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Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Technology and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-119-14941-5
592 pages
September 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Technology and Applications (111914941X) cover image

Description

Comprehensive and timely, Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Technology and Applications provides the most up to date information on the various edible mushrooms on the market. Compiling knowledge on their production, application and nutritional effects, chapters are dedicated to the cultivation of major species such as Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus subrufescens,  Lentinula edodes, Ganoderma lucidum  and others. With contributions from top researchers from around the world, topics covered include:

  • Biodiversity and biotechnological applications
  • Cultivation technologies
  • Control of pests and diseases
  • Current market overview
  • Bioactive mechanisms of mushrooms
  • Medicinal and nutritional properties

Extensively illustrated with over 200 images, this is the perfect resource for researchers and professionals in the mushroom industry, food scientists and nutritionists, as well as academics and students of biology, agronomy, nutrition and medicine.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

Preface xxv

1 Mushrooms and Human Civilization 1
Behari Lal Dhar

1.1 Domestication of Mushrooms 2

References 3

2 Current Overview of Mushroom Production in the World 5
Daniel J. Royse, Johan Baars and Qi Tan

2.1 Lentinula edodes 6

2.2 Pleurotus spp. 8

2.3 Auricularia spp. 10

2.4 Agaricus bisporus 10

2.5 Flammulina velutipes 11

2.6 Outlook 11

References 12

3 Mushrooms: Biology and Life Cycle 15
Eustáquio Souza Dias and Manuela Rocha de Brito

3.1 Life Cycle of Fungi 15

3.2 The Subkingdom Dykaria 17

3.3 Homothallism, Heterothallism, and Amphithallism 18

3.4 Heterothallism 19

3.5 Homothallism 19

3.6 Amphithallism 20

3.7 Mating Type Genes 21

3.8 Agaricus brasiliensis (Syn = A. subrufescens or A. blazei): An Intriguing Example of Amphithallism 22

3.9 Life Cycle of Uncultivated Mushrooms 24

3.10 The Truffles 25

3.11 Morels 25

3.12 The Chanterelles 26

3.13 The Matsutake 27

3.14 Porcini 27

3.15 Decreased Production of Mycorrhizal Mushrooms in the Northern Hemisphere 28

3.16 Fitness of Filamentous Fungi 28

3.17 Final Considerations 30

References 31

4 Genetic Aspects and Strategies for Obtaining Hybrids 35
Manjit Singh and Shwet Kamal

4.1 Agaricus bisporus 36

4.2 Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Species) 60

4.3 Conclusion 72

References 73

5 Spawn Production 89
Kasper Moreaux

5.1 Our Spawn Industry Today 89

5.2 Basics 90

5.3 Spawn Production Techniques 92

5.4 Strain Selection 101

5.5 Strain Preservation and Degeneration 102

5.6 Production of Mother Cultures and Mother Spawn 107

5.7 Hygiene 114

5.8 Sterilization, Disinfection, and Filtration 116

5.9 Substrate Composition 122

5.10 Incubation 123

5.11 Conservation and Transport 127

References 128

6 Compost as a Food Base for Agaricus bisporus 129
Jos Buth

6.1 The Place of Agaricus Strains in Nature 129

6.2 Compost Process Phase I 130

6.3 Preparing Raw Materials 132

6.4 Phase II 138

6.5 Phase III 144

References 147

7 Casing Materials and Techniques in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation 149
A. Pardo ]Giménez, J.E. Pardo and Diego C. Zied

7.1 General Aspects of Casing and Fruiting 149

7.2 Casing Materials 153

7.3 Casing Related Techniques 158

References 163

8 The Bag or Block System of Agaricus Mushroom Growing 175
Raymond Samp

8.1 Overview of the System 175

8.2 Bags and Blocks in Use 176

8.3 Practical Use of the System – Phase I and Phase II 178

8.4 Practical Use of the System – Spawning and Phase III 179

8.5 Practical Use of the System – Casing through Cropping 186

References 195

9 The Mushroom Industry in the Netherlands 197
Jos Buth

References 209

10 New Technology in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation 211
Arcadio Gómez

10.1 Introduction 211

10.2 Stages and Operations of the Production System 211

10.3 Conclusion 220

References 220

11 Insect, Mite, and Nematode Pests of Commercial Mushroom Production 221
Danny Lee Rinker

11.1 Fly Pests 221

11.2 Mite Pests 230

11.3 Nematode Pests 231

References 235

12 Mushroom Diseases and Control 239
Francisco J. Gea and María J. Navarro

12.1 Introduction 239

12.2 Fungal Diseases 239

12.3 Trichoderma Diseases 245

12.4 Bacterial Diseases 253

12.5 Viral Diseases 256

Further Reading 257

13 Harvesting and Processing of Mushrooms 261
Juan Valverde

13.1 Introduction 261

13.2 Manual Harvesting 262

13.3 Mechanical Harvesting 265

13.4 Automatic Harvesting Systems 265

13.5 Washing Mushrooms 267

13.6 Canning Mushrooms 268

13.7 Conclusions 268

References 269

14 Mushroom Farm Design and Technology of Cultivation 271
Behari Lal Dhar

14.1 Selection of Site and Pre-Requisites 272

14.2 Components of a Mushroom Farm 273

14.3 Mushroom Cultivation Technology 286

14.4 Environmental Crop Management 293

14.5 Cultivated Edible Specialty Mushrooms 295

References 307

15 Cultivation of Mushrooms in Plastic Bottles and Small Bags 309
Katsuji Yamanaka

15.1 Introduction 309

15.2 Characteristics of Mushroom Cultivation in Plastic Bottles and Small Bags 310

15.3 Cultivation Methods 319

15.4 Diseases in Mushroom Cultivation in Plastic Bottles and Small Bags 333

15.5 Pests in Mushroom Cultivation in Plastic Bottles and Small Bags 337

References 338

16 Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus 339
Alma E. Rodriguez Estrada and John Pecchia

16.1 Pleurotus Species as Edible Fungi 339

16.2 Pleurotus spp. as Recyclers 339

16.3 Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus 342

References 356

17 Characteristics, Production, and Marketing of the Sun Mushroom: The New Medicinal Cultivated Mushroom 361
Diego Cunha Zied, José Emilio Pardo González, Eustáquio Souza Dias and Arturo Pardo Giménez

17.1 Introduction 361

17.2 Morphological Characteristics 362

17.3 Spawn Production 363

17.4 Compost (Phase I and II) 364

17.5 Spawning and Mycelium Run 368

17.6 Casing Layer 368

17.7 Facilities used in the Production Process 370

17.8 Pinning and Harvest 371

17.9 Post-Harvest and Marketing 373

17.10 Medicinal and Chemical Characteristics of Mushrooms 375

17.11 Diseases and Pests 378

17.12 Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) 382

Acknowledgments 382

References 382

18 Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum 385
Xuan ]Wei Zhou

18.1 Introduction 385

18.2 Growing Conditions of Lingzhi 386

18.3 Cultivating Patterns 388

18.4 Production of the Substrate 392

18.5 Preparation of Spawns and Inoculation 394

18.6 Facilities 395

18.7 Genetic Breeding 397

18.8 Duration, Number of Flushes 400

18.9 Diseases and Pests in the Cultivation of Lingzhi 403

18.10 Medicinal Values 405

Acknowledgments 407

References 407

19 Naturally Occurring Strains of Edible Mushrooms: A Source to Improve the Mushroom Industry 415
Edgardo Albertó

19.1 Edible Species and Their Cultivation 415

19.2 Steps for the Domestication of Naturally Occurring Species 416

19.3 Finding New Species for the Mushroom Production Industry: A Look Back at the Last Few Years 418

19.4 Conclusions 423

References 423

20 Spent Mushroom Substrate Uses 427
Danny Lee Rinker

20.1 Introduction 427

20.2 Characteristics of Spent Substrate 428

20.3 Bioremediation 429

20.4 Crop Production 431

20.5 Reuse in the Cultivation of Mushrooms 432

20.6 Food for Animals and Fish 433

20.7 Pest Management 433

20.8 Other Varied Uses 434

20.9 Conclusion 435

References 435

21 Chemical, Nutritional, and Bioactive Potential of Mushrooms 455
Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira, Ângela Fernandes and Sandrina A. Heleno

21.1 Brief Introduction 455

21.2 Chemical Composition and Nutritional Properties 455

21.3 Bioactive Properties 476

21.4 Conclusions 493

References 493

22 Medicinal Properties and Clinical Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms 503
Solomon P. Wasser

22.1 Introduction 503

22.2 Current Perspectives and Advances 505

22.3 Medicinal Mushroom Drugs 507

22.4 Medicinal Mushroom Dietary Supplements 508

22.5 Evidences, Challenges, and Unsolved Problems 511

22.6 Medicinal Mushroom Natural Products as an Unclaimed Source for Drug Discovery 515

22.7 Unsolved Problems in the Study of Structural Characteristics, Isolation Process, Receptor-Mediated Mechanism and Antitumor Activity of MM β-Glucans 517

22.8 Medicinal Mushroom Clinical Studies 518

22.9 Conclusions 533

References 534

Index 541

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Author Information

Edited by
Professor Dr Diego Cunha Zied
of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Brazil and Researcher Dr Arturo Pardo-Giménez of Centro de Investigación, Experimentación y Servicios del Champiñón (CIES), Spain.

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