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Olives and Olive Oil as Functional Foods: Bioactivity, Chemistry and Processing

ISBN: 978-1-119-13531-9
688 pages
August 2017
Olives and Olive Oil as Functional Foods: Bioactivity, Chemistry and Processing (1119135311) cover image

Description

The only single-source reference on the science of olives and olive oil nutrition and health benefits

Olives and Olive Oil as Functional Foods is the first comprehensive reference on the science of olives and olive oil. While the main focus of the book is on the fruit’s renowned health-sustaining properties, it also provides an in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics of vital concern to producers and researchers, including post-harvest handling, packaging, analysis, sensory evaluation, authentication, waste product utilization, global markets, and much more.

People have been cultivating olives for more than six millennia, and olives and olive oil have been celebrated in songs and legends for their life-sustaining properties since antiquity. However, it is only within the last several decades that the unique health benefits of their consumption have become the focus of concerted scientific studies. It is now known that olives and olive oil contain an abundance of phenolic antioxidants, as well as the anti-cancer compounds such as squalene and terpenoids. This centerpiece of the Mediterranean diet has been linked to a greatly reduced risk of heart disease and lowered cancer risk. Bringing together contributions from some of the world’s foremost experts on the subject, this book:  

  • Addresses the importance of olives and olive oil for the agricultural economy and the relevance of its bioactive components to human health
  • Explores the role that olive oil plays in reducing oxidative stress in cells-a well-known risk factor in human health
  • Provides important information about new findings on olive oil and lipids which reviews the latest research
  • Explores topics of interest to producers, processors, and researchers, including the fruit’s chemical composition, processing considerations, quality control, safety, traceability, and more 

Edited by two scientists world-renowned for their pioneering work on olive oil and human health, this book is an indispensable source of timely information and practical insights for agricultural and food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians, physicians, and all those with a professional interest in food, nutrition, and health.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xix

1 Olive tree history and evolution 1
Giorgos Kostelenos and Apostolos Kiritsakis

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The olive culture in the Mediterranean region 1

1.3 Evolution of the olive tree from a botanical point of view 3

1.4 A different approach 6

1.5 Conclusion 10

References 11

2 Botanical characteristics of olive trees: cultivation and growth conditions – defense mechanisms to various stressors and effects on olive growth and functional compounds 13
Eleni Tsantili, Evangelos Evangelou, and Apostolos Kiritsakis

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Botanical characteristics 15

2.3 Cultivation and growth conditions 18

2.4 Defense mechanisms against various stresses 22

2.5 Factors affecting olive growth and functional compounds 24

2.6 Conclusion 27

References 27

3 Conventional and organic cultivation and their effect on the functional composition of olive oil 35
Nikolaos Volakakis, Emmanouil Kabourakis, and Carlo Leifert

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Productivity 36

3.3 Environmental impact 36

3.4 Pesticide residues 37

3.5 Oil composition and quality 37

3.6 Conclusion 40

References 40

4 The influence of growing region and cultivar on olives and olive oil characteristics and on their functional constituents 45
Joan Tous

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 Overview of olive orchards in some world crop areas 45

4.3 Global olive oil cultivars 53

4.4 Olive oil composition affected by genetic and environmental factors 69

4.5 Conclusion 76

Acknowledgments 76

References 76

5 Olive fruit and olive oil composition and their functional compounds 81
Fatima Paiva-Martins and Apostolos Kiritsakis

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 The olive fruit 81

5.3 Description of olive fruit and olive oil constituents 82

5.4 Olive oil 83

5.5 Pigments 88

5.6 Phenols 89

5.7 Hydrocarbons 97

5.8 Triterpenoids 98

5.9 Tocopherols 99

5.10 Aliphatic alcohols and waxes 100

5.11 Sterols 100

5.12 Flavor compounds 103

5.13 Conclusion 104

Acknowledgments 105

References 105

6 Mechanical harvesting of olives 117
Sergio Castro-Garcia and Louise Ferguson

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Fruit removal from the tree 117

6.3 Collection, cleaning, and transport of fallen fruits 120

6.4 Continuous harvesters 123

6.5 Effects on oil and fruit quality 124

6.6 Conclusion 124

References 124

7 Olive fruit harvest and processing and their effects on oil functional compounds 127
Apostolos Kiritsakis and Nick Sakellaropoulos

7.1 Introduction 127

7.2 Harvest time 127

7.3 Harvest techniques 129

7.4 Olive storage and transportation to the olive oil mill 130

7.5 Processing steps 131

7.6 Pressure process 136

7.7 Centrifugation process 137

7.8 Selective filtration (Sinolea) process 138

7.9 Processing systems 139

7.10 Olive fruit processing by-products and their significance 140

7.11 The effect of enzymes in olive fruit processing and oil composition 141

7.12 Effect of processing systems on olive oil quality and functional properties 141

7.13 Conclusion 142

References 142

8 Application of HACCP and traceability in olive oil mills and packaging units and their effect on quality and functionality 147
Athanasia M. Goula, Konstantinos Kiritsakis, and Apostolos Kiritsakis

8.1 Introduction 147

8.2 The basic HACCP benefits and rules 147

8.3 Description and analysis of the HACCP program in the olive oil mill 149

8.4 Application of the HACCP program in the packaging unit 159

8.5 The context of traceability 162

8.6 Traceability of olive oil 163

8.7 Legislation for olive oil traceability 164

8.8 Compositional markers of traceability 166

8.9 DNA-based markers of traceability 169

8.10 Sensory profile markers of traceability 170

8.11 Conclusion 171

References 172

9 Integrated olive mill waste (OMW) processing toward complete by-product recovery of functional components 177
Athanasia M. Goula and Dimitrios Gerasopoulos

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 Characterization of olive mill waste 179

9.3 Current technologies for olive mill waste treatment 184

9.4 Recovery of functional components from olive mill waste 187

9.5 Integral recovery and revalorization of olive mill waste 194

9.6 Conclusion 197

References 197

10 Olive oil quality and its relation to the functional bioactives and their properties 205
Apostolos Kiritsakis and Fereidoon Shahidi

10.1 Introduction 205

10.2 Hydrolysis (lipolysis) 205

10.3 Oxidation 206

10.4 Prevention of olive oil autoxidation 208

10.5 Photooxidation 209

10.6 Olive oil quality evaluation with methods other than the official 211

10.7 Behavior of olive oil during frying process 212

10.8 Off flavors of olive oil 213

10.9 Factors affecting the quality of olive oil and its functional activity 214

10.10 Effect of storage on quality and functional constituents of olive oil 216

10.11 Conclusion 216

References 216

11 Optical nondestructive UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopic tools and chemometrics in the monitoring of olive oil functional compounds 221
Vasiliki Lagouri, Vasiliki Manti, and Thanasis Gimisis

11.1 Introduction: functional compounds in olive oil 221

11.2 An introduction to UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopy in olive oil analysis 222

11.3 Spectroscopic regions with interest for olive oil analysis 222

11.4 The basics of chemometrics 227

11.5 Spectral preprocessing methods 228

11.6 UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics in monitoring olive oil functional compounds 229

11.7 UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics in monitoring olive oil oxidation 237

11.8 FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics in monitoring olive oil functional compounds and antioxidant activity 240

11.9 The use of UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopy in olive oil industry and trade 241

11.10 Conclusion 244

Acknowledgments 244

References 244

12 Oxidative stability and the role of minor and functional components of olive oil 249
Giuseppe Fregapane and Mar´ýa Desamparados Salvador

12.1 Introduction 249

12.2 Olive oil oxidative stability 249

12.3 Accelerated oxidative assays and shelf-life prediction 254

12.4 Stability of olive oil components: fatty acids and minor components 256

12.5 Antioxidant capacity of olive oil functional components 260

12.6 Conclusion 261

References 262

13 Chemical and sensory changes in olive oil during deep frying 267
George Siragakis and Dafni Karamanavi

13.1 Introduction 267

13.2 Alterations of chemical characteristics in frying olive oil 268

13.3 Oxidation of olive oil during frying 270

13.4 Methods for determination of polar compounds and evaluation of the quality of frying olive oil 270

13.5 Evaluation of the quality of frying olive oil 272

13.6 Prediction of oxidative stability under heating conditions 272

13.7 Impact of deep frying on olive oil compared to other oils 273

13.8 Conclusion 274

References 274

14 Olive oil packaging: recent developments 279
Michael G. Kontominas

14.1 Introduction 279

14.2 Migration aspects during packaging 279

14.3 Flavor scalping 280

14.4 Effect of packaging materials on olive oil quality 280

14.5 Conclusions 291

References 292

15 Table olives: processing, nutritional, and health implications 295
Stanley George Kailis and Apostolos Kiritsakis

15.1 Introduction 295

15.2 Olive maturation stages for table olive processing 295

15.3 Olive cultivars suitable for table olive processing 298

15.4 Factors affecting raw olive fruit for table olive processing 299

15.5 Table olive processing 301

15.6 Nutritional, health, and safety aspects of table olives 311

15.7 Quality and safety aspects relating to table olives 315

15.8 Antibiotic aspects of olive polyphenols 320

15.9 Probiotic capability of table olive products 320

15.10 Conclusion 321

References 321

16 Greek-style table olives and their functional value 325
Athena Grounta, Chrysoula C. Tassou, and Efstathios Z. Panagou

16.1 Introduction 325

16.2 Table olive processing in Greece 326

16.3 Functional value of Greek table olives 330

16.4 Conclusion 338

References 338

17 Food hazards and quality control in table olive processing with a special reference to functional compounds 343
Mohamed Rahmani

17.1 Introduction 343

17.2 Table olive processing techniques 345

17.3 New trends in table olive processing and quality control, with a special reference to functional products 347

17.4 Food safety requirements for table olives 348

17.5 Conclusion 350

References 351

18 Improving the quality of processed olives: acrylamide in Californian table olives 353
Charoenprasert Suthawan and Alyson E. Mitchell

18.1 Introduction 353

18.2 Acrylamide formation in food and potential adverse health effects 354

18.3 Regulation of acrylamide in food 359

18.4 Acrylamide levels in olive products 359

18.5 Effects of table olive processing methods on acrylamide formation 360

18.6 Methods to mitigate acrylamide levels in processed table olives 362

18.7 Conclusion 363

References 364

19 Antioxidants of olive oil, olive leaves, and their bioactivity 367
Apostolos Kiritsakis, Fereidoon Shahidi, and Charalampos Anousakis

19.1 Introduction 367

19.2 Synthetic antioxidants 368

19.3 Natural antioxidants 368

19.4 Phenols in table olives 370

19.5 Phenols and other constituents of olive leaves and other olive tree products 370

19.6 Extraction and activities of phenolics 372

19.7 Antioxidant and other properties of olive phenolics 376

19.8 Conclusion 378

References 378

20 Composition and analysis of functional components of olive leaves 383
Celia Rodrýguez-Perez, Rosa Quirantes-Pine´, Jesu´s Lozano-Sanchez, Javier Menendez, and Antonio  Segura-Carretero

20.1 Introduction 383

20.2 Qualitative and quantitative analysis of olive leaves 383

20.3 Future prospects 395

Acknowledgments 397

References 397

21 Production of phenol-enriched olive oil 401

Kostas Kiritsakis and Dimitrios Gerasopoulos

21.1 Introduction 401

21.2 Olive oil phenolic compounds and their functional properties 401

21.3 Effect of the extraction process on olive oil functional compounds 402

21.4 Enhancement of olive oil’s antioxidant content 405

21.5 Conclusion 410

References 410

22 Olives and olive oil: a Mediterranean source of polyphenols 417
Anna Tresserra-Rimbau and Rosa M. Lamuela-Ravento´s

22.1 Introduction 417

22.2 Phenolic profile of olives and olive oils 417

22.3 Analytical approaches to characterize the phenolic profile of olives and olive oils 420

22.4 Stability of polyphenols: cooking effects 421

22.5 Health effects of olive and olive oil polyphenols 423

22.6 Conclusion 427

Acknowledgments 428

References 428

23 Bioactive components from olive oil as putative epigenetic modulators 435
Tea Bilusic

23.1 Introduction 435

23.2 Epigenetics as a new scientific challenge 435

23.3 Types of epigenetic modifications 437

23.4 Environmental factors and epigenetics (the role of the diet) 439

23.5 Epigenetics and human health 443

23.6 Epigenetics and aging 444

23.7 Olive oil components as dietary epigenetic modulators 446

23.8 Conclusion 449

References 449

24 Phenolic compounds of olives and olive oil and their bioavailability 457
Turkan Mutlu Keceli, Senem Kamiloglu, and Esra Capanoglu

24.1 Introduction 457

24.2 Phenolic compounds of olives and olive oil 458

24.3 Bioavailability of olive and olive oil phenolics 460

24.4 Conclusion 467

References 467

25 Antiatherogenic properties of olive oil glycolipids 471
Haralabos C. Karantonis

25.1 Introduction 471

25.2 The role of inflammation in the development of chronic diseases 471

25.3 The role of diet in inflammation 473

25.4 PAF and its metabolism as a searching tool for functional components with

antiatherogenic activity 473

25.5 Functional components of olive oil with antiatherogenic properties 474

25.6 Conclusion 478

References 479

26 Nutritional and health aspects of olive oil and diseases 483
Elizabeth Lenart, Apostolos Kiritsakis, and Walter Willett

26.1 Introduction 483

26.2 Dietary lipids and cardiovascular disease 485

26.3 Fat intake and cancer 490

26.4 Obesity and dietary fat 494

26.5 Conclusion 495

References 496

27 Lipidomics and health: an added value to olive oil 505
Carla Ferreri and Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu

27.1 Introduction 505

27.2 Lipidomics: an added value to olive oil 505

27.3 Membrane lipidomics and nutrilipidomics: natural oils for a healthy balance 506

27.4 Membrane as relevant site for lipidomic analysis 512

27.5 Conclusion and perspectives 517

Acknowledgments 517

References 517

28 Analysis of olive oil quality 521
Fereidoon Shahidi, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan, and Apostolos Kiritsakis

28.1 Introduction 521

28.2 Fatty acid composition and analysis 522

28.3 Measurement of oxidation 523

28.4 Determination of chlorophylls 529

28.5 Determination of phenols 530

28.6 Cold test 530

28.7 Determination of sterol content 530

28.8 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of olive oil 531

28.9 Authentication and authenticity of olive oil 531

References 531

29 Detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration 537
Hazem Jabeur, Akram Zribi, and Mohamed Bouaziz

29.1 Introduction 537

29.2 Parameters suitable for authenticity assessment of EVOO 538

29.3 Direct authenticity assessment of EVOO 546

29.4 Conclusion 549

Acknowledgments 550

References 550

30 Authentication of olive oil based on minor components 555
Styliani Christophoridou

30.1 Introduction 555

30.2 Sterols 555

30.3 Vitamin E – tocopherols 556

30.4 Phenols 558

30.5 Volatiles 559

30.6 Olive oil pigments 560

30.7 Conclusion 562

References 562

31 New analytical trends for the measurement of phenolic substances of olive oil and olives with significant biological and functional importance related to health claims 569
Eleni Melliou, Panagiotis Diamantakos, and Prokopios Magiatis

31.1 Introduction 569

31.2 Phenolic compounds of olive oil with special importance 569

31.3 Analysis of table olives 581

31.4 Conclusion 582

References 582

32 DNA fingerprinting as a novel tool for olive and olive oil authentication, traceability, and detection of functional compounds 587
Aliki Xanthopoulou, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Irene Bosmali, Athanasios Tsaftaris, and Panagiotis Madesis

32.1 Introduction 587

32.2 DNA-based fingerprinting 588

32.3 Omics approaches in olive and detection of functional compounds 595

References 596

33 Sensory properties and evaluation of virgin olive oils 603

Emmanuel Salivaras

33.1 Introduction 603

33.2 Description and review of methodology 603

33.3 Chemistry, functionality, and technology behind senses 612

33.4 Positive sensory attributes of virgin olive oil and its consumption 623

References 624

34 International standards and legislative issues concerning olive oil and table olives and the nutritional, functional, and health claims related 629
Stylianos Koulouris

34.1 Introduction 629

34.2 The international perspective 629

34.3 Legislative approach by various countries 632

34.4 The European Union perspective 636

34.5 Nutrition and health claims related to olive oils 638

34.6 Conclusion 644

References 644

35 The functional olive oil market: marketing prospects and opportunities 647
Konstantinos Mattas and Efthimia Tsakiridou

35.1 Introduction 647

35.2 The olive oil market 647

35.3 The influence of certifications of origin and production methods in olive oil 652

35.4 Case study: survey on consumption patterns, labeling, certification, and willingness to pay for olive oil 653

35.5 Promotional strategies 654

35.6 Conclusion 656

References 657

Future Research Needs 659

Index 661

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Author Information

Apostolos Kiritsakis, PhD was a Professor in the School of Food Technology and Nutrition, at the Alexander Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dr Kiritsakis is one of the first scientists internationally, to conduct extensive research on olive oil and has lectured in many countries all over the world, on the benefits of quality olive oil on human health.

Fereidoon Shahidi, PhD is a University Research Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Canada. Dr Shahidi has been recognized as one of the world's most highly cited individuals and most productive scientists in the area of food, nutrition and agricultural science.

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