The Fractional Trigonometry: With Applications to Fractional Differential Equations and ScienceISBN: 9781119139409
496 pages
November 2016

Description
Addresses the rapidly growing field of fractional calculus and provides simplified solutions for linear commensurateorder fractional differential equations
The Fractional Trigonometry: With Applications to Fractional Differential Equations and Science is the result of the authors’ work in fractional calculus, and more particularly, in functions for the solutions of fractional differential equations, which is fostered in the behavior of generalized exponential functions. The authors discuss how fractional trigonometry plays a role analogous to the classical trigonometry for the fractional calculus by providing solutions to linear fractional differential equations. The book begins with an introductory chapter that offers insight into the fundamentals of fractional calculus, and topical coverage is then organized in two main parts. Part One develops the definitions and theories of fractional exponentials and fractional trigonometry. Part Two provides insight into various areas of potential application within the sciences. The fractional exponential function via the fundamental fractional differential equation, the generalized exponential function, and Rfunction relationships are discussed in addition to the fractional hyperboletry, the R1fractional trigonometry, the R2fractional trigonometry, and the R3trigonometric functions. The Fractional Trigonometry: With Applications to Fractional Differential Equations and Science also:
 Presents fractional trigonometry as a tool for scientists and engineers and discusses how to apply fractionalorder methods to the current toolbox of mathematical modelers
 Employs a mathematically clear presentation in an e ort to make the topic broadly accessible
 Includes solutions to linear fractional differential equations and generously features graphical forms of functions to help readers visualize the presented concepts
 Provides effective and efficient methods to describe complex structures
The Fractional Trigonometry: With Applications to Fractional Differential Equations and Science is an ideal reference for academic researchers, research engineers, research scientists, mathematicians, physicists, biologists, and chemists who need to apply new fractional calculus methods to a variety of disciplines. The book is also appropriate as a textbook for graduate and PhDlevel courses in fractional calculus.
Carl F. Lorenzo is Distinguished Research Associate at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. His past positions include chief engineer of the Instrumentation and Controls Division and chief of the Advanced Controls Technology and Systems Dynamics branches at NASA. He is internationally recognized for his work in the development and application of the fractional calculus and fractional trigonometry.
Tom T. Hartley, PhD, is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The University of Akron. Dr Hartley is a recognized expert in fractionalorder systems, and together with Carl Lorenzo, has solved fundamental problems in the area including Riemann’s complementaryfunction initialization function problem. He received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Vanderbilt University.
Table of Contents
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xix
About the Companion Website xxi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 2
1.2 The Fractional Integral and Derivative 3
1.3 The Traditional Trigonometry 6
1.4 Previous Efforts 8
1.5 Expectations of a Generalized Trigonometry and Hyperboletry 8
2 The Fractional Exponential Function via the Fundamental Fractional Differential Equation 9
2.1 The Fundamental Fractional Differential Equation 9
2.2 The Generalized Impulse Response Function 10
2.3 Relationship of the Ffunction to the MittagLeffler Function 11
2.4 Properties of the FFunction 12
2.5 Behavior of the FFunction as the Parameter a Varies 13
2.6 Example 16
3 The Generalized Fractional Exponential Function: The RFunction and Other Functions for the Fractional Calculus 19
3.1 Introduction 19
3.2 Functions for the Fractional Calculus 19
3.3 The RFunction: A Generalized Function 22
3.4 Properties of the Rq,v(a, t)Function 23
3.5 Relationship of the RFunction to the Elementary Functions 27
3.6 RFunction Identities 29
3.7 Relationship of the RFunction to the Fractional Calculus Functions 31
3.8 Example: Cooling Manifold 32
3.9 Further Generalized Functions: The GFunction and the HFunction 34
3.10 Preliminaries to the Fractional Trigonometry Development 38
3.11 Eigen Character of the RFunction 38
3.12 Fractional Differintegral of the TimeScaled RFunction 39
3.13 RFunction Relationships 39
3.14 Roots of Complex Numbers 40
3.15 Indexed Forms of the RFunction 41
3.16 TermbyTerm Operations 44
3.17 Discussion 46
4 RFunction Relationships 47
4.1 RFunction Basics 47
4.2 Relationships for Rm,0 in Terms of R1,0 48
4.3 Relationships for R1¨Mm,0 in Terms of R1,0 50
4.4 Relationships for the Rational Form Rm¨Mp,0 in Terms of R1¨Mp,0 51
4.5 Relationships for R1¨Mp,0 in Terms of Rm¨Mp,0 53
4.6 Relating Rm¨Mp,0 to the Exponential Function R1,0(b, t) = ebt 54
4.7 Inverse Relationships–Relationships for R1,0 in Terms of Rm,k 56
4.8 Inverse Relationships–Relationships for R1,0 in Terms of R1¨Mm,0 57
4.9 Inverse Relationships–Relationships for eat = R1,0(a, t) in Terms of Rm¨Mp,0 59
4.10 Discussion 61
5 The Fractional Hyperboletry 63
5.1 The Fractional R1Hyperbolic Functions 63
5.2 R1Hyperbolic Function Relationship 72
5.3 Fractional Calculus Operations on the R1Hyperbolic Functions 72
5.4 Laplace Transforms of the R1Hyperbolic Functions 73
5.5 ComplexityBased Hyperbolic Functions 73
5.6 Fractional Hyperbolic Differential Equations 74
5.7 Example 76
5.8 Discussions 77
6 The R1Fractional Trigonometry 79
6.1 R1Trigonometric Functions 79
6.2 R1Trigonometric Function Interrelationship 88
6.3 Relationships to R1Hyperbolic Functions 89
6.4 Fractional Calculus Operations on the R1Trigonometric Functions 89
6.5 Laplace Transforms of the R1Trigonometric Functions 90
6.6 ComplexityBased R1Trigonometric Functions 92
6.7 Fractional Differential Equations 94
7 The R2Fractional Trigonometry 97
7.1 R2Trigonometric Functions: Based on Real and Imaginary Parts 97
7.2 R2Trigonometric Functions: Based on Parity 102
7.3 Laplace Transforms of the R2Trigonometric Functions 111
7.4 R2Trigonometric Function Relationships 113
7.5 Fractional Calculus Operations on the R2Trigonometric Functions 119
7.6 Inferred Fractional Differential Equations 127
8 The R3Trigonometric Functions 129
8.1 The R3Trigonometric Functions: Based on Complexity 129
8.2 The R3Trigonometric Functions: Based on Parity 134
8.3 Laplace Transforms of the R3Trigonometric Functions 140
8.4 R3Trigonometric Function Relationships 141
8.5 Fractional Calculus Operations on the R3Trigonometric Functions 146
9 The Fractional MetaTrigonometry 159
9.1 The FractionalMetaTrigonometric Functions: Based on Complexity 160
9.2 The MetaFractional Trigonometric Functions: Based on Parity 166
9.3 Commutative Properties of the Complexity and Parity Operations 179
9.4 Laplace Transforms of the FractionalMetaTrigonometric Functions 188
9.5 RFunction Representation of the FractionalMetaTrigonometric Functions 192
9.6 Fractional Calculus Operations on the Fractional MetaTrigonometric Functions 195
9.7 Special Topics in Fractional Differintegration 206
9.8 MetaTrigonometric Function Relationships 206
9.9 Fractional Poles: Structure of the Laplace Transforms 214
9.10 Comments and Issues Relative to the MetaTrigonometric Functions 214
9.11 Backward Compatibility to Earlier Fractional Trigonometries 215
9.12 Discussion 215
10 The Ratio and Reciprocal Functions 217
10.1 Fractional Complexity Functions 217
10.2 The Parity Reciprocal Functions 219
10.3 The Parity Ratio Functions 221
10.4 RFunction Representation of the Fractional Ratio and Reciprocal Functions 225
10.5 Relationships 226
10.6 Discussion 227
11 Further Generalized Fractional Trigonometries 229
11.1 The GFunctionBased Trigonometry 229
11.2 Laplace Transforms for the GTrigonometric Functions 230
11.3 The HFunctionBased Trigonometry 234
11.4 Laplace Transforms for the HTrigonometric Functions 235
12 The Solution of Linear Fractional Differential Equations Based on the Fractional Trigonometry 243
12.1 Fractional Differential Equations 243
12.2 Fundamental Fractional Differential Equations of the First Kind 245
12.3 Fundamental Fractional Differential Equations of the Second Kind 246
12.4 Preliminaries–Laplace Transforms 246
12.5 Fractional Differential Equations of Higher Order: Unrepeated Roots 250
12.6 Fractional Differential Equations of Higher Order: Containing Repeated Roots 252
12.7 Fractional Differential Equations Containing Repeated Roots 253
12.8 Fractional Differential Equations of NonCommensurate Order 254
12.9 Indexed Fractional Differential Equations: Multiple Solutions 255
12.10 Discussion 256
13 Fractional Trigonometric Systems 259
13.1 The RFunction as a Linear System 259
13.2 RSystem Time Responses 260
13.3 RFunctionBased Frequency Responses 260
13.4 MetaTrigonometric FunctionBased Frequency Responses 261
13.5 FractionalMetaTrigonometry 264
13.6 Elementary Fractional Transfer Functions 266
13.7 Stability Theorem 266
13.8 Stability of Elementary Fractional Transfer Functions 267
13.9 Insights into the Behavior of the Fractional MetaTrigonometric Functions 268
13.10 Discussion 270
14 Numerical Issues and Approximations in the Fractional Trigonometry 271
14.1 RFunction Convergence 271
14.2 The MetaTrigonometric Function Convergence 272
14.3 Uniform Convergence 273
14.4 Numerical Issues in the Fractional Trigonometry 274
14.5 The R2Cos and R2SinFunction Asymptotic Behavior 275
14.6 RFunction Approximations 276
14.7 The NearOrder Effect 279
14.8 HighPrecision Software 281
15 The Fractional Spiral Functions: Further Characterization of the Fractional Trigonometry 283
15.1 The Fractional Spiral Functions 283
15.2 Analysis of Spirals 288
15.3 Relation to the Classical Spirals 303
15.4 Discussion 307
16 Fractional Oscillators 309
16.1 The Space of Linear Fractional Oscillators 309
16.2 Coupled Fractional Oscillators 314
17 Shell Morphology and Growth 317
17.1 Nautilus pompilius 317
17.2 Shell 5 329
17.3 Shell 6 330
17.4 Shell 7 332
17.5 Shell 8 332
17.6 Shell 9 336
17.7 Shell 10 336
17.8 Ammonite 339
17.9 Discussion 340
18 Mathematical Classification of the Spiral and Ring Galaxy Morphologies 341
18.1 Introduction 341
18.2 Background–Fractional Spirals for Galactic Classification 342
18.3 Classification Process 347
18.4 Mathematical Classification of Selected Galaxies 350
18.5 Analysis 362
18.6 Discussion 367
18.7 Appendix: Carbon Star 370
19 Hurricanes, Tornados, and Whirlpools 371
19.1 Hurricane Cloud Patterns 371
19.2 Tornado Classification 373
19.3 LowPressure Cloud Pattern 375
19.4 Whirlpool 375
19.5 Order in Physical Systems 379
20 A Look Forward 381
20.1 Properties of the RFunction 382
20.2 Inverse Functions 382
20.3 The Generalized Fractional Trigonometries 384
20.4 Extensions to Negative Time, Complementary Trigonometries, and Complex Arguments 384
20.5 Applications: Fractional Field Equations 385
20.6 Fractional Spiral and Nonspiral Properties 387
20.7 Numerical Improvements for Evaluation to Larger Values of atq 387
20.8 Epilog 388
A Related Works 389
A.1 Introduction 389
A.2 Miller and Ross 389
A.3 West, Bologna, and Grigolini 390
A.4 MittagLefflerBased Fractional Trigonometric Functions 390
A.5 Relationship to CurrentWork 391
B Computer Code 393
B.1 Introduction 393
B.2 MatlabⓇ RFunction 393
B.3 MatlabⓇ RFunction Evaluation Program 394
B.4 MatlabⓇ MetaCosine Function 395
B.5 MatlabⓇ Cosine Evaluation Program 395
B.6 MapleⓇ 10 Program Calculates Phase Plane Plot for Fractional Sine versus Cosine 396
C Tornado Simulation 399
D Special Topics in Fractional Differintegration 401
D.1 Introduction 401
D.2 Fractional Integration of the Segmented tpFunction 401
D.3 Fractional Differentiation of the Segmented tpFunction 404
D.4 Fractional Integration of Segmented Fractional Trigonometric Functions 406
D.5 Fractional Differentiation of Segmented Fractional Trigonometric Functions 408
E Alternate Forms 413
E.1 Introduction 413
E.2 Reduced Variable Summation Forms 414
E.3 Natural Quency Simplification 415
References 417
Index 425
Author Information
Carl F. Lorenzo is Distinguished Research Associate at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. His past positions include chief engineer of the Instrumentation and Controls Division and chief of the Advanced Controls Technology and Systems Dynamics branches at NASA. He is internationally recognized for his work in the development and application of the fractional calculus and fractional trigonometry.
Tom T. Hartley, PhD, is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The University of Akron. Dr Hartley is a recognized expert in fractionalorder systems, and together with Carl Lorenzo, has solved fundamental problems in the area including Riemann’s complementaryfunction initialization function problem. He received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Vanderbilt University.