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Food Borne Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance

ISBN: 978-1-119-13917-1
512 pages
November 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Food is an essential means for humans and other animals to acquire the necessary elements needed for survival. However, it is also a transport vehicle for foodborne pathogens, which can pose great threats to human health. Use of antibiotics has been enhanced in the human health system; however, selective pressure among bacteria allows the development for antibiotic resistance.

Foodborne Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance bridges technological gaps, focusing on critical aspects of foodborne pathogen detection and mechanisms regulating antibiotic resistance that are relevant to human health and foodborne illnesses

This groundbreaking guide:
• Introduces the microbial presence on variety of food items for human and animal consumption.
• Provides the detection strategies to screen and identify the variety of food pathogens in addition to reviews the literature.
• Provides microbial molecular mechanism of food spoilage along with molecular mechanism of microorganisms acquiring antibiotic resistance in food.
• Discusses systems biology of food borne pathogens in terms of detection and food spoilage.
• Discusses FDA’s regulations and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) towards challenges and possibilities of developing global food safety.

Foodborne Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance is an immensely useful resource for graduate students and researchers in the food science, food microbiology, microbiology, and industrial biotechnology.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xix

Introduction 1

1 Diversity of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens and Parasites in Produce and Animal Products and Limitations of Current Detection Practices 5
Debabrata Biswas and Shirley A. Micallef

1.1 Introduction 5

1.2 Common Bacterial Pathogens and Parasites Found in Produce and Animal Products 6

1.3 Unusual Bacterial Pathogens and Parasites in Produce and Animal Products 7

1.4 Farming Systems and Mixed (Integrated) Crop‐Livestock Farming 8

1.5 Major Sources of Unusual/Under‐Researched Bacterial Pathogens and Parasites in Food 10

1.6 Diversity of Farming and Processing Practices and Possible Risks 11

1.7 Current Hygienic Practices and Their Effects on These Under‐Researched Pathogens 12

1.8 Current Detection Methods and Their Limitations 13

1.9 Recommendation to Improve the Detection Level 14

1.10 Conclusion 14

References 14

2 Characterization of Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria in Mediterranean Fish Species and Seafood Products 21
A. Bolivar, J.C.C.P. Costa, G.D. Posada‐Izquierdo, F. Pérez‐Rodríguez, I. Bascón, G. Zurera, and A. Valero

2.1 Fish Quality Assurance 21

2.2 Microbiological Standards To Be Accomplished 21

2.3 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) Implemented in the Fishery Industry 22

2.4 Microbial Ecology of Mediterranean Fishery Products 24

2.5 Fish and Seafood Spoilage: Characterization of Spoilage Microorganisms During Capture, Manufacture, and Distribution of Fishery Products 28

2.6 Foodborne Pathogens in Mediterranean Fishery Products 30

2.7 Molecular Methods for Pathogen Detection in Fishery Products 33

References 34

3 Food Spoilage by Pseudomonas spp.—An Overview 41
António Raposo, Esteban Pérez, Catarina Tinoco de Faria, María Antonia Ferrús, and Conrado Carrascosa

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Pseudomonas spp. in Milk and Dairy Products 44

3.3 Meat Spoilage by Pseudomonas spp. 47

3.4 Fish Spoilage by Pseudomonas spp. 50

3.5 Water Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. 51

3.6 Pseudomonas spp. in Fruit and Vegetables 55

3.7 Biochemical and Molecular Techniques for Pseudomonas spp. Detection 56

3.8 Conclusions 58

References 58

4 Arcobacter spp. in Food Chain—From Culture to Omics 73
Susana Ferreira, Mónica Oleastro, and Fernanda Domingues

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Isolation and Detection of Arcobacter 86

References 102

5 Microbial Hazards and Their Implications in the Production of Table Olives 119
A. Valero, E. Medina, and F.N. Arroyo‐López

5.1 Table Olives: Origin, Production, and Main Types of Elaborations 119

5.2 Importance of Microorganisms in Table Olives 121

5.3 Molecular Methods for the Study of Microbial Populations in Table Olives 122

5.4 Biological Hazards in Table Olives 124

5.5 Use of Starter Cultures to Reduce Biological Hazards in Table Olives 126

5.6 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System As a Useful Tool to Improve Microbial Safety and Quality of Table Olives 127

5.7 Conclusions 132

References 133

6 The Problem of Spore‐Forming Bacteria in Food Preservation and Tentative Solutions 139
Stève Olugu Voundi, Maximilienne Nyegue, Blaise Pascal Bougnom, and François‐Xavier Etoa

6.1 Introduction 139

6.2 Sporulation 139

6.3 Metabolic State of the Spore 140

6.4 Spore Structure and Associated Mechanisms of Resistance 140

6.5 Germination of Spore 142

6.6 Problems of Spore‐Forming Bacteria in Food Preservation 143

6.7 Techniques of Spore Inactivation 146

References 148

7 Insights into Detection and Identification of Foodborne Pathogens 153
Jodi Woan‐Fei Law, Vengadesh Letchumanan, Kok‐Gan Chan, Bey‐Hing Goh, and Learn‐Han Lee

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Nucleic Acid‐Based Methods 157

7.3 Conclusion 183

References 183

8 Rapid, Alternative Methods for Salmonella Detection in Food 203
Anna Zadernowska and Wioleta Chajęcka‐Wierzchowska

8.1 Introduction 203

8.2 Conventional Methods and Their Modifications 203

8.3 Alternative Methods—Definitions, Requirements 205

8.4 Conclusions 208

References 208

9 CRISPR‐Mediated Bacterial Genome Editing in Food Safety and Industry 211
Michael Carroll and Xiaohui Zhou

9.1 Introduction 211

9.2 Application of CRISPR for Bacterial Genome Editing 215

9.3 Vaccination of Industrial Microbes 217

9.4 Application of CRISPR in the Development of Antimicrobials 218

9.5 CRISPR Delivery Systems 220

9.6 Concluding Remarks 221

References 222

10 Meat‐borne Pathogens and Use of Natural Antimicrobials for Food Safety 225
Ashim Kumar Biswas and Prabhat Kumar Mandal

10.1 Introduction 225

10.2 Incidences of Some Important Foodborne Pathogens 226

10.3 Application of Natural Antimicrobials 230

10.4 Regulatory Aspects of Natural Antimicrobials 238

10.5 Health Benefits of Natural Antimicrobials 239

10.6 Summary 239

References 239

11 Foodborne Pathogens and Their Apparent Linkage with Antibiotic Resistance 247
Mariah L. Cole and Om V. Singh

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Food Spoilage 248

11.3 Food Processing and Microbial Contamination 254

11.4 Foodborne Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance 255

11.5 Antibiotics and Alternatives 266

11.6 Genomics and Proteomics of Foodborne Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance 268

11.7 Conclusion 270

References 270

12 Antimicrobial Food Additives and Disinfectants: Mode of Action and Microbial Resistance Mechanisms 275
Meera Surendran Nair, Indu Upadhyaya, Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou, and Kumar Venkitanarayanan

12.1 Introduction 275

12.2 Food Additives 275

12.3 Mode of Action and Resistance to Antimicrobial Food Preservatives 277

12.4 Disinfectants 284

12.5 Mode of Action and Resistance to Disinfectants 285

12.6 Plant‐Derived Antimicrobials as Alternatives 289

12.7 Conclusion 291

References 291

13 Molecular Biology of Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily from Bacterial Food Pathogens 303
Ranjana K.C., Ugina Shrestha, Sanath Kumar, Indrika Ranaweera, Prathusha Kakarla, Mun Mun Mukherjee, Sharla R. Barr, Alberto J. Hernandez, T. Mark Willmon, Bailey C. Benham, and Manuel F. Varela

13.1 Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens 303

13.2 Major Classes of Clinically Important Antibacterial Agents 307

13.3 Antimicrobial Agents Used in Food Animals for Treatment of Infections 307

13.4 Antimicrobial Agents Used in Food Animals for Prophylaxis 309

13.5 Antimicrobial Agents Used in Food Animals for Growth Enhancement 309

13.6 Mechanisms of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents 310

13.7 The Major Facilitator Superfamily of Solute Transporters 314

13.8 Key Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pump Systems of the Major Facilitator Superfamily 314

13.9 Future Directions 318

References 319

14 Prevalence, Evolution, and Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella 331
Brian W. Brunelle, Bradley L. Bearson, and Heather K. Allen

14.1 Introduction 331

14.2 Antibiotic Resistance Prevalence Among Salmonella Serotypes 332

14.3 Antibiotic Treatment of Salmonella 335

14.4 Antibiotics and Resistance Mechanisms 336

14.5 Evolution and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance 339

14.6 Co‐Localization of Resistance Genes 342

14.7 Conclusions 343

References 343

15 Antibiotic Resistance of Coagulase‐Positive and Coagulase‐Negative Staphylococci Isolated From Food 349
Wioleta Chajęcka‐Wierzchowska and Anna Zadernowska

15.1 Characteristics of the Genus Staphylococcus 349

15.2 Coagulase‐Positive Staphylococci 349

15.3 Coagulase‐Negative Staphylococci 350

15.4 Genetic Mechanisms Conditioning Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococci 350

15.5 Food as a Source of Antibiotic‐Resistant Staphylococci 355

15.6 Summary 359

References 359

16 Antibiotic Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Friend or Foe? 365
Vangelis Economou, Hercules Sakkas, Georgios Delis, and Panagiota Gousia

16.1 Introduction 365

16.2 Enterococcus Biology 365

16.3 Enterococcus as a Probiotic 366

16.4 Enterococcus in Food 367

16.5 Antibiotic Resistance 369

16.6 Enterococcus Infection 377

16.7 Enterococcus Epidemiology 380

References 382

17 Antibiotic Resistance in Seafood‐Borne Pathogens 397
Sanath Kumar, Manjusha Lekshmi, Ammini Parvathi, Binaya Bhusan Nayak, and Manuel F. Varela

17.1 Human Pathogenic Bacteria in Seafood 397

17.2 An Overview of Bacterial Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms 401

17.3 Antibiotic‐Resistant Bacteria in the Aquatic Environment 402

17.4 Antimicrobial Resistance in Seafood‐Borne Pathogens 403

17.5 Antimicrobials in Aquaculture and their Human Health Consequences 407

17.6 Future Directions 410

References 410

18 Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter sp. 417
Tareq M. Osaili and Akram R. Alaboudi

18.1 Introduction 417

18.2 Antimicrobial Resistance 418

18.3 Consequences of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance on Humans 419

18.4 Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms 419

18.5 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter 420

18.6 Campylobacter Antimicrobials Resistance: Global Overview 421

18.7 Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolates From the Middle East Region 423

18.8 Strategies to Prevent Future Emergences of Bacterial Resistance 423

References 425

19 Prevalence and Antibiogram of Pathogenic Foodborne Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Developing African Countries 431
Adeyanju Gladys Taiwo (DVM, MVPH)

19.1 Introduction 431

19.2 Factors that Play a Role in the Epidemiology of Foodborne Diseases 432

19.3 Food Poisoning and Food Vending 433

19.4 Foodborne Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis 434

19.5 Antibiotic Resistance 435

19.6 Reasons for Resistance Against Specific Antibiotics 436

19.7 Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella 436

19.8 Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli 437

19.9 How to Combat Foodborne Diseases And Antibiotic Resistance 437

References 437

20 Evolution and Prevalence of Multidrug Resistance Among Foodborne Pathogens 441
Sinosh Skariyachan, Anagha S. Setlur, and Sujay Y. Naik

20.1 Introduction 441

20.2 Major Causes of the Evolution of Bacterial Drug Resistances 441

20.3 Food Poisoning and Foodborne Illness—An Overview 443

20.4 Factors that Influence the Growth of Foodborne Pathogens in Food Products 444

20.5 Food Poisoning and Foodborne Infections 445

20.6 An Illustration of Major Foodborne Gastroenteritis 446

20.7 Major Types of Antibiotics Used to Treat Foodborne Infections 448

20.8 Mechanisms of Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance in Food Products 449

20.9 Evolution of XDR and PDR Bacteria 456

20.10 Need for Caution and WHO/FDA Stands Toward the Development of MDR Pathogens in Foods 457

20.11 Possible Solutions and Recommendations for Prevention 458

20.12 Conclusion 458

References 458

Index 465

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