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Aspen Plus: Chemical Engineering Applications

ISBN: 978-1-119-13123-6
640 pages
October 2016
Aspen Plus: Chemical Engineering Applications (1119131235) cover image

Description

  • Facilitates the process of learning and later mastering Aspen Plus® with step by step examples and succinct explanations
  • Step-by-step textbook for identifying solutions to various process engineering problems via screenshots of the Aspen Plus® platforms in parallel with the related text
  • Includes end-of-chapter problems and term project problems
  • Includes online exam and quiz problems for instructors that are parametrized (i.e., adjustable) so that each student will have a standalone version
  • Includes extra online material for students such as Aspen Plus®-related files that are used in the working tutorials throughout the entire textbook
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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

The Book Theme xix

About the Author xxi

What Do You Get Out of This Book? xxiii

Who Should Read This Book? xxv

Notes for Instructors xxvii

Acknowledgment xxix

About the Companion Website xxxi

1 Introducing Aspen Plus 1

1.1 What Does Aspen Stand For?, 1

1.2 What is Aspen Plus Process Simulation Model?, 2

1.3 Launching Aspen Plus V8.8, 3

1.4 Beginning a Simulation, 4

1.5 Entering Components, 14

1.6 Specifying the Property Method, 15

1.7 Improvement of the Property Method Accuracy, 23

1.8 File Saving, 38

Exercise 1.1, 40

1.9 A Good Flowsheeting Practice, 40

1.10 Aspen Plus Built-In Help, 40

1.11 For More Information, 40

2 More on Aspen Plus Flowsheet Features (1) 49

2.1 Problem Description, 49

2.2 Entering and Naming Compounds, 49

2.3 Binary Interactions, 51

2.4 The “Simulation” Environment: Activation Dashboard, 53

2.5 Placing a Block and Material Stream from Model Palette, 53

2.6 Block and Stream Manipulation, 54

2.7 Data Input, Project Title, and Report Options, 56

2.8 Running the Simulation, 58

2.9 The Difference Among Recommended Property Methods, 61

2.10 NIST/TDE Experimental Data, 62

3 More on Aspen Plus Flowsheet Features (2) 71

3.1 Problem Description: Continuation to the Problem in Chapter 2, 71

3.2 The Clean Parameters Step, 71

3.3 Simulation Results Convergence, 74

3.4 Adding Stream Table, 76

3.5 Property Sets, 78

3.6 Adding Stream Conditions, 82

3.7 Printing from Aspen Plus, 83

3.8 Viewing the Input Summary, 84

3.9 Report Generation, 85

3.10 Stream Properties, 87

3.11 Adding a Flash Separation Unit, 88

3.12 The Required Input for “Flash3”-Type Separator, 90

3.13 Running the Simulation and Checking the Results, 91

4 Flash Separation and Distillation Columns 99

4.1 Problem Description, 99

4.2 Adding a Second Mixer and Flash, 99

4.3 Design Specifications Study, 101

Exercise 4.1 (Design Spec), 105

4.4 Aspen Plus Distillation Column Options, 106

4.5 “DSTWU” Distillation Column, 107

4.6 “Distl” Distillation Column, 111

4.7 “RadFrac” Distillation Column, 113

5 Liquid–Liquid Extraction Process 131

5.1 Problem Description, 131

5.2 The Proper Selection for Property Method for Extraction Processes, 131

5.3 Defining New Property Sets, 136

5.4 The Property Method Validation Versus Experimental Data Using Sensitivity Analysis, 136

5.5 A Multistage Extraction Column, 142

5.6 The Triangle Diagram, 146

References, 149

6 Reactors with Simple Reaction Kinetic Forms 155

6.1 Problem Description, 155

6.2 Defining Reaction Rate Constant to Aspen Plus® Environment, 155

6.3 Entering Components and Method of Property, 157

6.4 The Rigorous Plug-Flow Reactor (RPLUG), 159

6.5 Reactor and Reaction Specifications for RPLUG (PFR), 161

6.6 Running the Simulation (PFR Only), 167

Exercise 6.1, 167

6.7 Compressor (CMPRSSR) and RadFrac Rectifying Column (RECTIF), 168

6.8 Running the Simulation (PFR + CMPRSSR + RECTIF), 171

Exercise 6.2, 172

6.9 RadFrac Distillation Column (DSTL), 172

6.10 Running the Simulation (PFR + CMPRSSR + RECTIF + DSTL), 174

6.11 Reactor and Reaction Specifications for RCSTR, 175

6.12 Running the Simulation (PFR + CMPRSSR + RECTIF + DSTL + RCSTR), 179

Exercise 6.3, 180

6.13 Sensitivity Analysis: The Reactor’s Optimum Operating Conditions, 181

References, 188

7 Reactors with Complex (Non-Conventional) Reaction Kinetic Forms 197

7.1 Problem Description, 197

7.2 Non-Conventional Kinetics: LHHW Type Reaction, 199

7.3 General Expressions for Specifying LHHW Type Reaction in Aspen Plus, 200

7.3.1 The “Driving Force” for the Non-Reversible (Irreversible) Case, 201

7.3.2 The “Driving Force” for the Reversible Case, 201

7.3.3 The “Adsorption Expression”, 202

7.4 The Property Method: “SRK”, 202

7.5 Rplug Flowsheet for Methanol Production, 203

7.6 Entering Input Parameters, 203

7.7 Defining Methanol Production Reactions as LHHW Type, 205

7.8 Sensitivity Analysis: Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Selectivity, 216

References, 219

8 Pressure Drop, Friction Factor, ANPSH, and Cavitation 229

8.1 Problem Description, 229

8.2 The Property Method: “STEAMNBS”, 229

8.3 A Water Pumping Flowsheet, 230

8.4 Entering Pipe, Pump, and Fittings Specifications, 231

8.5 Results: Frictional Pressure Drop, the Pump Work, Valve Choking, and ANPSH Versus RNPSH, 237

Exercise 8.1, 238

8.6 Model Analysis Tools: Sensitivity for the Onset of Cavitation or Valve Choking Condition, 242

References, 247

9 The Optimization Tool 251

9.1 Problem Description: Defining the Objective Function, 251

9.2 The Property Method: “STEAMNBS”, 252

9.3 A Flowsheet for Water Transport, 253

9.4 Entering Stream, Pump, and Pipe Specifications, 253

9.5 Model Analysis Tools: The Optimization Tool, 256

9.6 Model Analysis Tools: The Sensitivity Tool, 260

9.7 Last Comments, 263

References, 264

10 Heat Exchanger (H.E.) Design 269

10.1 Problem Description, 269

10.2 Types of Heat Exchanger Models in Aspen Plus, 270

10.3 The Simple Heat Exchanger Model (“Heater”), 272

10.4 The Rigorous Heat Exchanger Model (“HeatX”), 274

10.5 The Rigorous Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR) Procedure, 279

10.5.1 The EDR Exchanger Feasibility Panel, 279

10.5.2 The Rigorous Mode Within the “HeatX” Block, 294

10.6 General Footnotes on EDR Exchanger, 294

References, 297

11 Electrolytes 301

11.1 Problem Description: Water De-Souring, 301

11.2 What Is an Electrolyte?, 301

11.3 The Property Method for Electrolytes, 302

11.4 The Electrolyte Wizard, 302

11.5 Water De-Souring Process Flowsheet, 310

11.6 Entering the Specifications of Feed Streams and the Stripper, 311

References, 315

12 Polymerization Processes 325

12.1 The Theoretical Background, 325

12.1.1 Polymerization Reactions, 325

12.1.2 Catalyst Types, 326

12.1.3 Ethylene Process Types, 327

12.1.4 Reaction Kinetic Scheme, 327

12.1.5 Reaction Steps, 327

12.1.6 Catalyst States, 328

12.2 High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) High-Temperature Solution Process, 329

12.2.1 Problem Definition, 330

12.2.2 Process Conditions, 330

12.3 Creating Aspen Plus Flowsheet for HDPE, 331

12.4 Improving Convergence, 338

12.5 Presenting the Property Distribution of Polymer, 339

References, 343

13 Characterization of Drug-Like Molecules Using Aspen Properties 361

13.1 Introduction, 361

13.2 Problem Description, 362

13.3 Creating Aspen Plus Pharmaceutical Template, 363

13.3.1 Entering the User-Defined Benzamide (BNZMD-UD) as Conventional, 363

13.3.2 Specifying Properties to Estimate, 364

13.4 Defining Molecular Structure of BNZMD-UD, 364

13.5 Entering Property Data, 370

13.6 Contrasting Aspen Plus Databank (BNZMD-DB) Versus BNZMD-UD, 373

References, 375

14 Solids Handling 379

14.1 Introduction, 379

14.2 Problem Description #1: The Crusher, 379

14.3 Creating Aspen Plus Flowsheet, 380

14.3.1 Entering Components Information, 380

14.3.2 Adding the Flowsheet Objects, 381

14.3.3 Defining the Particle Size Distribution (PSD), 382

14.3.4 Calculation of the Outlet PSD, 385

Exercise 14.1 (Determine Crusher Outlet PSD from Comminution Power), 386

Exercise 14.2 (Specifying Crusher Outlet PSD), 386

14.4 Problem Description #2: The Fluidized Bed for Alumina Dehydration, 387

14.5 Creating Aspen Plus Flowsheet, 387

14.5.1 Entering Components Information, 387

14.5.2 Adding the Flowsheet Objects, 388

14.5.3 Entering Input Data, 389

14.5.4 Results, 391

Exercise 14.3 (Reconverging the Solution for an Input Change), 392

References, 393

15 Aspen Plus® Dynamics 409

15.1 Introduction, 409

15.2 Problem Description, 410

15.3 Preparing Aspen Plus Simulation for Aspen Plus Dynamics (APD), 411

15.4 Conversion of Aspen Plus Steady-State into Dynamic Simulation, 416

15.4.1 Modes of Dynamic CSTR Heat Transfer, 417

15.4.2 Creating Pressure-Driven Dynamic Files for APD, 422

15.5 Opening a Dynamic File Using APD, 423

15.6 The “Simulation Messages” Window, 424

15.7 The Running Mode: Initialization, 425

15.8 Adding Temperature Control (TC) Unit, 426

15.9 Snapshots Management for Captured Successful Old Runs, 430

15.10 The Controller Faceplate, 431

15.11 Communication Time for Updating/Presenting Results, 434

15.12 The Closed-Loop Auto-Tune Variation (ATV) Test Versus Open-Loop Tune-Up Test, 434

15.13 The Open-Loop (Manual Mode) Tune-Up for Liquid Level Controller, 436

15.14 The Closed-Loop Dynamic Response for Liquid Level Load Disturbance, 443

15.15 The Closed-Loop Dynamic Response for Liquid Level Set-Point Disturbance, 448

15.16 Accounting for Dead/Lag Time in Process Dynamics, 450

15.17 The Closed-Loop (Auto Mode) ATV Test for Temperature Controller (TC), 451

15.18 The Closed-Loop Dynamic Response: “TC” Response to Temperature Load Disturbance, 459

15.19 Interactions Between “LC” and “TC” Control Unit, 462

15.20 The Stability of a Process Without Control, 464

15.21 The Cascade Control, 466

15.22 Monitoring of Variables as Functions of Time, 468

15.23 Final Notes on the Virtual (DRY) Process Control in APD, 472

References, 478

16 Safety and Energy Aspects of Chemical Processes 487

16.1 Introduction, 487

16.2 Problem Description, 487

16.3 The “Safety Analysis” Environment, 488

16.4 Adding a Pressure Safety Valve (PSV), 490

16.5 Adding a Rupture Disk (RD), 496

16.6 Presentation of Safety-Related Documents, 500

16.7 Preparation of Flowsheet for “Energy Analysis” Environment, 501

16.8 The “Energy Analysis” Activation, 506

16.9 The “Energy Analysis” Environment, 510

16.10 The Aspen Energy Analyzer, 512

17 Aspen Process Economic Analyzer (APEA) 523

17.1 Optimized Process Flowsheet for Acetic Anhydride Production, 523

17.2 Costing Options in Aspen Plus, 525

17.2.1 Aspen Process Economic Analyzer (APEA) Estimation Template, 525

17.2.2 Feed and Product Stream Prices, 527

17.2.3 Utility Association with a Flowsheet Block, 528

17.3 The First Route for Chemical Process Costing, 531

17.4 The Second Round for Chemical Process Costing, 532

17.4.1 Project Properties, 533

17.4.2 Loading Simulator Data, 535

17.4.3 Mapping and Sizing, 537

17.4.4 Project Evaluation, 544

17.4.5 Fixing Geometrical Design-Related Errors, 546

17.4.6 Executive Summary, 549

17.4.7 Capital Costs Report, 550

17.4.8 Investment Analysis, 551

18 Term Projects (TP) 565

18.1 TP #1: Production of Acetone via the Dehydration of Isopropanol, 565

18.2 TP #2: Production of Formaldehyde from Methanol (Sensitivity Analysis), 569

18.3 TP #3: Production of Dimethyl Ether (Process Economics and Control), 570

18.3.1 Economic Analysis, 570

18.3.2 Process Dynamics and Control, 572

18.4 TP #4: Production of Acetic Acid via Partial Oxidation of Ethylene Gas, 574

18.5 TP #5: Pyrolysis of Benzene, 575

18.6 TP #6: Reuse of Spent Solvents, 575

18.7 TP #7: Solids Handling: Production of Potassium Sulfate from Sodium Sulfate, 576

18.8 TP #8: Solids Handling: Production of CaCO3-Based Agglomerate as a General Additive, 577

18.9 TP #9: Solids Handling: Formulation of Di-Ammonium Phosphate and Potassium Nitrate Blend Fertilizer, 577

18.10 TP #10: “Flowsheeting Options” | “Calculator”: Gas De-Souring and Sweetening Process, 578

18.11 TP #11: Using More than One Property Method and Stream Class: Solid Catalyzed Direct Hydration of Propylene to Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA), 582

18.12 TP #12: Polymerization: Production of Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAC), 586

18.13 TP #13: Polymerization: Emulsion Copolymerization of Styrene and Butadiene to Produce SBR, 588

18.14 TP #14: Polymerization: Free Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate to Produce Poly(Methyl Methacrylate), 590

18.15 TP #15: LHHW Kinetics: Production of Cyclohexanone-Oxime (CYCHXOXM) via Cyclohexanone Ammoximation Using Clay-Based Titanium Silicalite (TS) Catalyst, 592

Index 595

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Author Information

Kamal Al-Malah, is professor of chemical engineering at Higher Colleges of Technology, United Arab Emirates and former chairman of the chemical engineering department at the University of Hail in Saudi Arabia. He holds B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical/biochemical engineering. Dr. Al-Malah graduated from Oregon State University in 1993 and his area of specialty deals with mathematical modeling, optimization, simulation, and computer-aided design. Professor Al-Malah is Windows-based software developer and MATLAB® book author
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