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Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering: Decision Making, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer

ISBN: 978-1-119-11974-6
250 pages
July 2016
Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering: Decision Making, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer (111911974X) cover image

Description

Using a case study approach, this reference tests the reader’s ability to apply engineering fundamentals to real-world examples and receive constructive feedback

Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering provides real life examples of the application of engineering fundamentals.  They relate to real equipment, real people and real decisions.  They influence careers, projects, companies, and governments.  The cases serve as supplements to fundamental courses in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, instrumentation, economics, and statistics.  The author explains equipment and concepts to solve the problems and suggests relevant assignments to augment the cases.

Graduate engineers seeking to refresh their career, or acquire continuing education will find the studies challenging and rewarding.  Each case is designed to be accomplished in one week, earning up to 15 hours of continuing education credit.  Each case study provides methods to present an argument, work with clients, recommend action and develop new business. 

Key features:

  • Highlights the economic consequences of engineering designs and decisions.
  • Encourages problem solving skills.
  • Application of fundamentals to life experiences.
  • Ability to practice with real life examples.

Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering is a valuable reference for mechanical engineering practitioners working in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer and related areas.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xiii

Preface xiv

Introduction xvi

Case 1 Steam Turbine Performance Degradation 1

1.1 Steam Turbine Types 2

1.1.1 Steam Turbine Components 5

1.1.2 Startup and Operation 7

1.1.3 Performance Monitoring and Analysis 10

1.1.4 Analyzing Performance Data – Corrected Pressures 10

1.1.5 Analyzing Performance Data – Flow Function 12

1.2 Refresher 14

1.2.1 Steam Turbine Efficiency 14

1.2.2 Example 14

1.3 Case Study Details 15

1.3.1 Performance Trend 15

1.3.2 IP Turbine Enthalpy Drop 16

1.4 Case Study Findings 17

1.5 Decision Making and Actions 18

1.5.1 Value 18

1.5.2 Decision Making and Actions – Alternatives 19

1.5.3 Decision Making and Actions – Making a Plan 20

1.6 Closure 20

1.7 Symbols and Abbreviations 21

1.8 Answer Key 21

References 24

Case 2 Risk / Reward Evaluation 26

2.1 Case Study 28

2.2 Background 29

2.2.1 Types of Gas Turbine Generating Plants 29

2.3 Gas Turbine Operating Risks 33

2.3.1 Gas Turbine Major Maintenance 35

2.3.2 Equivalent Fired Hours 36

2.3.3 Failure Costs 37

2.3.4 Reading Assignment 37

2.4 Case Study Evaluations 38

2.4.1 Review 38

2.4.2 Presenting Results 39

2.4.3 Judgment Calls 40

2.4.4 Exercise 40

2.4.5 Sensitivities 41

2.4.6 Exercise – Sensitivities 41

2.4.7 Presentation of Results 41

2.5 Case Study Results 42

2.6 Closure 42

2.7 Answer Key 43

Reference 45

Case 3 Gas Turbine Compressor Fouling 46

3.1 Background 47

3.1.1 Gas Turbine Types 47

3.1.2 Gas Compressor Fouling and Cleaning 49

3.1.3 Exercise 1 50

3.1.4 Inlet Filtration 50

3.1.5 Gas Turbine Performance Measurement 52

3.2 Case Study Details 53

3.2.1 Derivative of the Cost Function 54

3.2.2 Exercise 2 55

3.2.3 Linear Programming 56

3.2.4 New Methods – New Thinking 56

3.2.5 Exercise 3: Gas Turbine Inlet Filtration Upgrade 57

3.2.6 Presenting Results 57

3.3 Case Study Results / Closure 58

3.4 Symbols and Abbreviations 60

3.5 Answer Key 60

References 63

Case 4 Flow Instrument Degradation, Use and Placement 64

4.1 Background 65

4.1.1 Nuclear Steam Power Cycles 65

4.1.2 Core Power-Level Measurement 67

4.1.3 Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices 67

4.1.4 Two-Phase Piping Pressure Drop 71

4.1.5 Uncertainty 71

4.2 Case Study Details 72

4.3 Exercises 73

4.3.1 Uncertainty 74

4.3.2 Conclusions 76

4.4 Closure 76

4.5 Symbols and Abbreviations 76

4.6 Answer Key 77

4.7 Further Reading 79

References 79

Case 5 Two-Phase Hydraulics 80

5.1 Background 81

5.1.1 Reading Assignment 83

5.1.2 Müller-Steinhagen and Heck 83

5.1.3 Void Fraction 84

5.1.4 Pumping Net Positive Suction Head Required 86

5.1.5 Projects 86

5.2 Case Study Details 89

5.3 Exercises 90

5.3.1 Liquid Flow to Reboiler 90

5.3.2 Two-Phase Flow from Reboiler 90

5.3.3 Pump Suction 91

5.3.4 Discuss 92

5.4 Closure 92

5.5 Symbols and Abbreviations 92

5.6 Answer Key 93

References 94

Case 6 Reliability and Availability 95

6.1 Background 96

6.1.1 Models 97

6.1.2 Availability: Planned and Unplanned Outages – Parallel Systems 100

6.1.3 Series and Parallel Processes 102

6.1.4 Stochastic Models 103

6.1.5 Reading 104

6.1.6 Applicability 104

6.2 Case Study Details 105

6.2.1 Initial Block Flow Diagram 105

6.2.2 Business Structure 106

6.2.3 Modified Block Flow Diagram 108

6.2.4 Other Considerations 108

6.2.5 Exercises 109

6.3 Closure 110

6.4 Symbols and Abbreviations 110

6.5 Answer Key 111

Reference 113

Case 7 Efficiency and Air Emissions 114

7.1 Background 115

7.1.1 Cogeneration or CHP 115

7.1.2 Environmental Considerations 116

7.1.3 Efficiency 118

7.2 Case Study Details 119

7.2.1 General 119

7.2.2 Proposed CHP Plant 120

7.2.3 Steam Boilers 121

7.2.4 Fuel 121

7.2.5 Gas Turbine 121

7.2.6 Air 123

7.3 Refresher 123

7.3.1 Gas Mixture Molecular Weight 123

7.3.2 Gas Mixture Heating Value 123

7.3.3 Species Weight Fraction 123

7.3.4 Ultimate Analysis 124

7.4 Objective 124

7.5 Exercises 125

7.5.1 Outside Reading 125

7.5.2 Boiler Operation 125

7.5.3 Cogeneration Plant 126

7.5.4 Conclusion 126

7.6 Closure 126

7.7 Symbols and Abbreviations 127

7.8 Answer Key 127

References 130

Case 8 Low-Carbon Power Production 131

8.1 Background 132

8.1.1 Dispatch and Renewable Power Resources 133

8.1.2 Capacity Factor and Availability Factor 134

8.1.3 Fuel Costs (FC in Equation (8.1)) 134

8.1.4 Capital Cost Recovery (CR in Equation (8.1)) 135

8.1.5 Nonfuel Operations and Maintenance (M in Equation (8.1)) 135

8.1.6 Regulation and Government Support 135

8.2 Refresher 136

8.2.1 Short-Run Marginal Cost 136

8.2.2 CO2 Emissions 136

8.2.3 Long-Run Marginal Cost 136

8.3 Case Study Details 136

8.3.1 Reading Assignment 137

8.3.2 Transmission Costs 138

8.3.3 Economic Models 139

8.3.4 Carbon Emissions 139

8.3.5 Understanding the Findings 140

8.3.6 Explaining the Results 141

8.4 Closure 141

8.5 Answer Key 142

References 144

Case 9 Heat Exchangers and Drain Line Sizing 146

9.1 Background 147

9.1.1 Steam Surface Condensers 147

9.1.2 Feedwater Heaters 151

9.1.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 152

9.1.4 Condensing Heat Transfer 153

9.1.5 Forced Convection Inside Tubes 153

9.1.6 Conduction Heat Transfer 153

9.1.7 Off-Design Exchanger Performance 154

9.1.8 Drain Line Sizing 155

9.2 Reading 155

9.3 Case Study Details 156

9.3.1 Flow Diagram and Equipment 156

9.3.2 Design Cases 157

9.3.3 Exercises 159

9.4 Closure 160

9.5 Symbols and Abbreviations 161

9.6 Answer Key 162

9.7 Further Reading 164

References 164

Case 10 Optimized Maintenance 165

10.1 Background 166

10.1.1 Maintenance Practices 166

10.1.2 Economic Model for Maintenance 167

10.1.3 Operating Costs other than Maintenance 168

10.2 Refresher 169

10.2.1 Cost to Generate Power 169

10.2.2 Fixed and Variable Operations and Maintenance (O&M) 169

10.2.3 Cost of Fuel 169

10.2.4 Short ]Run Gross Margin 169

10.3 Presentation Techniques 169

10.3.1 Waterfall Chart 169

10.3.2 Line and Scatter Plots 171

10.4 Reading 171

10.4.1 Questions 171

10.5 Case Study Details 172

10.5.1 Data 172

10.5.2 Exercises 174

10.6 Closure 176

10.7 Symbols and Abbreviations 176

10.8 Answer Key 177

10.9 Further Reading 184

References 185

Case 11 Project Engineering 186

11.1 Opening 186

11.2 Background 187

11.2.1 Mustard 187

11.2.2 Working with Warfare Agents 188

11.2.3 Alternative Technology for HD Decontamination 189

11.3 Project Planning and Definition 189

11.3.1 Project Management 192

11.3.2 Client Requirements 192

11.3.3 Work Breakdown Structure 194

11.3.4 Growing the Team 195

11.3.5 Process Basis of Design 196

11.4 Executing the Project 197

11.4.1 The Process 198

11.4.2 Stakeholder Communication 198

11.4.3 Ton Container Cleanout 199

11.4.4 Demonstration Tests 199

11.4.5 Materials of Construction 200

11.4.6 Unexpected Events 201

11.5 Closure 201

11.6 Answer Key 202

Reference 208

Case 12 In the Woodshop 209

12.1 Background 211

12.1.1 Band Saw 211

12.1.2 Table Saws 211

12.1.3 The Router 213

12.1.4 Safety 214

12.1.5 Measurements 214

12.2 Case Study Details 214

12.2.1 Exercise 215

12.2.2 The Cove 215

12.2.3 Extra Credit 217

12.3 Closure 217

12.4 Glossary 219

12.5 Solutions 219

12.6 Further Reading 220

References 221

Appendix 222

Glossary 225

Index 235

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Author Information

Mr. Sabol is an engineer with broad experience in the power industry, detailed design, and asset management. His accomplishments include writing of computer programs, detailed fluid system designs, engineering designs for the destruction of chemical weapons, resolution of complex engineering problems, engineering project management, and management of power generating assets.  He graduated from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Mechanical Engineering, holds a Professional Engineer’s license in the State of Texas and is a certified Project Management Professional.  His published works relate to the use of modelling programs, maintenance optimization, and woodworking techniques.  Currently residing in Texas, Mr. Sabol provides consulting services.   

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