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Microbiology in Dairy Processing: Challenges and Opportunities

ISBN: 978-1-119-11480-2
352 pages
December 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Microbiology in Dairy Processing: Challenges and Opportunities (1119114802) cover image


An authoritative guide to microbiological solutions to common challenges encountered in the industrial processing of milk and the production of milk products

Microbiology in Dairy Processing offers a comprehensive introduction to the most current knowledge and research in dairy technologies and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and dairy associated species in the fermentation of dairy products. The text deals with the industrial processing of milk, the problems solved in the industry, and those still affecting the processes. The authors explore culture methods and species selective growth media, to grow, separate, and characterize LAB and dairy associated species, molecular methods for species identification and strains characterization, Next Generation Sequencing for genome characterization, comparative genomics, phenotyping, and current applications in dairy and non-dairy productions.

In addition, Microbiology in Dairy Processing covers the Lactic Acid Bacteria and dairy associated species (the beneficial microorganisms used in food fermentation processes): culture methods, phenotyping, and proven applications in dairy and non-dairy productions. The text also reviews the potential future exploitation of the culture of novel strains with useful traits such as probiotics, fermentation of sugars, metabolites produced, bacteriocins. This important resource:

  • Offers solutions both established and novel to the numerous challenges commonly encountered in the industrial processing of milk and the production of milk products
  • Takes a highly practical approach, tackling the problems faced in the workplace by dairy technologists
  • Covers the whole chain of dairy processing from milk collection and storage though processing and the production of various cheese types

Written for laboratory technicians and researchers, students learning the protocols for LAB isolation and characterisation, Microbiology in Dairy Processing is the authoritative reference for professionals and students. 

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Milk fat quality
Iolanda Altomonte, Federica Solari, Mina Martini

1.1. Introduction

1.2.1.Milk fat globules and fatty acid composition

1.2.2. Milk oligosaccharides

1.3. Milk Fat Globule Membrane proteins

1.4. Conclusions

Chapter 2. Spore forming bacteria
Sonia Garde Lopez-Brea, Natalia Gómez-Torres, Marta Ávila Arribas

2.1. Introduction

2.2. The bacterial spore

2.2.1. Structure and chemical composition of bacterial spores

2.2.2. Spore resistance

2.2.3. Life cycle of spore forming bacteria

2.3.  Spore forming bacteria important for the dairy industry

2.3.1. Class Bacilli Bacillus genus Bacillus cereus Other Bacillus species Importance of Bacillus spp. in the dairy industry Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus genera Paenibacillus genus

2.3.2. Class Clostridia Clostridium botulinum Clostridium perfringens Clostridium tyrobutyricum and related species

2.4. Control strategies to prevent poisoning and spoilage of milk and dairy products by spore forming bacteria

2.5. Conclusions

Chapter 3.  Psychrotrophic bacteria
Milena Brasca, Marilù Decimo, Stefano Morandi, Solimar Gonçalves Machado, François Baglinière, Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Sources of psychrotrophic bacteria contamination of milk

3.3. Important spoilage psychrotrophic bacteria in milk

3.4. Molecular tools to characterize psychrotrophic bacteria

3.5. Influence of psychrotrophic contamination of raw milk on dairy product quality

3.5.1 Bacterial proteases and proteolytic changes in milk

3.6. Regulation of extracellular enzymes

3.7. Control of psychrotrophic bacteria and related enzymes

3.8. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Stabilization of milk quality by heat treatments
Palmiro Poltronieri, Franca Rossi

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Thermal treatments of milk

4.2.1. Thermization

4.2.2. Pasteurization

4.2.3. Grade A Pasteurized Milk (PM)

4.3. Milk sterilization

4.3.1. Control of proper Time/Temperature setting for safety of milk and milk products

4.4. Diseases associated with unpasteurized milk, or post-pasteurization dairy processing contamination

4.5. Conclusions

Chapter 5. Genomics of LAB and dairy associated species
Palmiro Poltronieri, Franca Rossi, Cesare Cammà, Francesco Pomilio, Cinzia Randazzo

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Genomics of LAB species

5.2.1. Next Generation Sequencing of strains, dairy starter genomics

5.2.2. Pacific Bioscience single-molecule real-time sequencing technology.

5.2.3. Illumina MySeq and HiSeq 2000.

5.2.4. Ion Torrent platform

5.3. NGS platform applied to sequencing of microbial communities. Metagenomics.

5.3.1. Pangenomics

5.3.2. -Omic technologies: transcriptomics, proteomics, functional genomics, systems biology.

5.4. Metabolomics and proteomics

5.4.1. Subcellular localization (SLC). Secretion systems for secreted proteins

5.4.2. Interactome for cell adhesion and pathogen exclusion.

5.4.3. LAB peptidome

5.5. Comparative genomics of dairy associated bacteria. The Lactobacillus genus complex, Streptococci/Lactococci, Enterococci, Propionibacteria and Bifidobacteria

5.5.1. Comparative genomics of Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. casei

5.5.2. Lb. casei core genome and ecotype differences in dairy adapted strains.

5.6. Clustered Regularly Spaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) in adaptive immunity

5.7. Regulation of carbon metabolism

5.7.1. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in carbon metabolism

5.7.2. Two-component systems and phosphorylation in sugar substrate regulation

5.7.3. Regulatory RNAs and alternative sigma factors in gene expression

5.8. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Metabolism and biochemistry of LAB and dairy associated species
Palmiro Poltronieri, Giovanna Battelli, Nicoletta Pasqualina Mangia

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Carbohydrate substrates, glycolysis and energy production

6.2.1. Pentose phosphate pathway

6.2.2. Citrate fermentation

6.3. Proteolysis. Protein substrates. Amino acid availability influencing gene expression

6.3.1. Cell-envelope proteinases CEP): the Prt systems

6.3.2. Oligopeptide permeases (OPP) and other transporters for peptides and amino acids

6.3.3. Peptidolysis and Free Amino Acids

6.3.4. Peptidolysis and catabolite repression

6.3.5. Amino acid biosynthesis and auxotrophy

6.3.6. Aldehydes, alcohols, and carboxylic acids.

6.4. Lipolysis, lipases, esterases

6.5. Aroma and flavours products of metabolism

6.5.1. Aldehydes, alcohols, and carboxylic acids

6.5.2. Amino acids as precursor flavour compounds.

6.6. Non enzymatic production of flavours

6.7. Methods of analysis of flavours in dairy products: HPLC, Gas chromatography/Mass analysis (GC/MS)

6.8. Natural biodiversity of strains in dairy productions

6.9. Conclusions

Chapter 7. Culture methods for LAB and dairy associated species
Giuseppe Blaiotta, Maria Aponte, Palmiro Poltronieri

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Established culture media for Lactobacilli

7.2.1. Rogosa agar

7.2.2. MRS medium

7.2.3. Skim milk and whey agar

7.3. M17 medium for selection and enumeration of lactococci and streptococci

7.3.1. Streptococcus thermophilus agar (ST agar)

7.4. Selective media for lactobacilli

7.4.1. MRS vancomycin (MRS-V): vancomycin resistance in Lactobacilli and LAB species

7.4.2. Additional selective agents

7.4.3. MRSV + selective agents for Lb. casei group enumeration

7.4.4 MRS-salicin, MRS-sorbitol, MRS-ribose, MRS gluconate agar

7. 4.5. MRS-clindamycin-ciprofloxacin (MRS-CC) agar.

7.4.6. MMV medium and Lc agar for L. casei group enumeration

7.4.7. MRS containing fructose (MRSF)

7.4.8. mMRS-BPB

7.4.9. MRS-NNLP agar and chromogenic agars for complex communities

7.4.10. Homofermentative-heterofermentative differential (HHD) medium

7.5. Media for their isolation of Bifidobacteria

7.5.1. MRS-NNLP agar

7.5.2. BSM, WSP, TOS-MUP

7.5.3. MRS-ABC

7.6. Phenotyping

7.7. Conclusions

Chapter 8. LAB species and strain identification
Cinzia Randazzo, Alessandra Pino, Koenraad Van Hoorde, Cinzia Caggia

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Genotypic fingerprinting methods

8.3. Culture dependent approaches

8.3.1. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR)

8.3.2. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

8.3.3. Ribotyping

8.3.4. Repetitive Element Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR)

8.3.5. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)

8.3.6. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)

8.4. Non-genotypic fingerprinting methods

8.5. Culture-independent approaches

8.5.1. Culture independent methods for qualitative analysis of dairy foods microbiota

8.5.2. Culture independent methods for quantitative analysis of dairy foods microbiota

8.6. Novel High-Throughput techniques: sequencing and metagenomics

8.7. Conclusion

Chapter 9. LAB strains with bacteriocin synthesis genes and their applications.
Lorena Sacchini, Giacomo Migliorati, Elisabetta Di Giannatale, Francesco Pomilio, Franca Rossi

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria

9.3. Potential for use of LAB bacteriocins as food preservatives

9.4. Bacteriocins produced by dairy LAB

9.5. Identification of LAB producing bacteriocins

9.6. A novel approach for screening LAB bacteriocins

9.7. Biotechnological interventions for bacteriocin engineering

9.8. Conclusions

Chapter 10. Starter and adjunct Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria
Paola Dolci, Luca Cocolin

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Controlled fermentation

10.2.1. Natural vs selected lactic acid bacteria starters

10.2.2. Starter strains: selection parameter approaches and strain concept

10.2.3. Starter culture formulation

10.3. Adjunct Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria

10.3.1. Biodiversity and adaptation to cheese environment

10.3.2. Prospective in industrial application

10.3.3. Biopreservation and health benefits

10.4. Conclusions

Chapter 11. Milk Fat: stability, separation and technological transformation
Gianluigi Scolari

11.1. Introduction

11.1.1. Composition and physical state of milk fat

11.1.2. Melting point of milk fat

11.2. Physical instability of milk fat

11.3. Milk fat separation

11.3.1. Flocculation or natural creaming

11.3.2. Milk fat separation by centrifugation

11. 4. Partial Coalescence

11.4.1 general aspects

11. 4.2. Barrier against coalescence Low molecular mass surfactants Large sized surfactants ( casein micelle) Polymeric surfactants (proteins and polysaccharides) Mixed films

11. 5. Foam in milk and cream

11.5.1.General aspects Foam formation without surfactants Foam formation with surfactants Drainage of dispersion liquid in foam

11.5.2. Foam from cream containing more than 30% milk fat

11.6. Whipped cream and butter

11.6.1. Technological factors affecting whipped cram and butter production

11.7. Churning process

11.7.1. Type of cream

11.7.2. Physical (crystallization) and biological maturation of cream before churning 

11.7.3. Churning technology

11.7.4. Continuous churning

11.7.5. Moulding and packaging

11.8. Conclusions

Chapter 12. Technological traits of lactic acid bacteria: industrial relevance and perspectives
Diego Mora, Fabio Dal Bello, Stefania Arioli

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Selecting fermenting bacteria for their ability to have a respiratory metabolism

12.3. Selecting galactose-positive yogurt cultures: working “against the natural evolution of the species”

12.4. Accelerating the milk acidification process by selecting proteinase-positive strains

12.5. Accelerating the milk acidification process by selecting urease-negative S. thermophilus strains

12.6. Protective cultures for dairy applications: “work but please do not grow and not modify the sensory profile of the product”

12.7. Selection of starter culture free of transferable antibiotic-resistance mechanisms

12.8. Conclusions

Chapter 13. Lactic acid bacteria bacteriophages in dairy products: problems and solutions
Giorgio Giraffa, Miriam Zago, Domenico Carminati

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Phage classification

13.3. Phage-host interactions

13.4. Sources of contamination

13.4.1. Milk and cheese whey

13.4.2. Dairy cultures The lysogenic state

13.5. Phage detection and quantification

13.6. Methods to control phage contamination

13.6.1. Phage inactivation by physical treatments

13.6.2. Phage inactivation by chemical treatments

13.6.3. Phage control by biological approaches

13.7. Concluding remarks

Chapter 14. Lactic Acid Bacteria: a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules in dairy products
Tiziana Salvetti, Stefano Morandi, Milena Brasca

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Vitamins

14.2.1. Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin

14.2.2. Vitamin B9 or Folate

14.2.3. Vitamin B12 or cobalamin

14.2.4. Vitamin K: menaquinone

14.2.5. Other B-group vitamins

14.3. Minerals

14.4. Bioactive compounds

14.4.1. Antihypertensive peptides

14.4.2. Antioxidative peptides

14.4.3. Bioactive amines

14.4.4. Immune system affecting peptides

14.4.5. Opioid peptides

14.4.6. Metal-binding peptides

14.4.7. Conjugated linoleic acid and conjugated linolenic acid

14.5. Low-calories sweeteners

14.6. Exopolysaccharides (EPS)

14.7. Conclusions

Chapter 15. Dairy technology in yogurt production
Panagiotis Sfakianakis, Constantina Tzia

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Yogurt Types

15.3. Yogurt Manufacturing Process

15.3.1. Initial treatment of milk

15.3.2. Standardization of Milk Components—Fat and SNF (Solid Non-Fat) Content

15.3.3 Homogenization

15.3.4. Heat Treatment

15.3.5. Fermentation process Monitoring of fermentation process – Prediction of fermentation evolution

15.3.6.  Post fermentation processing Cooling- Addition of additives Addition of fruit Packaging

15.3.7. Quality control of yogurt production

15.4. Conclusions

Chapter 16. Milk protein composition and sequence differences in milk and fermented dairy products affecting digestion and tolerance to dairy products.
Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Marzia Giribaldi, Laura Cavallarin, Palmiro Poltronieri

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Caseins

16.2.1. Gene polymorphisms in κ-casein genes

16.2.2. Gene polymorphisms in β-casein gene

16.3. Proteolytic release of bioactive peptides in fermented milk and cheese

16.4. Minor milk proteins

16.4.1. Lactoferrin

16.4.2. β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG)

16.4.3. α-lactalbumin (α-LA)

16.5. Proteins with bioactive roles

16.6. MFGM associated proteins

16.7. Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA)

16.8. Conclusions


















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Author Information

Palmiro Poltronieri, PhD, is a Researcher at the Institute of the Sciences of Food Productions (CNR-ISPA), National Research Council of Italy. He obtained his Ph.D. in Cellular and Molecular Biology and Pathology in 1995 at the Institute of Chemical Biology, Medical Faculty of Verona University. Working in the Microbiology laboratory since 1999, he has established collaboration with the principal laboratories working in the field of food microbiology.

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