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Urban Water Security

ISBN: 978-1-119-13172-4
320 pages
November 2016
Urban Water Security (1119131723) cover image

Description

In the 21st Century, the world will see an unprecedented migration of people moving from rural to urban areas. With global demand for water projected to outstrip supply in the coming decades, cities will likely face water insecurity as a result of climate change and the various impacts of urbanisation. Traditionally, urban water managers have relied on large-scale, supply-side infrastructural projects to meet increased demands for water; however, these projects are environmentally, economically and politically costly. Urban Water Security argues that cities need to transition from supply-side to demand-side management to achieve urban water security. This book provides readers with a series of in-depth case studies of leading developed cities, of differing climates, incomes and lifestyles from around the world, that have used demand management tools to modify the attitudes and behaviour of water users in an attempt to achieve urban water security.

Urban Water Security will be of particular interest to town and regional planners, water conservation managers and policymakers, international companies and organisations with large water footprints, environmental and water NGOs, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students.

Robert C. Brears is the founder of Mitidaption, Mark and Focus, is Director on the International Board of the Indo Global Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Agriculture, and a Visiting Fellow (non-resident) at the Center for Conflict Studies at MIIS, Monterey, USA.

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Table of Contents

Series Editor Foreword – Challenges in Water Management xvii

Acknowledgements xix

Introduction 1

1 Water 101 5

Introduction 5

1.1 What is water? 5

1.2 Hydrological cycle 6

1.3 Natural variations to water quantity 11

1.4 Natural variations to water quality 14

1.5 Impacts of urbanisation on water resources 17

1.6 Water and wastewater treatment processes 20

Notes 22

2 What is urban water security? 25

Introduction 25

2.1 Non ]climatic challenges to achieving urban water security 26

2.2 Climatic challenges to achieving urban water security 30

2.3 Reducing non ]climatic and climatic risks to urban water security 32

Notes 34

3 Managing water sustainably to achieve urban water security 37

Introduction 37

3.1 What is sustainability? 37

3.2 What does sustainability mean in urban water management? 42

3.3 Sustainable water resources management frameworks 45

3.4 Framework for managing urban water sustainably: Integrated urban water management 49

3.5 Other frameworks for managing urban water sustainably 52

Notes 53

4 Demand management to achieve urban water security 60

Introduction 60

4.1 Purpose of demand management 60

4.2 Regulatory and technological demand management instruments 62

4.3 Communication and information demand management instruments 75

4.4. Portfolio of demand management tools 78

Notes 79

5 Transitions 86

Introduction 86

5.1 What is a transition? 86

5.2 Operationalisation of transitions 91

5.3 Diffusion mechanisms 93

5.4 Transition management 95

Notes 97

6 Transitions towards managing natural resources and water 105

Introduction 105

6.1 Transitions in natural resource management 106

6.2 What is a transition in urban water management? 109

6.3 Operationalising transitions in third ]order scarcity 112

6.4 Barriers to transitions towards urban water security 115

Notes 121

7 Amsterdam transitioning towards urban water security 136

Introduction 136

7.1 Brief company background 136

7.2 Water supply and water consumption 137

7.3 Strategic vision: Amsterdam’s Definitely Sustainable 2011–2014 138

7.4 Drivers of water security 138

7.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 141

7.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 144

7.7 Case study SWOT analysis 146

7.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 149

Notes 150

8 Berlin transitioning towards urban water security 151

Introduction 151

8.1 Brief company background 151

8.2 Water supply and water consumption 152

8.3 Strategic vision: Using water wisely 153

8.4 Drivers of water security 153

8.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 155

8.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 159

8.7 Case study SWOT analysis 160

8.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 163

Notes 164

9 Copenhagen transitioning towards urban water security 165

Introduction 165

9.1 Brief company background 165

9.2 Water supply and water consumption 166

9.3 Strategic vision: Water supply plan (2012–2016) 166

9.4 Drivers of water security 167

9.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 169

9.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 174

9.7 Case study SWOT analysis 175

9.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 178

Notes 179

10 Denver transitioning towards urban water security 180

Introduction 180

10.1 Brief company background 180

10.2 Water supply and water consumption 181

10.3 Strategic vision: Denver Water’s 22 percent water target 183

10.4 Drivers of water security 183

10.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 185

10.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 191

10.7 Case study SWOT analysis 194

10.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 196

Notes 198

11 Hamburg transitioning towards urban water security 199

Introduction 199

11.1 Brief company background 199

11.2 Water supply and water consumption 200

11.3 Strategic vision: The HAMBURG WATER Cycle 200

11.4 Drivers of water security 200

11.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 202

11.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 206

11.7 Case study SWOT analysis 207

11.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 210

Note 210

12 London transitioning towards urban water security 211

Introduction 211

12.1 Brief company background 211

12.2 Water supply and water consumption 212

12.3 Strategic vision: Reducing consumption 212

12.4 Drivers of water security 212

12.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 213

12.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 216

12.7 Case study SWOT analysis 220

12.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 224

Notes 224

13 Singapore transitioning towards urban water security 225

Introduction 225

13.1 Brief company background 225

13.2 Water supply and water consumption 226

13.3 Strategic vision: Balancing supply with rising demand 227

13.4 Drivers of water security 227

13.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 229

13.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 235

13.7 Case study SWOT analysis 237

13.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 241

Notes 241

14 Toronto transitioning towards urban water security 242

Introduction 242

14.1 Brief company background 242

14.2 Water supply and water consumption 243

14.3 Strategic vision: Toronto’s Water Efficiency Plan 244

14.4 Drivers of water security 244

14.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 245

14.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 250

14.7 Case study SWOT analysis 252

14.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 256

Notes 256

15 Vancouver transitioning towards urban water security 257

Introduction 257

15.1 Brief company background 257

15.2 Water supply and water consumption 258

15.3 Strategic vision: Clean water and lower consumption 259

15.4 Drivers of water security 260

15.5 Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security 261

15.6 Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security 266

15.7 Case study SWOT analysis 267

15.8 Transitioning towards urban water security summary 271

Notes 271

16 Sharing the journey: Best practices and lessons learnt 272

Introduction 272

16.1 Best practices 272

16.2 Lessons learnt 276

16.3 Moving forwards 280

Conclusions 284

Index 292

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