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Dietary Fibre Functionality in Food and Nutraceuticals: From Plant to Gut

Farah Hosseinian (Editor), B. Dave Oomah (Editor), Rocio Campos-Vega (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-13808-2
328 pages
December 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Dietary Fibre Functionality in Food and Nutraceuticals: From Plant to Gut (1119138086) cover image

Description

Increasing fiber consumption can address, and even reverse the progression of pre-diabetes and other associated non-communicable diseases. Understanding the link between plant dietary fiber and gut health is a small step in reducing the heavy economic burden of metabolic disease risks for public health. This book provides an overview of the occurence, significance and factors affecting dietary fiber in plant foods in order to critically evaluate them with particular emphasis on evidence for their beneficial health effects.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

1 Do the Physical Structure and Physicochemical Characteristics of Dietary Fibers Influence their Health Effects? 1
Anthony Fardet

1.1 Influence of the Chemical and Physical Structure on the Metabolic Effects of Fibers 2

1.1.1 Changing the Molecular Weight 2

1.1.2 Changing the Degree of Crystallinity 3

1.1.3 Modifying Particle Size 4

1.2 Influence of the Physicochemical Properties of Fibers on their Metabolic Effects 5

1.2.1 Modifying the Degree of Solubility 5

1.2.2 Changing the Water-Holding Capacity 5

1.2.3 Changing Fiber Porosity 6

1.2.4 Adsorption of Bile Acids 6

1.2.5 The Ability to Complex Minerals and to Increase their Extent of Absorption 7

1.2.6 Fiber Structure and Hindgut Health 7

1.3 The Effect of Fiber Structure on Fermentation Patterns and Microbiota Profiles: Slowly versus Rapidly Fermented Fiber 8

1.3.1 Fiber Structure and Fermentation Patterns 9

1.3.2 Fiber Structure and Fecal Microbiota Profiles 11

1.4 Conclusions 12

References 13

2 Interaction of Phenolics and their Association with Dietary Fiber 21
Fereidoon Shahidi and Anoma Chandrasekara

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Phenolic Compounds 22

2.3 Bioactivities of Phenolics 24

2.4 Dietary Fiber 26

2.5 Antioxidant Dietary Fiber 28

2.6 Protein–Phenolic Interactions 28

2.7 Starch–Phenolic Interactions 29

2.8 Phenolic Compounds and Starch Digestibility 31

2.9 Interactions of Phenolic Compounds 33

2.10 Phenolics and Dietary Fiber 33

2.11 Conclusion 36

References 36

3 Dietary Fiber-Enriched Functional Beverages in the Market 45
Aynur Gunenc, Farah Hosseinian and B. Dave Oomah

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Dietary Fiber Definition and Classification 46

3.3 Fiber-Enriched Non-Dairy Beverages 46

3.3.1 Addition of Dietary Fiber into Beverages 48

3.4 Suitable Dietary Fiber Types for Fortifying Non-Dairy Drinks 49

3.4.1 β-Glucans 49

3.4.2 Inulin 49

3.4.3 Flaxseed Dietary Fiber 53

3.5 Contributions of Beverages in Dietary Studies 56

3.6 The Functional Beverage Market 58

3.7 Fiber-Enriched Dairy Products 60

References 65

4 Dietary Fiber as Food Additive: Present and Future 77
Anaberta Cardador-Martinez, María Teresa Espino-Sevilla, Sandra T. Martín del Campo and Maritza Alonzo-Macias

4.1 Dietary Fiber: Definition 77

4.2 Chemical Nature of Dietary Fiber Used as Food Additive 78

4.3 Sources of Dietary Fiber 81

4.4 Role of Dietary Fiber as a Food Additive 83

4.5 Food Products Added with Fiber 83

4.5.1 Bread 84

4.5.2 Breakfast Cereals 84

4.5.3 Pasta 86

4.5.4 Jam and Marmalades 87

4.5.5 Beverages 87

4.5.6 Dairy Products 87

4.5.7 Meat Products 88

4.6 Conclusions 88

References 89

5 Biological Effect of Antioxidant Fiber from Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 95
Diego A. Luna-Vital, Aurea K. Ramírez-Jiménez, Marcela Gaytan-Martinez, Luis Mojica and Guadalupe Loarca-Pina

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Phaseolus vulgaris Generalities 96

5.2.1 Nutritional Properties 96

5.2.2 Nutraceutical Composition 96

5.3 Composition of Common Bean Antioxidant Fiber 97

5.3.1 Definition 97

5.3.2 Polysaccharides 98

5.3.3 Polyphenols 100

5.3.4 Peptides 100

5.4 Biological Potential of Antioxidant Fiber of Common Bean 101

5.4.1 Antioxidant Capacity 101

5.4.1.1 Non-Digestible Carbohydrates 101

5.4.1.2 Phenolic Compounds 103

5.4.1.3 Peptides 103

5.4.2 Anticancer Activity 104

5.4.2.1 In Vivo Studies 104

5.4.2.2 In Vitro Studies 108

5.4.2.3 Protein Modulation 110

5.4.2.4 Gene Expression 112

References 115

6 In Vivo and In Vitro Studies on Dietary Fiber and Gut Health 123
Rocio Campos-Vega, B. Dave Oomah and Haydé A. Vergara-Castañeda

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 Research into Dietary Fiber and Health 124

6.3 In Vivo Studies on Intestinal Function 125

6.3.1 SCFA Production and Intestinal Epithelium Protection 125

6.3.2 Mineral Absorption 127

6.3.3 Immunomodulation 127

6.3.4 Prebiotic Effect 129

6.3.5 Enteroendocrine Activities 131

6.3.6 Dietary Fiber and Inflammatory Bowel Disease 134

6.3.7 Diabetes 136

6.3.8 Cardiovascular Disorders 136

6.3.9 Colon Cancer 136

6.4 In Vitro Studies 138

6.4.1 Prebiotic Effect 138

6.4.2 SCFA Production 141

6.4.3 Dietary Fiber, Microbiota, and Diseases 143

6.4.3.1 Immunity 143

6.4.3.2 Ulcerative Colitis 146

6.4.3.3 Irritable Bowel Syndrome 146

6.4.3.4 Crohn’s Disease 146

6.4.3.5 Weight Management 147

6.4.3.6 Diabetes 148

6.4.3.7 Cardiovascular Disorders 149

6.4.3.8 Colon Cancer 151

6.5 Current Trends and Perspectives 152

6.6 Conclusion 163

References 163

7 Dietary Fiber and Colon Cancer 179
Maria Elena Maldonado and Luz Amparo Urango

7.1 Introduction 179

7.2 Physiological Action and Function of Dietary Fiber in Colon Cancer 181

7.3 Colon Cancer Chemopreventive Bioactivities 183

7.3.1 In Vitro Evidence 183

7.3.2 In Vivo Studies in Animal Models 185

7.3.3 Human Intervention Studies 189

7.3.4 Epidemiological Evidence of Dietary Fiber Consumption and Colon Cancer Incidence 191

7.4 Future Directions: Food Designs New Structures for Colon Cancer Prevention 194

7.5 Conclusions 195

References 195

8 The Role of Fibers and Bioactive Compounds in Gut Microbiota Composition and Health 205
Émilie A. Graham, Jean-François Mallet, Majed Jambi, Nawal Alsadi and Chantal Matar

8.1 The Influence of Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease 205

8.2 Bioactive Substances and Fiber Promoting a Healthy Gut 208

8.2.1 Fiber 209

8.2.1.1 In Vitro Studies 209

8.2.1.2 In Vivo Studies 210

8.2.1.3 Clinical Studies 210

8.2.2 Polyphenols 211

8.2.2.1 In Vitro Studies 212

8.2.2.2 In Vivo Studies 213

8.2.2.3 Clinical Studies 213

8.2.3 Saponins 214

8.2.3.1 In Vitro Studies 214

8.2.3.2 In Vivo Studies 214

8.2.3.3 Clinical Studies 215

8.3 Survey of Epidemiological Studies 215

8.3.1 Age 216

8.3.1.1 Pediatric Microbiota Composition 216

8.3.1.2 The Influence of Diet and the Role of Fibers in an Aging Population 217

8.3.2 Sex 220

8.3.3 Geographical Location 220

8.3.3.1 Global Similarities in Gut Microbiota Composition 220

8.3.3.2 Geographically and Culturally Influenced Diets 221

8.3.3.3 Malnutrition 222

8.3.4 Conclusion 223

8.4 Diabetes 223

8.4.1 Gut Microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes 223

8.4.2 Gut Microbiota and Type 2 Diabetes 225

8.5 Infertility 225

8.6 Mental Health and Gut Microbiota 227

8.6.1 Mood, Stress, and Depression 227

8.6.2 Autism Spectrum Disorders 229

8.6.3 Dementia 230

8.7 Cancer of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Extragastrointestinal Organs 231

8.7.1 Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer 231

8.7.1.1 Inflammation 231

8.7.1.2 Colon Cancer 232

8.7.1.3 Gastric Cancer 234

8.7.2 Extragastrointestinal Organ Cancer 234

8.7.2.1 Pancreatic Cancer 235

8.7.2.2 Liver Cancer 235

8.7.3 Last Remarks 236

8.8 Conclusion 236

References 237

9 Effect of Processing on the Bioactive Polysaccharides and Phenolic Compounds from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) 263
José Rafael Minjares-Fuentes and Antoni Femenia

9.1 Aloe vera 263

9.1.1 Bioactive Compounds of Aloe vera 265

9.1.1.1 Acemannan 265

9.1.1.2 Pectic Polysaccharides from Aloe vera Gel 267

9.1.1.3 Phenolic Compounds in Aloe vera 269

9.2 Effect of Processing on the Main Bioactive Compounds from Aloe vera 272

9.2.1 Pasteurization 272

9.2.2 Drying 273

9.2.3 Ultrasound – An Emergent Technology in Aloe vera Processing 275

9.3 Conclusions 277

References 278

Index 289

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Author Information

Dr Farah Hosseinian, Associate Professor, Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Canada

Dr B. Dave Oomah, Retired research scientist, formerly with the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Dr Rocio Campos-Vega, Research Professor, Programa de Posgrado en Alimentos del Centro de la Republica (PROPAC), Research and Graduate Studies in Food Science, School of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Mexico
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