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Micro- and Nano-Structured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: From Design to Applications

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This book examines the current state of the art, new challenges, opportunities, and applications of IPNs.  With contributions from experts across the globe, this survey is an outstanding resource reference for anyone involved in the field of polymer materials design for advanced technologies.

• Comprehensively summarizes many of the recent technical research accomplishments in the area of micro and nanostructured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks
• Discusses various aspects of synthesis, characterization, structure, morphology, modelling, properties, and applications of IPNs
• Describes how nano-structured IPNs correlate their multiscale structure to their properties and morphologies
• Serves as a one-stop reference resource for important research accomplishments in the area of IPNs and nano-structured polymer systems
• Includes chapters from leading researchers in the IPN field from industry, academy, government and private research institutions

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

1 Micro‐ and Nano-structured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: State of the Art, New Challenges, and Opportunities 1
Jose James, George V. Thomas, Akhina H. and Sabu Thomas

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Types of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 2

1.3 Synthesis of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 5

1.4 Characterization of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 8

1.5 Applications of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 23

1.6 Future Trends 23

Acknowledgement 25

References 25

2 Miscibility, Morphology, and Phase Behavior of IPNs 29
Xuemei Wu, Gaohong He, Xiaoming Yan, Xiangcun Li, Wu Xiao and Xiaobin Jiang

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Miscibility of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 30

2.3 Phase Diagram 35

2.4 Morphology of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 43

Acknowledgments 62

References 62

3 Synthetic Rubber‐Based IPNs 69
Qihua Wang, Shoubing Chen and Tingmei Wang

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Synthetic Rubber‐Based IPNs 71

3.3 Summary and Conclusions 101

Acknowledgments 102

References 102

4 Micro‐ and Nanostructured IPNs Based on Thermosetting Resins 109
Sanja Marinović, Ivanka Popović and Branko Dunjić

4.1 Introduction 109

4.2 Experimental Details 110

4.3 Influence of HBP(A) Contents in IPNs on IPN Mechanical Properties 115

4.4 Influence of Reactive Diluent in Interpenetrating Polymer Networks on their Properties 119

4.5 Conclusions 124

Acknowledgment 125

References 125

5 Macro‐, Meso‐, and Nanoporous Systems Designed from IPNs 127
Daniel Grande

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Porous Systems Derived from Semi‐Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 130

5.3 (Nano)Porous Systems Derived from Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 135

5.4 Conclusions 139

Acknowledgments 140

References 140

6 Natural Rubber‐Based Micro‐ and Nanostructured IPNs 145
Sa‐Ad Riyajan

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Natural Rubber 146

6.3 Synthesis of Polymer IPN 148

6.4 Properties of IPN Made from NR and Plastics 155

6.5 Conclusions 174

Acknowledgments 174

References 174

7 The Synthesis and the Applications of IPNs Based on Smart Polymers 179
Guillermina Burillo, Emilio Bucio and Lorena Garcia‐Uriostegui

7.1 Introduction 179

7.2 Stimuli‐Responsive Polymers 180

7.3 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Semi‐Interpenetrating Networks 181

7.4 The Synthesis and the Applications of Semi‐Interpenetrating Networks and Interpenetrating Networks 181

7.5 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 184

7.6 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Semi‐Interpenetrating Networks Synthesized by Ionizing Radiation 186

7.7 Semi‐Interpenetrating Networks and Interpenetrating Networks in the Heavy Ions Immobilization 188

7.8 The Novel Architectures of IPNs Developed by Ionizing Radiation Polymerization 189

7.9 Conclusions 192

Acknowledgments 192

References 193

8 Microscopy of IPNs 199
Rameshwar Adhikari

8.1 Introduction and Overview 199

8.2 Sample Preparation Techniques for Microscopic Analysis 200

8.3 Microscopy of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: An Overview 202

8.4 Morphological Characterization of Polymer Networks 206

8.5 Concluding Notes 220

Acknowledgments 220

References 220

9 Viscoelastic Properties of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 229
Sudipta Goswami

9.1 Introduction 229

9.2 Viscoelastic Properties of Simultaneous IPNs 234

9.3 Viscoelastic Properties of Sequential IPNs 241

9.4 Overall Summary and Future Scope 252

9.5 Conclusion 255

References 256

10 Interpenetrating and Semi‐Interpenetrating Polymer Networks of Polyurethane 259
Chepuri R.K. Rao, Ramanuj Narayan and K.V.S.N. Raju

10.1 Introduction 259

References 278

11 Solid‐State NMR and ESR Studies of IPNs 283
Srećko Valić, Mladen Andreis and Damir Klepac

11.1 Introduction 283

11.2 Theoretical Background 284

11.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Semi‐Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 290

11.4 Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Semi‐Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 302

11.5 Conclusion 313

References 313

12 Diffusion, Transport, and Barrier Properties of IPNs 319
Runcy Wilson, S. Anil Kumar, Miran Mozetič, Uroš Cvelbar and Sabu Thomas

12.1 Introduction 319

12.2 Background of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 320

12.3 Transport Properties: Theoretical and Practical Aspects 321

12.4 Transport Mechanism 324

12.5 Sorption and Diffusion of Solvents 326

12.6 Gas Barrier Properties of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 331

12.7 Pervaporation Characteristics of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 332

12.8 Principles of Pervaporation 333

12.9 Vapor Sorption 334

12.10 Conclusion 335

12.11 Applications, Challenges, Difficulties, and Future Directions 335

References 336

13 Aging of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 341
Selvin P. Thomas and Mohammed N. Alghamdi

13.1 Introduction 341

13.2 Aging of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 342

13.3 Conclusion 361

References 362

14 Theoretical Modeling and Simulation of IPNs 365
Prathab Baskar

14.1 Introduction 365

14.2 Theoretical Simulations 366

14.3 Molecular Dynamics Methods and Theory 368

14.4 Molecular Dynamic Study of Surface/Interface Properties of Thermoplastic Apparent Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Organic–Inorganic Composite Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 375

14.5 Conclusions 380

References 380

15 Applications of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 383
Radhika Raveendran and Chandra P. Sharma

15.1 Introduction 383

15.2 What are Interpenetrating Polymer Networks? 384

15.3 Properties of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 385

15.4 Applications of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 385

15.5 Conclusion 393

References 394

Index 399

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Author Information

Prof. Dr. Sabu Thomas teaches at Mahatma Gandhi University's School of Chemical Sciences and International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.

Dr. Daniel Grande is a CNRS senior researcher based at the East-Paris Institute of Chemistry and Materials Science belonging to both CNRS and the "Université Paris-Est Créteil."

Dr. Uros Cvelbar is a researcher at Slovenia's Jozef Stefan Institute.

Dr. K.V.S.N. Raju and Dr. Ramanuj Narayan are scientists working with the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology's Polymers and Functional Materials Division.

Dr. Selvin P. Thomas iis an assistant professor in Chemical Engineering in the Yanbu Research Center of the Royal Commission for Yanbu Colleges and Institutes (RCYCI).

Akhina H is a senior research fellow(CSIR) at International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and  Nanotechnology at Mahatma Gandhi University.
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