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Millets and Sorghum: Biology and Genetic Improvement

ISBN: 978-1-119-12305-7
504 pages
March 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Millets and Sorghum: Biology and Genetic Improvement (1119123054) cover image

Description

Millets and sorghum are extremely important crops in many developing nations and because of the ability of many of them to thrive in low-moisture situations they represent some exciting opportunities for further development to address the continuing and increasing impact of global temperature increase on the sustainability of the world’s food crops.

The main focus of this thorough new book is the potential for crop improvement through new and traditional methods, with the book’s main chapters covering the following crops: sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, foxtail milet, proso millet, little millet, barnyard millet, kodo millet, tef and fonio. Further chapters cover pests and diseases, nutritional and industrial importance, novel tools for improvement, and seed systems in millets.

Millets and Sorghum provides full and comprehensive coverage of these crucially important crops, their biology, world status and potential for improvement, and is an essential purchase for crop and plant scientists, and food scientists and technologists throughout the developed and developing world. All libraries in universities and research establishment where biological and agricultural sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this important book on their shelves.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xix

Introduction: Millets – The Miracle Grains xxi
C. Aruna Reddy

1 Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench 1
P. Sanjana Reddy

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Origin and Taxonomy 1

1.3 Germplasm Resources and Utilisation 2

1.4 Genetics and Cytogenetics 4

1.5 Reproductive Biology 5

1.6 Production Constraints 7

1.7 Breeding Objectives 7

1.8 Sorghum Improvement Across Diverse Parts of the World 24

1.9 Future Prospects 32

References 33

2 Pearl Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. 49
P. Sanjana Reddy

2.1 Introduction 49

2.2 Origin and Taxonomy 51

2.3 Genetic Resources 52

2.4 Genetics of Important Traits 55

2.5 Morphology and Reproductive Biology 58

2.6 Selfing and Crossing 59

2.7 Breeding Methods 60

2.8 Cultivar Development 62

2.9 CMS Systems in Pearl Millet 64

2.10 Production Constraints 65

2.11 Grain Quality 73

2.12 Alternate Uses of Pearl Millet 73

2.13 Future Research Thrust Areas 74

References 75

3 Improvement in Finger Millet: Status and Future Prospects 87
K.N. Ganapathy

3.1 Introduction 87

3.2 Area Production and Productivity 87

3.3 Origin and Domestication 88

3.4 Botanical Features and Breeding Behaviour 89

3.5 Emasculation and Pollination Techniques 90

3.6 Genetics of Traits 91

3.7 Gene Pool of Eleusine coracana 93

3.8 Germplasm and Genetic Diversity 94

3.9 Varietal Improvement in India 96

3.10 Varietal Development in Africa 98

3.11 Genetic Improvement for Blast Resistance 100

3.12 Development of Genetic Male Sterility 102

3.13 Mutation Breeding 103

3.14 Strategies to Bridge Research Gaps for Enhancing Productivity and Utilisation of Finger Millet 104

References 107

4 Foxtail Millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. 112
K. Hariprasanna

4.1 Introduction 112

4.2 Origin and Taxonomy 116

4.3 Germplasm Resources and Utilisation 118

4.4 Genetics and Cytogenetics 122

4.5 Reproductive Biology 126

4.6 Breeding Objectives 128

4.7 Breeding Methods 129

4.8 Breeding Efforts in the United States 131

4.9 Breeding Efforts in China 132

4.10 Breeding Efforts in India 133

4.11 New Tools for Genetic Improvement 135

4.12 Future Prospects 140

References 140

5 Proso Millet, Panicum miliaceum (L.): Genetic Improvement and Research Needs 150
Sunil Shriram Gomashe

5.1 Introduction 150

5.2 Origin and Taxonomy 150

5.3 Botany and Reproductive Biology 151

5.4 Growth and Development 153

5.5 Cytogenetics 153

5.6 Genetic Resources and Utilisation 155

5.7 Genetic Improvement of Proso Millet: Achievements and Status 158

5.8 Breeding Objectives and Research Strategies 163

5.9 Future Prospects 166

References 166

6 Genetic Improvement in Little Millet 170
K.N. Ganapathy

6.1 Introduction 170

6.2 Floral Biology 171

6.3 Cytogenetics and Morphological Variation in the Genus 172

6.4 Improvement in Little Millet 173

6.5 Critical Research Gaps 181

6.6 Strategies for Genetic Improvement 181

References

182

7 Barnyard Millet: Present Status and Future Thrust Areas 184
Sunil Shriram Gomashe

7.1 Introduction 184

7.2 Nutritional Composition and Food Value 184

7.3 Origin and Taxonomy 185

7.4 Reproductive Biology 186

7.5 Cytogenetics 188

7.6 Genetic Resources and Utilisation 189

7.7 Breeding Objectives 191

7.8 Future Prospects 196

References 196

8 Kodo Millet, Paspalum scrobiculatum L. 199
K. Hariprasanna

8.1 Introduction 199

8.2 Origin and Taxonomy 201

8.3 Germplasm Resources and Utilisation 204

8.5 Genetics and Cytogenetics 206

8.6 Reproductive Biology 208

8.7 Breeding Objectives 211

8.8 Breeding Methods 212

8.9 New Tools for Genetic Improvement 215

8.10 Future Prospects 219

References 219

9 Tef, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter 226
Kebebew Assefa, Solomon Chanyalew and Zerihun Tadele 9.1 Introduction 226

9.2 Origin and Taxonomy 227

9.3 Genetic Resources and Utilisation 232

9.4 Genetics and Cytogenetics 236

9.5 Reproductive Biology 240

9.6 Constraints in Tef Production 242

9.7 Genetic Improvement of Tef 245

9.8 Crop and Pest Management 256

9.9 Future Prospects 259

References 260

10 Insect Pests of Millets and Their Host Plant Relations 267
A. Kalaisekar and P.G. Padmaja

10.1 Insect Pests 267

10.2 Host-Plant Selection by Insect Pests 277

References 284

11 Millet Diseases: Current Status and Their Management 291
I.K. Das

11.1 Introduction 291

11.2 Sorghum Diseases 291

11.3 Pearl Millet Diseases 305

11.4 Small Millet Diseases 310

References 314

12 Nutritional Qualities & Value Addition of Millets 323
C.V. Ratnavathi

12.1 Introduction 323

12.2 Sorghum 324

12.3 Pearl Millet 326

12.4 Finger Millet 327

12.5 Other Millets 328

12.6 Health Benefits of Millets 336

12.7 Conclusion 337

References 337

13 Molecular Markers for the Genetic Improvement of Millets 341
P. Rajendrakumar

13.1 Introduction 341

13.2 Sorghum 342

13.3 Pearl Millet 354

13.4 Finger Millet 361

13.5 Foxtail Millet 364

13.6 Other Small Millets 369

13.7 Progress of Molecular Marker Research in Millets 372

13.8 Future Prospects 373

References 374

14 Strategies to Build Sustainable Millet Seed Systems 395
Vilas A. Tonapi and Ch. Ravinder Reddy

14.1 Introduction 395

14.2 Factors Leading to Sustainable Seed Security 397

14.3 Developing a Community-Based Millet Seed System 409

14.4 The Alternative Integrated Seed-System Model 415

14.5 Need for a Policy Framework to Build a Viable Local Seed System 421

14.6 Conclusion 428

References 429

Index 431

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