction 251

10.2 A ctive mechanisms contributing to the high cost of transport in small tetrapods 254

10.3 Limited passive mechanisms for reducing cost of transport in small tetrapods 255

10.4 Gait transitions from vaulting to bouncing mechanics 257

10.5 The “unsteadiness” of most terrestrial locomotion 262

Appendix – a model of non?]steady speed walking 265

10A.1 Spring?]mass inverted pendulum model of walking 265

10A.2 Recovery ratio calculation 269

References 271

Chapter 11 Non?]Steady Locomotion 277
Monica A. Daley

11.1 Introduction 277

11.1.1 Why study non?]steady locomotion? 278

11.2 A pproaches to studying non?]steady locomotion 279

11.2.1 Simple mechanical models 280

11.2.2 Research approaches to non?]steady locomotion 281

11.3 Themes from recent studies of non?]steady locomotion 282

11.3.1 Limits to maximal acceleration 282

11.3.2 Morphological and behavioral factors in turning mechanics 283

11.4 The role of intrinsic mechanics for stability and robustness of locomotion 288

11.4.1 Some definitions 289

11.4.2 Measures of sensitivity and robustness 290

11.4.3 What do we learn about stability from simple models of running? 291

11.4.4 Limitations to stability analysis of simple models 295

11.4.5 The relationship between ground contact conditions and leg mechanics on uneven terrain 296

11.4.6 Compromises among economy, robustness and injury avoidance in uneven terrain 298

11.5 Proximal?]distal inter?]joint coordination in non?]steady locomotion 299

References 302

Chapter 12 The Evolution of Terrestrial Locomotion in Bats: the Bad, the Ugly, and the Good 307
Daniel K. Riskin, John E. A. Bertram and John W. Hermanson

12.1 Bats on the ground: like fish out of water? 307

12.2 Species?]level variation in walking ability 308

12.3 How does anatomy influence crawling ability? 309

12.4 Hindlimbs and the evolution of flight 311

12.5 Moving a bat’s body on land: the kinematics of quadrupedal locomotion 315

12.6 Evolutionary pressures leading to capable terrestrial locomotion 318

12.7 Conclusions and future work 319

Acknowledgements 320

References 320

Chapter 13 The Fight or Flight Dichotomy: Functional Trade?]Off in Specialization for Aggression Versus Locomotion 325
David R. Carrier

13.1 Introduction325

13.1.1 Why fighting is important 327

13.1.2 Size sexual dimorphism as an indicator of male?]male aggression 328

13.2 Trade?]offs in specialization for aggression versus locomotion 329

13.2.1 The evolution of short legs – specialization for aggression? 329

13.2.2 Muscle architecture of limbs specialized for running versus fighting 331

13.2.3 Mechanical properties of limb bones that are specialized for running versus fighting 334

13.2.4 The function of foot posture: aggression versus locomotor economy 334

13.3 Discussion 338

References 341

Chapter 14 Design for Prodigious Size without Extreme Body Mass: Dwarf Elephants, Differential Scaling and Implications for Functional Adaptation 349
John E. A. Bertram

14.1 Introduction 349

14.2 Elephant form, mammalian scaling and dwarfing 351

14.2.1 Measurements 356

14.2.2 Observations 356

14.3 Interpretation 357

Acknowledgements 364

References 364

Chapter 15 Basic Mechanisms of Bipedal Locomotion: Head?]Supported Loads and Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Walking 369
James R. Usherwood and John E. A. Bertram

15.1 Introduction 369

15.2 Head?]supported loads in human?]mediated transport 370

15.2.1 Can the evidence be depended upon? 371

15.3 Potential energy saving advantages 373

15.4 A simple alternative model 376

15.5 Conclusions 382

References 382

Chapter 16 Would a Horse on the Moon Gallop? Directions Available in Locomotion Research (and How Not to Spend Too Much Time Exploring Blind Alleys) 385
John E. A. Bertram

16.1 Introduction 385

References 392

Index 393

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Author Information

John E.A. Bertram is a Professor in the Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Cumming School of Medicine, and adjunct Professor in the Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, at the University of Calgary in Calgary, AB, Canada
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